OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America B

Journal of the Optical Society of America B


  • Vol. 22, Iss. 5 — May. 1, 2005
  • pp: 987–997

Photonic-delay technique for phase-noise measurement of microwave oscillators

Enrico Rubiola, Ertan Salik, Shouhua Huang, Nan Yu, and Lute Maleki  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA B, Vol. 22, Issue 5, pp. 987-997 (2005)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (242 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A photonic-delay line is used as a frequency discriminator for measurement of the phase noise—hence the short-term frequency stability—of microwave oscillators. The scheme is suitable for electronic and photonic oscillators, including the optoelectronic oscillator, mode lock lasers, and other types of rf and microwave pulsed optical sources. The approach is inherently suitable for a wide range of frequency without reconfiguration, which is important for the measurement of tunable oscillators. It is also insensitive to a moderate frequency drift without the need for phase locking.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(040.5160) Detectors : Photodetectors
(060.2920) Fiber optics and optical communications : Homodyning
(120.3940) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Metrology
(120.5050) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Phase measurement

Enrico Rubiola, Ertan Salik, Shouhua Huang, Nan Yu, and Lute Maleki, "Photonic-delay technique for phase-noise measurement of microwave oscillators," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 987-997 (2005)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, "Optoelectronic microwave oscillator," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1725-1735 (1996). [CrossRef]
  2. X. S. Yao, L. Davis, and L. Maleki, "Coupled optoelectronic oscillators for generating both RF signal and optical pulses," J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 73-78 (2000). [CrossRef]
  3. T. A. Yilmaz, C. M. Depriest, A. Braun, J. Abeles, and P. J. Delfyett, "Noise in fundamental and harmonic modelocked semiconductor lasers: experiments and simulations," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 838-849 (2003). [CrossRef]
  4. D. J. Jones, K. W. Holman, M. Notcutt, J. Ye, J. Chandalia, L. A. Jiang, E. P. Ippen, and H. Yokoyama, "Ultralow-jitter, 1550-nm mode-locked semiconductor laser synchronized to a visible optical frequency standard," Opt. Lett. 28, 813-815 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, "Colloquium: femtosecond optical frequency combs," Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 325-342 (2003). [CrossRef]
  6. J. Rutman, "Characterization of phase and frequency instabilities in precision frequency sources: fifteen years of progress," Proc. IEEE 66, 1048-1075 (1978). [CrossRef]
  7. Comité Consultatif International des Radiocommuni-cations Study Group VII, "Characterization of frequency and phase noise, Report no. 580-3," in Standard Frequencies and Time Signals, Vol. VII (annex) of Recommendations and Reports of the CCIR (International Telecommunication Union, Geneva, Switzerland, 1990), pp. 160-171.
  8. V.F.Kroupa, ed., Frequency Stability: Fundamentals and Measurement. (IEEE Press, New York, 1983).
  9. J. Vanier and C. Audoin, The Quantum Physics of Atomic Frequency Standards, (Adam Hilger, Bristol, UK, 1989), vol. 2. [CrossRef]
  10. J. R. Vig, IEEE Standard Definitions of Physical Quantities for Fundamental Frequency and Time Metrology-Random Instabilities (IEEE Standard 1139-1999) (IEEE, New York, 1999).
  11. M. H. Hines, J. C. R. Collinet, and J. G. Ondria, "FM noise suppression of an injection phase-locked oscillator," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 16, 738-742 (1968). [CrossRef]
  12. K. Kurokawa, "Noise in synchronized oscillators,"IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 16, 234-240 (1968). [CrossRef]
  13. G. J. Dick and R. T. Wang, "Stability and phase noise tests of two cryo-cooled sapphire oscillators," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47, 1098-1101 (2000). [CrossRef]
  14. R. A. Woode, M. E. Tobar, E. N. Ivanov, and D. Blair, "An ultra low noise microwave oscillator based on high Q liquid nitrogen cooled sapphyre resonator," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 43, 936-941 (1996). [CrossRef]
  15. P.-Y. Bourgeois, Y. Kersalé, N. Bazin, M. Chaubet, and V. Giordano, "Cryogenic open-cavity sapphir resonator for ultra-stable oscillator," Electron. Lett. 39, 780-781 (2003). [CrossRef]
  16. A. L. Withwell and N. Williams, "A new microwave technique for determining noise spectra at frequencies close to the carrier," Microwave J. 2, 27-32 (1959).
  17. R. A. Campbell, "Stability measurement techniques in the frequency domain," in Proceedings of the IEEE-NASA Symposium on Short Term Frequency Stability, (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, Md., 1964), pp. 231-235.
  18. J. G. Ondria, "A microwave system for the measurement of AM and PM noise spectra," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 16, 767-781 (1968). [CrossRef]
  19. R. V. Pound, "Electronic frequency stabilization of microwave oscillators," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 17, 490-505 (1946). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. F. Labaar, "New discriminator boosts phase noise testing," Microwaves RF 21, 65-69 (1982).
  21. A. L. Lance, W. D. Seal, and F. Labaar, "Phase noise and AM noise measurements in the frequency domain," in Infrared and Millimeter Waves, K.J.Button, ed., (Academic, New York, 1984), vol. 11, pp. 239-284.
  22. D. Halford, A. E. Wainwright, and J. A. Barnes, "Flicker noise of phase in RF amplifiers: characterization, cause, and cure," in Proceedings of the Frequency Control Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1968), pp. 340-341, abstract only.
  23. F. L. Walls, E. S. Ferre-Pikal, and S. R. Jefferts, "Origin of 1/f PM and AM noise in bipolar junction transistor amplifiers," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 44, 326-334 (1997). [CrossRef]
  24. A. Hati, D. Howe, D. Walker, and F. Walls, "Noise figure vs. PM noise measurements: a study at microwave frequencies," in Proceedings of the European Frequency and Time Forum & Frequency Control Symposium Joint Meeting (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2003).
  25. E. Rubiola, E. Salik, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, "Phase noise measurement of low power signals," Electron. Lett. 39, 1389-1390 (2003). [CrossRef]
  26. E. Rubiola and V. Giordano, "Advanced interferometric phase and amplitude noise measurements," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2445-2457 (2002). [CrossRef]
  27. X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, "Multiloop optoelectronic oscillator," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 79-84 (2000). [CrossRef]
  28. R. Brendel, G. Marianneau, and J. Ubersfeld, "Phase andamplitude modulation effects in a phase detector using an incorrectly balanced mixer," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 26, 98-102 (1977). [CrossRef]
  29. G. Cibiel, M. Régis, E. Tournier, and O. Llopis, "AM noise impact on low level phase noise measurements," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 49, 784-788 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. W. Shieh, X. S. Yao, L. Maleki, and G. Lutes, "Phase-noise characterization of optoelectronic components by carrier suppression techniques," in Digest of the Optical Fiber Communications Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 263-264.
  31. A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications, 5th ed. (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1997).
  32. D. B. Leeson, "A simple model of feed back oscillator noise spectrum," Proc. IEEE 54, 329-330 (1966). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited