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Journal of the Optical Society of America B

Journal of the Optical Society of America B


  • Editor: G. I. Stegeman
  • Vol. 22, Iss. 12 — Dec. 1, 2005
  • pp: 2581–2595

Analytical modeling and an experimental investigation of two-dimensional photonic crystal microlasers: defect state (microcavity) versus band-edge state (distributed feedback) structures

Xavier Letartre, Christelle Monat, Christian Seassal, and Pierre Viktorovitch  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA B, Vol. 22, Issue 12, pp. 2581-2595 (2005)

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We investigate the two families of two-dimensional photonic crystal microlasers that are classified according to the approach used for the lateral confinement of the light (via trapping photons in a microcavity or via slowing down optical modes at an extreme of the dispersion characteristics), with a special emphasis on the characteristics of devices below and at laser threshold. The respective merits and drawbacks of the two families are analyzed in the light of an analytical modeling and of experimental results obtained on a variety of microlaser devices. The latter are processed in an InP-membrane heterostructure bounded onto silica on silicon. Promising prospects, which are expected from the combination of the two confinement approaches, are discussed.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(130.5990) Integrated optics : Semiconductors
(250.0250) Optoelectronics : Optoelectronics
(250.5300) Optoelectronics : Photonic integrated circuits
(270.3430) Quantum optics : Laser theory

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

Xavier Letartre, Christelle Monat, Christian Seassal, and Pierre Viktorovitch, "Analytical modeling and an experimental investigation of two-dimensional photonic crystal microlasers: defect state (microcavity) versus band-edge state (distributed feedback) structures," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2581-2595 (2005)

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  1. X. Letartre, J. Mouette, C. Seassal, P. Rojo-Romeo, J.-L. Leclercq, and P. Viktorovitch, "Switching devices with spatial and spectral resolution combining photonic crystal and MOEMS structures," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1691-1699 (2003). [CrossRef]
  2. J. Mouette, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Rojo-Romeo, J.-L. Leclercq, P. Recgreny, P. Viktorovitch, E. Jalaguier, P. Perreau, and H. Moriceau, "Very low threshold vertical emitting laser operation in InP graphite photonic crystal slab on silicon," Electron. Lett. 39, 526-528 (2003) [CrossRef]
  3. O. J. Painter, A. Husain, A. Scherer, J. D. O'Brien, I. Kim, and P. D. Dapkus, "Room temperature photonic crystal defect lasers at near-infrared wavelengths in InGaAsP," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 2082-2088 (1999) [CrossRef]
  4. J. K. Hwang, H. Y. Ryu, D. S. Song, I. Y. Han, H. K. Park, D. H. Jang, and Y. H. Lee, "Continuous room-temperature operation of optically pumped two-dimensional photonic crystal lasers at 1.6µm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1295-1297 (2000) [CrossRef]
  5. C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, P. Regreny, M. Gendry, P. Rojo-Romeo, G. Hollinger, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, "InP 2D photonic crystal microlasers on silicon wafer: room temperature operation at 1.55µm," Electron. Lett. 37, 764-766 (2001). [CrossRef]
  6. S. Noda, M. Yokoyama, M. Imada, A. Chutinan, and M. Mochizuki, "Polarization mode control of two-dimensional photonic crystal laser by unit cell structure design," Science 293, 1123-1125 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slisher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, "Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7-9 (1999) [CrossRef]
  8. C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. Le Vassor d'Yerville, D. Cassagne, J. P. Albert, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, "InP-based two-dimensional photonic crystal on silicon: in-plane Bloch mode laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 5102-5104 (2002). [CrossRef]
  9. M. Notomi, H. Susuki, and T. Tamamura, "Directional lasing oscillation of two-dimensional organic photonic crystal lasers at several photonic band gaps," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1325-1327 (2001) [CrossRef]
  10. H.-Y. Ryu, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, and J.-S. Kim, "Very-low threshold photonic band-edge lasers from free-standing triangular photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3476-3478 (2002). [CrossRef]
  11. M. Imada, S. Noda, A. Chutinan, and T. Tokuda, "Coherent two-dimensional lasing action in surface-emitting laser with triangular-lattice photonic crystal structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 316-318 (1999). [CrossRef]
  12. S. H. Kwon, H. Y. Ryu, G. H. Kim, Y. H. Lee, and S. B. Kim, "Photonic band-edge lasers in two-dimensional square-lattice photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3870-3872 (2003). [CrossRef]
  13. E. M. Purcell, H. C. Torrey, and R. V. Pound, "Resonance absorption by nuclear magnetic moments in a solid," Phys. Rev. 69, 37-38 (1946). [CrossRef]
  14. The loss rate of photocarriers in the barrier is essentially controlled by surface recombination processes (given that the thickness of the membrane--a fraction of a micrometer--is smaller than the diffusion length of photocarriers). Therefore the practical kinetics parameter, which is relevant to the estimate of photocarrier losses in the InP barrier, is the surface recombination velocity of InP, which does not exceed of few times 104 cms−1 at room temperature [see, for example, Y. Rosenwaks, Y. Shapira, and D. Huppert, "Evidence for low intrinsic surface-recombination velocity on p-type InP," Phys. Rev. B 44, 13097-13100 (1991)]. On the other hand, the kinetics of collection of photocarriers is essentially governed by the thermal velocity of photocarriers, which is around 107 cms−1 at room temperature. [CrossRef]
  15. C. Seassal, C. Monat, J. Mouette, E. Touraille, B. B. Bakir, H. Hattori, J. L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, P. Rojo-Romeo, and P. Viktorovitch, "InP bonded membrane photonics components and circuits: toward 2.5 dimensional micro-nano-photonics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 395-407 (2005). [CrossRef]
  16. C. Monat, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Regreny, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. Le Vassor D'Yerville, D. Cassagne, J. P. Albert, E. Jalaguier, S. Pocas, and B. Aspar, "Modal analysis and engineering of InP-based two-dimensional photonic-crystal microlasers on a Si wafer," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 419-425 (2003) [CrossRef]
  17. S. David, A. Chelnikov, and J. M. Lourtioz, "Isotropic photonic structures: Archimedean-like tilings and quasi-crystals," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1427-1434 (2001) [CrossRef]
  18. Cavity-confined slow Bloch modes (CSBMs), which are localized modes, show up whenever photons related to the extreme at the Gamma point are left enough time to explore the boundaries of the cavity before being lost through optical loss or absorption processes or both. If, on the contrary, the SBM lifetime tauM is too short, the CSBMs are degenerated and merge into the SBM (which behaves like a delocalized mode); in this case the free spectral range of the CSBM is smaller than the spectral widening or bandwidth (almost = to 1/tauM) of the SBM mode.

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