OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America B

Journal of the Optical Society of America B


  • Editor: G. I. Stegeman
  • Vol. 23, Iss. 6 — Jun. 1, 2006
  • pp: 1037–1045

Silver and potassium ion-exchanged waveguides in glasses doped with PbS semiconductor quantum dots

Jason M. Auxier, Seppo Honkanen, Axel Schülzgen, Michael M. Morrell, Matthew A. Leigh, Sabyasachi Sen, Nicholas F. Borrelli, and Nasser Peyghambarian  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA B, Vol. 23, Issue 6, pp. 1037-1045 (2006)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (278 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We present a detailed analysis of potassium–sodium and silver–sodium ion-exchange processes for fabricating waveguides in glass doped with PbS semiconductor quantum dots. We compare the propagation losses of these waveguides, and we discuss the sources of these losses. In addition, we demonstrate a fourfold reduction in the propagation loss previously reported for potassium–sodium ion-exchanged waveguides and show that waveguides can be produced at additional quantum-dot resonances using both methods. We show that the near-infrared optical properties of these quantum dots remain intact by comparing the waveguide and bulk (unguided) luminescence spectra. Measurements of the near-field mode profiles show a high level of field confinement, which make these waveguides ideal for nonlinear optical (high-intensity) applications.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(130.3060) Integrated optics : Infrared
(130.3130) Integrated optics : Integrated optics materials
(130.5990) Integrated optics : Semiconductors
(160.3130) Materials : Integrated optics materials
(230.7380) Optical devices : Waveguides, channeled
(250.5230) Optoelectronics : Photoluminescence
(300.6470) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, semiconductors

ToC Category:
Integrated Optics

Original Manuscript: September 23, 2005
Manuscript Accepted: December 13, 2005

Jason M. Auxier, Seppo Honkanen, Axel Schülzgen, Michael M. Morrell, Matthew A. Leigh, Sabyasachi Sen, Nicholas F. Borrelli, and Nasser Peyghambarian, "Silver and potassium ion-exchanged waveguides in glasses doped with PbS semiconductor quantum dots," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 1037-1045 (2006)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. M. Auxier, M. M. Morrell, B. R. West, S. Honkanen, A. Schülzgen, S. Sen, N. F. Borrelli, and N. Peyghambarian, "Ion-exchanged waveguides in glass doped with PbS quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6098-6100 (2004). [CrossRef]
  2. J. M. Auxier, S. Honkanen, M. M. Morrell, M. A. Leigh, S. Sen, N. F. Borrelli, and A. Schülzgen, "Small mode-size waveguides in quantum-dot-doped glasses by Ag-film ion exchange," J. Appl. Phys., to be published.
  3. N. F. Borrelli and D. W. Smith, "Quantum confinement of PbS microcrystals in glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 180, 25-31 (1994). [CrossRef]
  4. Al. L. Éfros and A. L. Éfros, "Interband absorption of light in a semiconductor sphere," Sov. Phys. Semicond. 16, 772-775 (1982).
  5. Y. Wang, A. Suna, W. Mahler, and R. Kasowski, "PbS in polymers. From molecules to bulk solids," J. Chem. Phys. 87, 7315-7322 (1987). [CrossRef]
  6. I. Kang and F. W. Wise, "Electronic structure and optical properties of PbS and PbSe quantum dots," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1632-1646 (1997). [CrossRef]
  7. E. Hanamura, "Very large optical nonlinearity of semiconductor microcrystallites," Phys. Rev. B 37, 1273-1279 (1988). [CrossRef]
  8. K. Wundke, S. Pötting, J. M. Auxier, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, "PbS quantum-dot-doped glasses for ultrashort-pulse generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 10-12 (2000). [CrossRef]
  9. A. M. Malyarevich, I. A. Denisov, V. G. Savitsky, K. V. Yumashev, and A. A. Lipovskii, "Glass doped with PbS quantum dots for passive Q switching of a 1.5-μm laser," Appl. Opt. 39, 4345-4347 (2000). [CrossRef]
  10. K. Wundke, J. M. Auxier, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, "Room-temperature gain at 1.3 μm in PbS-doped glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3060-3062 (1999). [CrossRef]
  11. T. J. Cullen, C. N. Ironside, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, "Semiconductor-doped glass ion-exchanged waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1403-1405 (1986). [CrossRef]
  12. P. T. Guerreiro, S. G. Lee, A. S. Rodrigues, Y. Z. Hu, E. M. Wright, S. I. Najafi, J. Mackenzie, and N. Peyghambarian, "Femtosecond pulse propagation near a two-photon transition in a semiconductor quantum-dot waveguide," Opt. Lett. 21, 659-661 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. B. R. West, P. Madasamy, N. Peyghambarian, and S. Honkanen, "Modeling of ion-exchanged glass waveguide structures," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 347, 18-26 (2004). [CrossRef]
  14. A. Tervonen, "A general model for fabrication processes of channel waveguides by ion exchange," J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2746-2752 (1990). [CrossRef]
  15. J. Albert and J. W. Y. Lit, "Full modeling of field-assisted ion exchange for graded index buried channel optical waveguides," Appl. Opt. 29, 2798-2804 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. N. F. Borrelli, Microoptics Technology: Fabrication and Applications of Lens Arrays and Devices (Marcel Dekker, 1999).
  17. S. I. Najafi, Introduction to Glass Integrated Optics (Artech House, 1992).
  18. K. S. Chiang, "Construction of refractive-index profiles of planar dielectric waveguides from the distribution of effective indexes," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 385-391 (1985). [CrossRef]
  19. J. Viljanen and M. Leppihalme, "Fabrication of optical strip waveguides with nearly circular cross section by silver ion migration technique," J. Appl. Phys. 51, 3563-3565 (1980). [CrossRef]
  20. S. Honkanen, A. Tervonen, H. von Bagh, and M. Leppihalme, "Ion exchange process for fabrication of waveguide couplers for fiber optic sensor applications," J. Appl. Phys. 61, 52-56 (1987). [CrossRef]
  21. S. Yliniemi, B. R. West, and S. Honkanen, "Ion-exchanged glass waveguides with low birefringence for a broad range of waveguide widths," Appl. Opt. 44, 3358-3363 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. S. Honkanen, A. Tervonen, H. von Bagh, A. Salin, and M. Leppihalme, "Fabrication of ion-exchanged channel waveguides directly into integrated circuit mask plates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 296-298 (1987). [CrossRef]
  23. P. Madasamy, S. Honkanen, D. F. Geraghty, and N. Peyghambarian, "Single-mode tapered waveguide laser in Er-doped glass with multimode-diode pumping," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1332-1334 (2003). [CrossRef]
  24. P. Polyhonen, S. Honkanen, A. Tervonen, and M. Tahkokorpi, "Planar 1/8 splitter in glass by photoresist masked silver film ion exchange," Electron. Lett. 27, 1319-1320 (1991). [CrossRef]
  25. R. Göring and M. Rothhardt, "Application of the refracted near-field technique to multimode planar and channel waveguides in glass," J. Opt. Commun. 7, 82-85 (1986). [CrossRef]
  26. K. I. White, "Practical application of the refracted near-field technique for the measurement of optical fibre refractive index profiles," Opt. Quantum Electron. 11, 185-196 (1979). [CrossRef]
  27. C. A. Hill and D. R. Hall, "Coupling loss theory of single-mode waveguide resonators," Appl. Opt. 24, 1283-1290 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. D. Marcuse, "Mode conversion caused by surface imperfections of a dielectric slab waveguide," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 3187-3215 (1969).
  29. D. J. Walter and J. Houghton, "Attenuation in thin film optical waveguides due to roughness-induced mode coupling," Thin Solid Films 52, 461-476 (1978). [CrossRef]
  30. D. Marcuse, Light Transmission Optics, 2nd ed. (Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1982).
  31. A. W. Snyder and J.D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, 1983).
  32. A. N. Sloper and M. T. Flanagan, "Scattering in planar surface waveguide immunosensors," Sens. Actuators B 11, 537-542 (1993). [CrossRef]
  33. J. M. Auxier, K. Wundke, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, "Luminescence and gain around 1.3 μm in PbS quantum dots," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Postconference Digest, Vol. 39 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2000), pp. 385-386.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited