We report on a detailed investigation of optical planar waveguides fabricated in the new nonlinear Ca4GdO(BO3)3 crystal by ionic implantation. Both single and multiple He+ implantations are investigated. Second-harmonic generation (SHG) in He+ multiple-implanted samples are achieved by type I phase matching for fundamental light propagating along the y axis and polarized along the z axis at 823 nm and for light propagating along the x axis and polarized along the z axis at 960 nm. SHG operates with low-power pumping of a cw Ti:sapphire laser. Analyses of SHG within the waveguides are presented. The results indicate that the nonlinearity of the material remains in the guiding area after ion implantation. The conversion efficiency was found to be ∼10−2. This value is increased by ∼10% after 1 h annealing at 220°C.
© 2005 Optical Society of America
(130.2790) Integrated optics : Guided waves
(130.4310) Integrated optics : Nonlinear
(190.4390) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, integrated optics
(190.4400) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, materials
Azzedine Boudrioua, Brice Vincent, Régis Kremer, Paul Moretti, Sorin Tascu, and Gérard Aka, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of implanted Ca4GdO(BO3)3 planar waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2192-2199 (2005)