OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America B

Journal of the Optical Society of America B

| OPTICAL PHYSICS

  • Editor: G. I. Stegeman
  • Vol. 23, Iss. 7 — Jul. 1, 2006
  • pp: 1241–1249

Synthesis method based on optimization techniques for designing piecewise-uniform long-period fiber gratings controlled by thermal changes

Jinho Bae, Jun Kye Bae, Sang Hyuck Kim, Sang Bae Lee, Joohwan Chun, and Namkyoo Park  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA B, Vol. 23, Issue 7, pp. 1241-1249 (2006)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAB.23.001241


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1016 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We propose a new method for synthesizing piecewise-uniform long-period fiber gratings (LPFGs) by using an extended fundamental matrix model with thermal changes. The proposed synthesis method is then applied to the design of the LPFG tuned by the thermal changes for erbium gain equalization by using the simulated-annealing and steepest-descent optimization techniques. We describe how a piecewise-uniform LPFG can be constructed by utilizing the inverted gain spectrum of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs), from the thermal change parameters’ search process. A sensitivity analysis also is done to study the tolerance of our approach against possible error sources, such as the temperature controller, the fabrication of the LPFG, and the EDFA spectrum, by using Monte Carlo simulations. To verify the validity of the proposed synthesis method experimentally, we manufactured the piecewise-uniform LPFG with thermal changes by using a divided coil heater. We observe that the spectrum designed by the proposed synthesis method is close to the corresponding measured spectrum in the wavelength band of interest. We also compare the performance of the proposed method with traditional approaches, such as Newton-like methods.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.2770) Diffraction and gratings : Gratings
(060.2340) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics components
(060.2430) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fibers, single-mode
(230.3120) Optical devices : Integrated optics devices

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: April 28, 2005
Revised Manuscript: February 22, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: February 24, 2006

Citation
Jinho Bae, Jun Kye Bae, Sang Hyuck Kim, Sang Bae Lee, Joohwan Chun, and Namkyoo Park, "Synthesis method based on optimization techniques for designing piecewise-uniform long-period fiber gratings controlled by thermal changes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 1241-1249 (2006)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josab/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-23-7-1241


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. A. Othonos and K. Kalli, Fiber Bragg Gratings—Fundamentals and Applications in Telecommunications and Sensing (Artech House, 1999).
  2. J. Chesnoy, Undersea Fiber Communication System (Academic, 2002).
  3. J. Bae, J. Chun, and S. B. Lee, "Two methods for synthesizing the long period fiber gratings with the inverted erbium gain spectrum," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 38, L819-L822 (1999). [CrossRef]
  4. J. Bae, J. Chun, and S. B. Lee, "Equalization of the nonflat erbium gain spectrum using the multiport lattice filter model," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2000), pp. 80-83.
  5. Y. Liu, J. A. R. Williams, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Phase shifted and cascaded long-period fiber gratings," Opt. Commun. 164, 27-31 (1999). [CrossRef]
  6. M. Harumoto, M. Shigehara, and H. Suganuma, "Gain-flattening filter using long-period fiber gratings," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1027-1033 (2002). [CrossRef]
  7. X. Gu, "Wavelength-division multiplexing isolation fiber filter and light source using cascaded long-period fiber gratings," Opt. Lett. 23, 509-510 (1998). [CrossRef]
  8. A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58-64 (1996). [CrossRef]
  9. A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997). [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Han, C. S. Kim, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, "Performance enhancement of long period fiber gratings for strain and temperature sensing," IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 1-6 (2000).
  11. V. Bhatia, D. K. Campbell, and T. D'Alberto, "Standard optical fiber long-period gratings with reduced temperature sensitivity for strain and refractive-index sensing," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 1997), pp. 346-347. [CrossRef]
  12. S. Matsumoto, T. Ohira, M. Takabayashi, K. Yoshiara, and T. Sugihara, "Tunable dispersion equalizer with a divided thin-film heater for 40-Gb/s RZ transmission," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 827-829 (2001). [CrossRef]
  13. L. R. Chen, "Phase-shifted long-period fiber gratings by reflective index shifting," Opt. Commun. 200, 187-191 (2001). [CrossRef]
  14. J. K. Bae, S. H. Kim, J. H. Kim, J. Bae, S. B. Lee, and J. M. Jeong, "Spectral shape tunable band-rejection filter using a long-period fiber grating with divided coil heaters," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 407-409 (2003). [CrossRef]
  15. M. Shigehara, T. Enomoto, S. Ishikawa, M. Harumoto, and H. Kanamori, "Wavelength tunable long-period fiber grating," in APCC/OECC '99 Fifth Asia-Pacific Conference and Fourth Optoelectronics and Communications Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1999), pp. 1610-1611. [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Han, S. H. Kim, and S. B. Lee, "Flexibly tunable multichannel filter and bandpass filter based on long-period fiber gratings," Opt. Express 12, 1902-1907 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. Bae, J. K. Bae, S. H. Kim, S. B. Lee, and J. Chun, "Analysis for long period fiber gratings using thermal kernel function," Opt. Express 12, 797-810 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. H. Kogelnik, "Theory of Optical Waveguides," in Guided-Wave Optoelectronics, T.Tamir, ed. (Springer-Verlag,1990). [CrossRef]
  19. T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277-1294 (1997). [CrossRef]
  20. T. Erdogan, "Cladding-mode resonances in short- and long-period fiber grating filters," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1760-1773 (1997). [CrossRef]
  21. M. Yamada and K. Sakuda, "Analysis of almost-periodic distributed feedback slab waveguides via a funda-mental matrix approach," Appl. Opt. 26, 3474-3478 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. Bae, J. Chun, and S. B. Lee, "Multiport lattice filter model for long-period fiber gratings," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 39, 6576-6577 (2000). [CrossRef]
  23. A. M. Vengsarkar, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, and P. J. Lemaire, "Long-period fiber-grating-based gain equalizers," Opt. Lett. 21, 336-338 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. J. Bae, S. B. Lee, H. D. Ku, S. H. Kim, and J. Chun, "Fabrication of piecewise-uniform LPFG designed using multiport lattice filter model," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2003), pp. 570-571.
  25. L. Wang and T. Erdogan, "Layer peeling algorithm for reconstruction of long-period fiber gratings," Electron. Lett. 37, 154-156 (2001). [CrossRef]
  26. E. Peral, J. Capmany, and J. Marti, "Iterative solution to the Gel'fand-Levitan-Marchenko coupled equations and application to synthesis of fiber gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 2078-2084 (1996). [CrossRef]
  27. W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C (Cambridge University, 1992).
  28. I. O. Bohachevsky, M. E. Johnson, and M. L. Stein, "Generalized simulated annealing for function optimization," Technometrics 28, 209-217 (1986). [CrossRef]
  29. A. Corana, M. Marchesi, C. Martini, and S. Ridella, "Minimizing multimodal functions of continuous variables with the "simulated annealing" algorithm," ACM Trans. Math. Softw. 13, 262-280 (1987). [CrossRef]
  30. C. K. Madsen and J. H. Zhao, Optical Filter Design and Analysis, A Signal Processing Approach (Wiley,1999).
  31. X. Shu, T. Allsop, B. Gwandu, and L. Zhang, "High-temperature sensitivity of long-period grating in B-Ge codoped fiber," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 818-820 (2001). [CrossRef]
  32. J. Stoer and R. Bulirsch, Introduction to Numerical Analysis (Springer-Verlag, 1980).
  33. X. Shu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Sensitivity characteristics of long-period fiber gratings," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 255-266 (2002). [CrossRef]
  34. R. Fletcher, Practical Methods of Optimization (Wiley, 1979).
  35. J. A. Rogers, B. J. Eggleton, J. R. Pedrazzani, and T. A. Strasser, "Distributed on-fiber thin-film heaters for Bragg gratings with adjustable chip," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3131-3133 (1999). [CrossRef]
  36. B. J. Eggleton, J. A. Rogers, S. Wetbrook, and T. A. Strasser, "Electrically tunable power efficient dispersion compensating fiber Bragg grating," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 854-856 (1999). [CrossRef]
  37. J. A. Rogers, B. J. Eggleton, R. J. Jackman, G. R. Kowach, and T. A. Strasser, "Dual on-fiber thin-film heaters for fiber gratings with independently adjustable chirp and wavelength," Opt. Lett. 24, 1328-1330 (1999). [CrossRef]
  38. H. S. Kim, S. H. Yun, I. K. Kwang, and B. Y. Kim, "All-fiber acousto-optic tunable notch filter with electronically controllable spectral profile," Opt. Lett. 22, 1476-1478 (1997). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited