A perturbation theory is presented for the frequency shift of highly resonant photonic whispering gallery modes in a transparent sphere. Using a vector wave equation, we derive a general formula for the shifts in TE and TM polarization by adsorption of another dielectric medium. The adsorbed medium can have an arbitrary shape and refractive-index profile. The formula is applied to adsorption of a thin layer and deposition of a small spherical particle, many such particles, and thin cylindrical particles on the resonator surface. We found that the ratio of the TM mode shift to the TE mode shift is sensitive to the shape of the adsorbates and their orientation. Calculation results are discussed in terms of a dipolar field.
© 2006 Optical Society of America
Original Manuscript: September 21, 2005
Revised Manuscript: February 13, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: February 17, 2006
Vol. 1, Iss. 8 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics
Iwao Teraoka and Stephen Arnold, "Theory of resonance shifts in TE and TM whispering gallery modes by nonradial perturbations for sensing applications," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 1381-1389 (2006)