OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America B

Journal of the Optical Society of America B


  • Editor: G. I. Stegeman
  • Vol. 23, Iss. 2 — Feb. 1, 2006
  • pp: 241–249

Accurate determination of saturation parameters for Cr 4 + -doped solid-state saturable absorbers

Alphan Sennaroglu, Umit Demirbas, Sarper Ozharar, and Fatih Yaman  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA B, Vol. 23, Issue 2, pp. 241-249 (2006)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (520 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We describe a systematic, rigorous procedure for the determination of the optical absorption saturation parameters for Cr 4 + :YAG and Cr 4 + :forsterite crystals at 1064 nm . A rate-equation approach was used to analyze the cw and pulsed transmission data of several crystals by accounting for the transverse as well as longitudinal variation of the beam intensity, saturation effects, and excited-state absorption. Use of an iterative procedure whereby the cw and pulsed data were simultaneously analyzed led to a considerable reduction in the error for the determination of cross sections. The average value of the absorption cross section σ a and the normalized excited-state absorption cross section f p = σ esa σ a were determined to be 6.13 × 10 19 cm 2 and 0.45, respectively, for Cr 4 + :forsterite and 19.6 × 10 19 cm 2 and 0.06, respectively, for Cr 4 + :YAG. Detailed comparison was also made with previous saturation measurements in the literature. Our results further show that lumped models based on the thin-length approximation should be used with caution in the determination of cross sections, especially when the pump beam is tightly focused inside the absorber.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(140.3580) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, solid-state
(160.6990) Materials : Transition-metal-doped materials

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

Original Manuscript: March 4, 2005
Revised Manuscript: July 31, 2005
Manuscript Accepted: September 7, 2005

Alphan Sennaroglu, Umit Demirbas, Sarper Ozharar, and Fatih Yaman, "Accurate determination of saturation parameters for Cr4+-doped solid-state saturable absorbers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 241-249 (2006)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. A. Sennaroglu, "Broadly tunable Cr4+-doped solid-state lasers in the near infrared and visible," Prog. Quantum Electron. 26, 287-352 (2002). [CrossRef]
  2. M. I. Demchuk, V. P. Mikhailov, N. I. Zhavoronkov, N. V. Kuleshov, P. V. Prokoshin, K. V. Yumashev, M. G. Livshits, and B. I. Minkov, "Chromium-doped forsterite as solid-state saturable absorber," Opt. Lett. 17, 929-930 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. Eilers, K. R. Hoffman, W. M. Dennis, S. M. Jacobsen, and W. M. Yen, "Saturation of 1.064 µm absorption in Cr,Ca:Y3Al5O12 crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2958-2960 (1992). [CrossRef]
  4. J. J. Zayhowski and C. Dill, "Diode-pumped passively Q-switiched picosecond microchip lasers," Opt. Lett. 19, 1427-1429 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. Shimony, Z. Burshtein, and Y. Kalisky, "Cr4+:YAG as passive Q switch and Brewster plate in a pulsed Nd:YAG laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1738-1741 (1995). [CrossRef]
  6. Y.-F. Chen and S. W. Tsai, "Simultaneous Q switching and mode-locking in a diode-pumped Nd:YVO 4-Cr4+:YAG laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 580-586 (2001). [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Kalisky, "Cr4+-doped crystals: their use as lasers and passive Q switches," Prog. Quantum Electron. 28, 249-303 (2004). [CrossRef]
  8. H. R. Verdun and L. Merkle, "Evidence of excited-state absorption of pump radiation in the Cr:forsterite laser," in Digest of Advanced Solid-State Lasers (Optical Society of America, 1991).
  9. V. G. Baryshevski, M. V. Korzhik, M. G. Livshitz, A. A. Tarasov, A. E. Kimaev, I. I. Mishkel, M. L. Meilman, B. J. Minkov, and A. P. Shkadarevich, "Properties of forsterite and the performance of forsterite lasers with lasers and flashlamp pumping," in Digest of Advanced Solid-State Lasers (Optical Society of America, 1991).
  10. K. Spariosu, W. Chen, R. Stultz, and M. Birnbaum, "Dual Q switching and laser action at 1.06 and 1.44µm in a Nd3+:YAG-Cr4+:YAG oscillator at 300 K," Opt. Lett. 18, 814-816 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. I. Demchuk, N. V. Kuleshov, and V. P. Mikhailov, "Saturable absorbers based on impurity and defect centers in crystals," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2120-2126 (1994). [CrossRef]
  12. A. Sennaroglu, C. R. Pollock, and H. Nathel, "Efficient continuous-wave chromium-doped YAG laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 930-937 (1995). [CrossRef]
  13. A. Sennaroglu, "Continuous wave thermal loading in saturable absorbers: theory and experiment," Appl. Opt. 36, 9528-9535 (1997). [CrossRef]
  14. A. Sennaroglu and B. Pekerten, "Experimental and numerical investigation of thermal effects in end-pumped Cr4+:forsterite lasers near room temperature," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1996-2005 (1998). [CrossRef]
  15. Z. Burshtein, P. Blau, Y. Kalisky, Y. Shimony, and M. R. Kokta, "Excited-state absorption studies of Cr4+ ions in several garnet host crystals," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 292-299 (1998). [CrossRef]
  16. N. V. Kuleshov, A. V. Podlipensky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, A. A. Lagatsky, and V. P. Mikhailov, "Excited-state absorption in the range of pumping and laser efficiency of Cr4+:fosterite," Opt. Lett. 23, 1028-1030 (1998). [CrossRef]
  17. T. Togashi, Y. Nabekawa, T. Sekikawa, and S. Watanabe, "High-peak power femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser system," Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 68, 169-175 (1999). [CrossRef]
  18. G. Xiao, J. H. Lim, S. Yang, E. V. Stryland, M. Bass, and L. Weichman, "Z-scan measurement of the ground and excited state absorption cross sections of Cr4+ in yttrium aluminum garnet," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1086-1091 (1999). [CrossRef]
  19. A. Suda, A. Kadoi, K. Nagasaka, H. Tashiro, and K. Midorikawa, "Absorption and oscillation characteristics of a pulsed Cr4+:YAG laser investigated by a double-pulse pumping technique," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1548-1553 (1999). [CrossRef]
  20. A. G. Okhrimchuk and A. V. Shestakov, "Absorption saturation mechanism for YAG:Cr4+ crystals," Phys. Rev. B 61, 988-995 (2000). [CrossRef]
  21. A. Sennaroglu, "Analysis and optimization of lifetime thermal loading in continuous-wave Cr4+-doped solid-state lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 1578-1586 (2001). [CrossRef]
  22. A. Sennaroglu, A. Kurt, and S. Buhours, "Analysis and optimization of diode end-pumped solid-state lasers: Application to Nd3+:YVO4 lasers at 1064 and 1342 nm," Opt. Eng. 44, 054202 (2005). [CrossRef]
  23. A. Sennaroglu and B. Pekerten, "Determination of the optimum absorption coefficient in Cr4+:forsterite lasers under thermal loading," Opt. Lett. 23, 361-363 (1998). [CrossRef]
  24. Y. Kalisky, R. Moncorge, Y. Guyot, and M. Kokta, "Laser operation and Q-switching properties of (Cr4+,Mg2+):YAG crystal," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 19 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 1998).
  25. S. Kück, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, "Spectroscopic investigation of the Cr4+-center in YAG," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers (Optical Society of America, 1991).
  26. N. I. Borodin, V. A. Zhitnyuk, A. G. Okhrimchuk, and A. V. Shestakov, "Oscillation of a Y3Al5O12:Cr4+ laser in wave length region of 1.34-1.6 mm," Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. Fiz. 54, 1500-1506 (1990).
  27. S. Naumov, E. Sorokin, and I. T. Sorokina, "Measurement of the excited state absorption cross-section in Cr4+:YAG using relaxation oscillations study," in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, Vol. 98 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2005).
  28. J. Chen, H.-F. Yau, H.-P. Liu, T.-C. Chen, C.-C. Cheng, and F.-M. Liu, "Passive Q-switch and mode-locking modulators for Nd:hosted lasers," Opt. Laser Technol. 32, 215-219 (2000). [CrossRef]
  29. T. Dascalu, G. Philipps, and H. Weber, "Investigation of a Cr4+:YAG passive Q-switch in cw pumped Nd: YAG lasers," Opt. Laser Technol. 29, 145-149 (1997). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited