OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America B

Journal of the Optical Society of America B

| OPTICAL PHYSICS

  • Editor: Henry M. Van Driel
  • Vol. 24, Iss. 3 — Mar. 1, 2007
  • pp: 544–552

Experimental observation and theoretical analysis of Raman resonance-enhanced photodamage in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy

Haifeng Wang, Yan Fu, and Ji-Xin Cheng  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA B, Vol. 24, Issue 3, pp. 544-552 (2007)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAB.24.000544


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (201 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

The photodamage in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging of spinal tissues is featured by plasma-induced myelin splitting and shockwaves. When the excitation is tuned on resonance with the symmetric CH 2 stretch vibration, the average point-scanning time to cause the photodamage is reduced by half. Similar Raman resonance-enhanced photodamage is also observed for a polymer film. The light–matter energy transfer in coherent Raman processes with both plane waves and focused excitation beams is analyzed to interpret this phenomenon. Our calculation indicates that at Raman resonance, a significant vibrational absorption in the material can be stimulated by the concomitant Raman gain and Raman loss processes due to high incident-field intensities under a tight-focusing condition. As a result, while the nonlinear damage induced by multiphoton absorption can be diminished in CARS microscopy owing to the use of near-infrared picosecond pulses, the coherent Raman-induced vibrational pumping is able to enhance the photodamage by assisting plasma generation in the material.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(180.5810) Microscopy : Scanning microscopy
(190.5650) Nonlinear optics : Raman effect
(260.2160) Physical optics : Energy transfer

ToC Category:
Microscopy

History
Original Manuscript: May 12, 2006
Revised Manuscript: October 6, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: October 24, 2006
Published: February 15, 2007

Virtual Issues
Vol. 2, Iss. 4 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Haifeng Wang, Yan Fu, and Ji-Xin Cheng, "Experimental observation and theoretical analysis of Raman resonance-enhanced photodamage in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 544-552 (2007)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josab/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-24-3-544


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: instrumentation, theory, and applications," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 827-840 (2004). [CrossRef]
  2. A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, "Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142-4145 (1999). [CrossRef]
  3. N. Dudovich and Y. Silberberg, "Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy," Nature 418, 512-514 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. Ichimura, N. Hayazawa, M. Hashimoto, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, "Tip-enhanced coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering for vibrational nanoimaging," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 220801 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. W. Kee and M. T. Cicerone, "Simple approach to one-laser, broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Opt. Lett. 29, 2701-2703 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T.-W. Koo, S. Chan, and A. A. Berlin, "Single-molecule detection of biomolecules by surface-enhanced coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering," Opt. Lett. 30, 1024-1026 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. L. Marks and S. A. Boppart, "Nonlinear interferometric vibrational imaging," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 123905 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. V. V. Yakovlev, "Advanced instrumentation for non-linear Raman microscopy," J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 957-964 (2003). [CrossRef]
  9. L. Li, H. Wang, and J. X. Cheng, "Quantitative coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of lipid distribution in co-existing domains," Biophys. J. 89, 3480-3490 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. E. O. Potma and X. S. Xie, "Direct visualization of lipid phase segregation in single lipid bilayers with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," ChemPhysChem 6, 77-79 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. W. H. Wurpel, H. A. Rinia, and M. Müller, "Imaging orientational order and lipid density in multilamellar vesicles with multiplex CARS microscopy," J. Microsc. 218, 37-45 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of live spinal tissues," Biophys. J. 89, 581-591 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 16807-16812 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. X. Nan, J. X. Cheng, and X. S. Xie, "Vibrational imaging of lipid droplets in live fibroblast cells using coherent anti-Stokes Raman microscopy," J. Lipid Res. 40, 2202-2208 (2003). [CrossRef]
  15. E. Kang, H. Wang, I. K. Kwon, J. Robinson, K. Park, and J. X. Cheng, "In situ visualization of paclitaxel distribution and release by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Anal. Chem. 78, 8036-8043 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. Hopt and E. Neher, "Highly nonlinear photodamage in two-photon fluorescence microscopy," Biophys. J. 80, 2029-2036 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. K. König, T. W. Becker, P. Fischer, I. Riemann, and K.-J. Halbhuber, "Pulse-length dependence of cellular response to intense near-infrared laser pulses in multiphoton microscopes," Opt. Lett. 24, 113-115 (1999). [CrossRef]
  18. A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Huettmann, and G. Paltauf, "Femtosecond-laser-produced low-density plasmas in transparent biological media: a tool for the creation of chemical, thermal, and thermomechanical effects below the optical breakdown threshold," Proc. SPIE 4633A, 1-15 (2002).
  19. Y. Fu, H. Wang, R. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, "Characterization of photodamage in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Opt. Express 14, 3942-3951 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. R. J. H. Clark and R. E. Hester, Advances in Non-Linear Spectroscopy (Wiley, 1988), Vol. 15.
  21. J. S. Gomez, "Coherent Raman spectroscopy," in Modern Techniques in Raman Spectroscopy, J.J.Laserna, ed. (Wiley, 1996), pp. 309-342.
  22. Y. R. Shen, The Principle of Non-Linear Optics (Wiley, 1984).
  23. S. A. Akhmanov, "Coherent active spectroscopy of combinatorial (Raman) scattering with tunable oscillators: comparison with the spontaneous scattering technique," in Nonlinear Spectroscopy, N.Bloembergen, ed. (North-Holland, 1977), pp. 217-254.
  24. G. L. Eesley, Coherent Raman Spectroscopy (Pergamon, 1981).
  25. R. W. Hellwarth, "Third order nonlinear susceptibility of liquids and solids," Prog. Quantum Electron. 5, 1-68 (1977). [CrossRef]
  26. M. D. Levenson and J. J. Song, "Coherent Raman spectroscopy," in Coherent Nonlinear Optics (Topics in Current Physics 21), M. S. Feld and V. S. Letokhov, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1980), pp. 293-373.
  27. P. N. Butcher and D. Cotter, The Elements of Nonlinear Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 1990).
  28. C. C. Shang and H. Hsu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 117-119 (1987).
  29. P. Morell and R. H. Quarles, "Myelin formation, structure, and biochemistry," in Basic Neurochemistry: Molecular, Cellular, and Medical Aspects, 5th ed., G. J. Siegel, B. W. Agranoff, R. W. Alberts, and P. B. Molinoff, eds. (Lippincott, 1999).
  30. P. N. Prasad, Introduction to Biophotonics (Wiley Interscience, 2003), pp. 168-175.
  31. J. Diels and W. Rudolph, "Generation of extreme wavelengths," in Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena: Fundamentals, Techniques, and Applications on a Femtosecond Time Scale (Academic, 1996), pp. 472-475.
  32. J. X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, "An epi-detected coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (E-CARS) microscope with high spectral resolution and high sensitivity," J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 1277-1280 (2001). [CrossRef]
  33. S. Mukamel, Principles of Nonlinear Optical Spectroscopy (Oxford U. Press, 1995), p. 542.
  34. H. Lotem, J. R. T. Lynch, and N. Bloembergen, "Interference between Raman resonances in four-wave difference mixing," Phys. Rev. A 14, 1748-1755 (1976). [CrossRef]
  35. W. Zhao, H. Li, R. West, and J. C. Wright, "Measurement of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility in a representative soluble polymer with acetylenic linkages," Chem. Phys. Lett. 281, 105-110 (1997). [CrossRef]
  36. B. Richards and E. Wolf, "Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems. II. Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 253, 358-379 (1959). [CrossRef]
  37. J. X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, and X. S. Xie, "Theoretical and experimental characterization of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1363-1375 (2002). [CrossRef]
  38. E. Plönjes, P. Palm, J. W. Richa, I. V. Adamovich, and W. Urban, "Electron-mediated vibration-electronic (V-E) energy transfer in optically pumped plasmas," Chem. Phys. 279, 43-54 (2002). [CrossRef]
  39. W. Lee, K. Frederickson, P. Palm, I. Adamovich, J. W. Rich, and W. Lempert, "Mitigation of oxygen attachment in high pressure air plasmas by vibrational excitation," in 35th AIAA Plasmadynamics and Lasers Conference (AIAA, 2004), paper AIAA 2257-2004.
  40. C. E. Treanor, J. W. Rich, and R. G. Rehm, "Vibrational relaxation of anharmonic oscillators with exchange-dominated collisions," J. Chem. Phys. 48, 1798-1807 (1968). [CrossRef]
  41. S. J. Singer and G. L. Nicolson, "Fluid mosaic model of structure of cell-membranes," Science 175, 720-731 (1972). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. K. Ravichandran, M. Yorgancioglu, and T. R. Fletcher, "A simple method for quantitative comparisons of mode specific chemistry using stimulated Raman excitation," J. Chem. Phys. 101, 3406-3409 (1994). [CrossRef]
  43. P. van der Zee, M. Essenpreis, and D. T. Delpy, "Optical properties of brain tissue," Proc. SPIE 1888, 454-465 (1993). [CrossRef]
  44. P. T. C. So, H. Kim, and I. E. Kochevar, "Two-photon deep tissue ex vivo imaging of mouse dermal and subcutaneous structures," Opt. Express 3, 339-350 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  45. J. F. Nagle, "Area/lipid of bilayers from NMR," Biophys. J. 64, 1476-1481 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  46. U. Banin, A. Bartana, S. Ruhman, and R. Kosloff, "Impulsive excitation of coherent vibrational motion ground surface dynamics induced by intense short pulses," J. Chem. Phys. 101, 8461-8481 (1994). [CrossRef]
  47. G. D. Boyd and D. A. Kleinman, "Parametric interaction of focused Gaussian light beams," J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597-3639 (1968). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Figures

Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
 
Fig. 4
 

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited