OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America B

Journal of the Optical Society of America B


  • Editor: Henry M. Van Driel
  • Vol. 25, Iss. 11 — Nov. 1, 2008
  • pp: 1920–1925

Numerical investigation of metamaterials infiltrated by liquid crystal

Fuli Zhang, Qian Zhao, Davy P. Gaillot, Xiaopeng Zhao, and Didier Lippens  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA B, Vol. 25, Issue 11, pp. 1920-1925 (2008)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (827 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We present a comprehensive analysis of the influence of liquid crystal (LC) molecules’ reorientation on the electromagnetic behaviors of S-type left-handed metamaterials (LHMs) by considering an isotropic and anisotropic approach, respectively. It is shown that the frequency shift of the magnetic resonance as a function of the LC molecules’ reorientation is reversed with a blue shift for the isotropic case and a red shift for the anisotropic one, the latter being in agreement with experiment. For the electric plasma frequency shift, a large quantitative difference is pointed out by the two approaches, although the frequency variation trend is similar. The fact that the scattered electric field is no longer polarized like the incident beam explains these differences, resulting in the unsuitability of an isotropic treatment of LC compounds infiltrated into metamaterials.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(160.3710) Materials : Liquid crystals
(160.3918) Materials : Metamaterials

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: July 3, 2008
Revised Manuscript: September 17, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: September 22, 2008
Published: October 31, 2008

Fuli Zhang, Qian Zhao, Davy P. Gaillot, Xiaopeng Zhao, and Didier Lippens, "Numerical investigation of metamaterials infiltrated by liquid crystal," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1920-1925 (2008)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substance with simultaneously negative value of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509-514 (1968). [CrossRef]
  2. R. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77-79 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. Chen, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 057604 (2004). [CrossRef]
  5. H. Chen, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Negative refraction of a combined double S-shaped metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151909 (2005). [CrossRef]
  6. J. Huangfu, L. Ran, H. Chen, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Experimental confirmation of negative refractive index of a metamaterial composed of Ω-like metallic patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1537-1539 (2004). [CrossRef]
  7. L. Ran, J. Huangfu, H. Chen, Y. Li, X. Zhang, K. Chen, and J. A. Kong, “Microwave solid-state left-handed material with a broad bandwidth and an ultralow loss,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 073102 (2004). [CrossRef]
  8. F. Zhang, G. Houzet, E. Lheurette, D. Lippens, M. Chaubet, and X. Zhao, “Negative-zero-positive metamaterial with omega-type metal inclusions,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 084312 (2008). [CrossRef]
  9. G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science 312, 892-894 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. X. Zhou, Q. H. Fu, J. Zhao, Y. Yang, and X. P. Zhao, “Negative permeability and subwavelength focusing of quasi-periodic dendritic cell metamaterials,” Opt. Express 14, 7188-7197 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. P. Markos and C. M. Soukoulis, “Transmission studies of left-handed materials,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 033401 (2001). [CrossRef]
  12. W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444, 597-600 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. Degiron, J. J. Mock, and D. R. Smith, “Modulating and tuning the response of metamaterials at the unit cell level,” Opt. Express 15, 1115-1127 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. K. Busch and S. John, “Liquid-crystal photonic-band-gap materials: the tunable electromagnetic vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 967-970 (1999). [CrossRef]
  16. D. Kang, J. E. Maclennan, N. A. Clark, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, “Electro-optic behavior of liquid-crystal-filled silica opal photonic crystals: effect of liquid-crystal alignment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4052-4055 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. Y. Shimoda, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Electric field tuning of a stop band in a reflection spectrum of synthetic opal infiltrated with nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3627-3629 (2001). [CrossRef]
  18. E. Graugnard, J. S. King, S. Jain, C. J. Summers, Y. Zhang-Williams, and I. C. Khoo, “Electric-field tuning of the Bragg peak in large-pore TiO2 inverse shell opals,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 233105 (2005). [CrossRef]
  19. K. C. Lim, J. D. Margerum, and A. M. Lackner, “Liquid crystal millimeter wave electronic phase shifter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1065-1067 (1993). [CrossRef]
  20. C. Weil, St. Müller, P. Scheele, P. Best, G. Lüssem, and R. Jakoby, “Highly-anisotropic liquid-crystal mixtures for tunable microwave devices,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1732-1734 (2003). [CrossRef]
  21. C.-Y. Chen, T.-R. Tsai, C.-L. Pan, and R.-P. Pan, “Room temperature terahertz phase shifter based on magnetically controlled in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4497-4499 (2003). [CrossRef]
  22. F. Yang and J. R. Sambles, “Microwave liquid-crystal variable phase grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2041-2043 (2004). [CrossRef]
  23. I. C. Khoo, D. H. Werner, X. Liang, A. Diaz, and B. Weiner, “Nanosphere dispersed liquid crystals for tunable negative-zero-positive index in the optical and terahertz,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2592-2594 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. D. H. Werner, D.-H. Kwon, I.-C. Khoo, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Liquid crystal clad near-infrared metamaterials with tunable negative-zero-positive refractive indices,” Opt. Express 15, 3342-3347 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. X. Wang, D.-H. Kwon, D. H. Werner, I.-C. Khoo, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Tunable optical negative-index metamaterials employing anisotropic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143122 (2007). [CrossRef]
  26. F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, L. Kang, D. P. Gaillot, X. Zhao, J. Zhou, and D. Lippens, “Magnetic control of negative permeability metamaterials based on liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193104 (2008). [CrossRef]
  27. Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011112 (2007). [CrossRef]
  28. T. Decoopman, O. Vanbesien, and D. Lippens, “Demonstration of a backward wave in a single split ring resonator and wire loaded finline,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 14, 507-509 (2004). [CrossRef]
  29. D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markoš, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002). [CrossRef]
  30. X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004). [CrossRef]
  31. I. C. Khoo, Liquid Crystal: Physical Properties and Nonlinear Optical Phenomena (Wiley, 1995).
  32. J. Zhang, H. Chen, L. Ran, Y. Luo, B. W., and J. A. Kong, “Experimental characterization and cell interactions of a two-dimensional isotropic left-handed metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 084108 (2008). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited