OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America B

Journal of the Optical Society of America B


  • Vol. 22, Iss. 2 — Feb. 1, 2005
  • pp: 426–436

Simultaneous measurement of the Raman gain coefficient and the nonlinear refractive index of optical fibers: theory and experiment

Ferdinand A. Oguama, Hernando Garcia, and Anthony M. Johnson  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA B, Vol. 22, Issue 2, pp. 426-436 (2005)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (401 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We report for the first time, to our knowledge, a technique that has the capability to measure both the Raman gain coefficient and the nonlinear refractive index of an optical fiber, using the same experimental setup. This measurement utilizes the induced-grating autocorrelation (IGA) technique, which is based upon time-delayed four-beam coupling in a photorefractive crystal. The standard IGA trace, which is based upon two-beam coupling, fits a simple model based on pure self-phase modulation (SPM). We demonstrate that, in the negligible-dispersion regime of an optical fiber, the addition of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) leads to a measurable distortion of the standard (pure SPM) IGA trace. We have developed a new IGA model from the analytical solution of the coupled-amplitude nonlinear Schrodinger equation. This new model successfully accounts for the effect of SRS on the IGA trace in the negligible-dispersive regime of the fiber and allows the direct determination of the Raman gain coefficient and the nonlinear refractive index from the fit of the SRS distorted IGA trace. The measured nonlinear refractive index and the Raman gain coefficient are in good agreement with published results.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(060.2300) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber measurements
(190.4370) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, fibers
(190.5330) Nonlinear optics : Photorefractive optics

Ferdinand A. Oguama, Hernando Garcia, and Anthony M. Johnson, "Simultaneous measurement of the Raman gain coefficient and the nonlinear refractive index of optical fibers: theory and experiment," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 426-436 (2005)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. F. Forghieri, R. W. Tkach, and A. R. Chraplyvy, "Fiber nonlinearities and their impact on transmission systems," in Optical Fiber Telecommunications , I. P. Kaminow and T. L. Koch, eds. (Academic, San Diego, California, 1997), Vol. IIIA, pp. 196-264.
  2. D. Marcuse, A. R. Chraplyvy, and R. W. Tkach, "Effects of fiber nonlinearities on a long-distance transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 121-128 (1991). [CrossRef]
  3. A. R. Chraplyvy, "Limitations on lightwave communications imposed by optical-fiber nonlinearities," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1548-1557 (1990). [CrossRef]
  4. A. M. Glass, D. J. DiGiovanni, T. A. Strasser, A. J. Stentz, R. E. Slusher, A. E. White, A. R. Kortan, and B. J. Eggleton, "Advances in fiber optics," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 2000, 168-187.
  5. M. Karasek and M. Menif, "Channel addition/removal response in Raman fiber amplifiers: modeling and experimentation," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1680-1687 (2002). [CrossRef]
  6. N. Takachio and H. Suzuki, "Application of Raman-distributed amplification to WDM transmission systems using 1.55-µm dispersion-shifted fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 60-69 (2001). [CrossRef]
  7. T. N. Nielsen, P. B. Hansen, A. J. Stentz, V. M. Aquari, J. R. Pedrazzani, A. A. Abramov, and R. P. Espindola, "8×10Gb/s 1.3-µm unrepeated transmission over a distance of 141 km with Raman post- and pre-amplifiers," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1492-1494 (1998). [CrossRef]
  8. P. B. Hansen, G. Jacobovitz-Veselka, L. Gruner-Nielsen, and A. J. Stentz, "Raman amplification for loss compensation in dispersion compensating fibre modules," Electron. Lett. 34, 1136-1137 (1998). [CrossRef]
  9. E. M. Dianov, "Advances in Raman fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1457-1462 (2002). [CrossRef]
  10. D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, B. S. Kawasaki, and D. Kato, "Tunable Raman fiber-optic laser," Electron. Lett. 13, 53 (1977). [CrossRef]
  11. E. Desurvire, A. Imamoglu, and H. Shaw, "Low-threshold synchronously pumped all-fiber ring Raman laser," J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 89-96 (1987). [CrossRef]
  12. P. V. Mamyshev, "Fibre nonlinearities," in Laser Sources and Applications , A. M. Miller and D. M. Finlayson, eds. (SUSSP Publications, London, 1997), p. 369.
  13. R. H. Stolen and E. P. Ippen, "Raman gain in glass optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 276-279 (1972). [CrossRef]
  14. D. J. Dougherty, F. X. Kartner, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, "Measurement of Raman gain spectrum of optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 20, 31-33 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. D. Mahberefteh, D. L. Butler, J. Goldhar, B. Rosenberg, and G. L. Burdge, "Technique for measurement of the Raman gain coefficient in optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 21, 2026-2028 (1996). [CrossRef]
  16. N. R. Newbury, "Raman gain:pump-wavelength dependence in single mode fiber," Opt. Lett. 27, 1232-1234 (2002). [CrossRef]
  17. N. Newbury, "Full wavelength dependence of Raman gain in optical fibers: measurement using a single pump laser," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference , Vol. 86 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), paper WB5.
  18. J. Cordina and C. R. S. Flunger, "Changes in Raman gain coefficient with pump wavelength in modern transmission fibers," in Optical Amplifiers and their Applications , Vol. 92 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), paper OMC3.
  19. R. H. Stolen and C. Lin, "Self-phase modulation in silica optical fibers," Phys. Rev. A 4, 1448-1453 (1978). [CrossRef]
  20. Y. Namihira, A. Miyata, and N. Tanahashi, "Nonlinear coefficient measurements for dispersion shifted fibres using self-phase modulation method at 1.55 µm," Electron. Lett. 30, 262-264 (1994). [CrossRef]
  21. M. Monerie and Y. Durtestse, "Direct interferometric measurement of nonlinear refractive index of optical fibers by cross-phase modulation," Electron. Lett. 23, 961-963 (1987). [CrossRef]
  22. R. H. Stolen, W. A. Reed, K. S. Kim, and K. W. Quoi, "Measurement of optical nonlinearity of transmission fibers," in Technical Digest - Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements, 1992 , NIST Special Publication 839 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colo., 1992), pp. 71-75.
  23. R. H. Stolen, W. A. Reed, K. S. Kim, and G. T. Harvey, "Measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of long dispersion-shifted fibers by self-phase modulation at 1.55 µm," J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1006-1012 (1998). [CrossRef]
  24. M. Artiglia, R. Caponi, F. Cisterninno, C. Naddeo, and D. Roccato, "A new method for the measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of optical fiber," Opt. Fiber Technol. 2, 75-79 (1996). [CrossRef]
  25. T. Kato, Y. Suetsugu, M. Takagi, E. Sasaoka, and M. Nishimira, "Measurement of the nonlinear refractive index in optical fiber by the cross-phase-modulation method with depolarized pump light," Opt. Lett. 20, 988-990 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. M. Artiglia, E. Ciaramella, and B. Sordo, "Using modulation instability to determine Kerr coefficient in optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 31, 1012-1013 (1995). [CrossRef]
  27. L. Prigent and J. P. Hamaide, "Measurement of fiber nonlinear Kerr coefficient by four-wave mixing," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 1092-1095 (1993). [CrossRef]
  28. C. Vinegoni, M. Wegmuller, and N. Gisin, "Determination of nonlinear coefficient (n2/Aeff) using self-aligned interferometer and Faraday mirror," Electron. Lett. 26, 886-888 (2000). [CrossRef]
  29. H. Garcia, A. M. Johnson, F. A. Oguama, and S. Trivedi, "A new approach to the measurement of the nonlinear refrac-tive index of short ( <25 m) lengths of silica and erbium-doped fibers," Opt. Lett. 28, 1796-1798 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. F. A. Oguama, A. Tchouassi, and A. M. Johnson, "Influence of stimulated Raman scattering and high GeO2 doping on the induced grating autocorrelation measurements in Er-Al-Ge doped single mode fibers," presented at Annual Conference of the National Society of Black Physicists, Atlanta, Ga., February 12-15, 2003.
  31. R. Trebino, C. C. Hayden, A. M. Johnson, W. M. Simpson, and A. M. Levine, "Chirp and self-phase modulation in induced-grating autocorrelation measurements of ultrashort pulses," Opt. Lett. 15, 1079-1081 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. A. M. Levine, E. Ozizmir, R. Trebino, C. C. Hayden, A. M. Johnson, and K. L. Tokuda, "Induced grating autocorrelation of ultrashort pulses in slowly responding medium," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1609-1618 (1994). [CrossRef]
  33. Y. R. Shen and G. Z. Yang, "Theory of self-phase modulation and spectral broadening," in The Supercontinuum Laser Source , R. R. Alfano, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), pp. 1-32.
  34. F. A. Oguama, A. M. Johnson, and W. Reed, "Measurement of the nonlinear coefficient of Er-Al-Ge doped fibers as a function of the doping profile, using the photorefractive beam coupling technique," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, submitted for publication.
  35. F. A. Oguama, A. Tchouassi, and A. M. Johnson, "Effect of high germania content and stimulated Raman scattering on n2 measurements in erbium-doped single mode fibers," in OSA Annual Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002).
  36. F. A. Oguama, "Measurement of the nonlinear refractive index and stimulated Raman scattering in optical fibers as a function of germania content, using the photorefractive beam-coupling technique," Ph.D. thesis (New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, N.J., August 2003), Chap. 6, pp. 101-136, http://www.library.njit.edu/etd/index.cfm.
  37. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics - Optics and Photonics , 3rd ed. (Academic, New York, 2001).
  38. J. Manassah and O. Cockings, "Time domain characterization of a Raman pulse in the presence of a pump," Appl. Opt. 26, 3749-3752 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. R. G. Smith, "Optical power handling capacity of optical fibers as determined by stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering," Appl. Opt. 11, 2489-2494 (1972). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. R. H. Stolen, J. P. Gordon, W. J. Tomlinson, and H. A. Haus, "Raman response function of silica-core fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1159-1166 (1989). [CrossRef]
  41. S. K. Sharma, D. W. Matson, J. A. Philpotts, and T. L. Roush, "Raman study of the structure of glasses along the joint SiO2-GeO2," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 68, 99-114 (1984). [CrossRef]
  42. I. Torres, A. N. Starodmov, Yu. O. Barmenkov, L. A. Zenteno, and P. Gavrilovic, "Raman effect based modulators for high power fiber lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 401-403 (1998). [CrossRef]
  43. F. L. Galeener, J. C. Mikkelsen, Jr., R. H. Geils, and W. J. Mosby, "The relative Raman cross sections of vitreous SiO2,GeO2,B2O3, and P2O5," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 34-36 (1978). [CrossRef]
  44. P. Yeh, Introduction to Photorefractive Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1993).
  45. S. L. Palfrey and T. F. Heinz, "Coherent interactions in pump-probe absorption measurements: the effect of phase gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 674-679 (1985). [CrossRef]
  46. R. Trebino, E. K. Gustafson, and A. E. Siegman, "Fourth-order partial-coherence effects in the formation of integrated-intensity gratings with pulsed light sources," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 1295-1304 (1986). [CrossRef]
  47. R. Thurston, J. P. Heritage, A. M. Weiner, and W. J. Tomlinson, "Analysis of picosecond pulse shape synthesis by spectral masking in a grating pulse compressor," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 682-685 (1986). [CrossRef]
  48. R. H. Stolen, "Nonlinear properties of optical fibers," in Optical Fiber Telecommunications , S. E. Miller and A. G. Chynoweth, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1979), pp. 125-150.
  49. C. Lin, L. G. Cohen, R. H. Stolen, G. W. Tasker, and W. G. French, "Near-infrared sources in the 1-1.3-µm region by efficient stimulated Raman emission in glass fibers," Opt. Commun. 20, 426-428 (1977). [CrossRef]
  50. T. Nakashima, S. Seikai, and M. Nakazawa, "Dependence of Raman gain on relative index difference for GeO2-doped single-mode fibers," Opt. Lett. 10, 420-422 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  51. J. Bromage, K. Rottwitt, and M. E. Lines, "A method to predict the Raman gain spectra of germanosilicate fbers with arbitrary index profile," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 24-26 (2002). [CrossRef]
  52. Fiber provided by Dr. Jake Bromage of OFS Laboratories, Holmdel, N.J.
  53. N. Newbury, "Full wavelength dependence of Raman gain in optical fibers: measurement using a single pump laser," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference , Vol. 86 of 2003 OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), paper WB5.
  54. Y. Y. Huang and A. Sarkar, "Relationship between composition, density, and refractive index for germaina silica glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 27, 29-37 (1978). [CrossRef]
  55. N. Shibata, M. Horigudhi, and T. Edahiro, "Raman spectra of binary high-silica glasses and fibers containing GeO2,P2O5 and B2O3," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 45, 115-126 (1981). [CrossRef]
  56. M. Hass, "Raman spectra of vitreous silica, germania and sodium silicate glasses," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 31, 415-422 (1970). [CrossRef]
  57. A. Boskovic, S. V. Chenikov, J. R. Taylor, L. Gruner-Nielson, and O. A. Levring, "Direct measurement of n2 in various types of telecommunication fiber at 1.55 µm," Opt. Lett. 21, 1966-1968 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  58. S. V. Chernikov and J. R. Taylor, "Measurement of normalization factor of n2 for random polarization in optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 21, 1559-1561 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  59. S. G. Evangelides, Jr., L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and N. S. Bergano, "Polarization multiplexing with solitons," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 28-35 (1992). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited