OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America B

Journal of the Optical Society of America B


  • Editor: Henry Van Driel
  • Vol. 26, Iss. 5 — May. 1, 2009
  • pp: 1002–1007

Energy transfer upconversion determination by thermal-lens and Z-scan techniques in Nd 3 + -doped laser materials

C. Jacinto, D. N. Messias, A. A. Andrade, and T. Catunda  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA B, Vol. 26, Issue 5, pp. 1002-1007 (2009)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (246 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The Z-scan and thermal-lens techniques have been used to obtain the energy transfer upconversion parameter in Nd 3 + -doped materials. A comparison between these methods is done, showing that they are independent and provide similar results. Moreover, the advantages and applicability of each one are also discussed. The results point to these approaches as valuable alternative methods because of their sensitivity, which allows measurements to be performed in a pump-power regime without causing damage to the investigated material.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(140.3530) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, neodymium
(140.6810) Lasers and laser optics : Thermal effects
(160.3380) Materials : Laser materials
(160.5690) Materials : Rare-earth-doped materials
(260.2160) Physical optics : Energy transfer
(140.3613) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, upconversion

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

Original Manuscript: January 9, 2009
Revised Manuscript: March 13, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: March 14, 2009
Published: April 14, 2009

C. Jacinto, D. N. Messias, A. A. Andrade, and T. Catunda, "Energy transfer upconversion determination by thermal-lens and Z-scan techniques in Nd3+-doped laser materials," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 1002-1007 (2009)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. Wisdom, M. Digonnet, and R. L. Byer, “Ceramic lasers: Ready for action,” Photonics Spectra 38(2) (2004), p. 50.
  2. C. Jacinto, S. L. Oliveira, T. Catunda, A. A. Andrade, J. D. Myers, and M. J. Myers, “Upconversion effect on fluorescence quantum efficiency and heat generation in Nd3+-doped materials,” Opt. Express 13, 2040-2046 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. Jacinto, T. Catunda, D. Jaque, and J. G. Sole, “Fluorescence quantum efficiency and Auger upconversion losses of the stoichiometric laser crystal NdAl3(BO3)4,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 235111 (2005). [CrossRef]
  4. V. Pilla, T. Catunda, H. P. Jenssen, and A. Cassanho, “Fluorescence quantum efficiency measurements in the presence of Auger upconversion by the thermal lens method,” Opt. Lett. 28, 239-241 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. F. Lahoz and M. A. Hassan, “Upconversion rate in Nd-doped Ta2O5 waveguides and influence on the cw laser performance,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 426, 135-140 (2006). [CrossRef]
  6. J. L. Doualan, C. Maunier, D. Descamps, J. Landais, and R. Moncorge, “Excited-state absorption and up-conversion losses in the Nd-doped glasses for high-power lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 4459-4463 (2000). [CrossRef]
  7. M. Pollnau, P. J. Hardman, M. A. Kern, W. A. Clarkson, and D. C. Hanna, “Upconversion-induced heat generation and thermal lensing in Nd: YLF and Nd: YAG,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 16076-16092 (1998). [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorge, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and up-conversion studies of Nd3+-doped-single crystals Y3Al5O12, YLiF4, and Lamgal11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 784-799 (1995). [CrossRef]
  9. S. A. Payne, G. D. Wilke, L. K. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, “Auger up-conversion losses in Nd-Doped laser glasses,” Opt. Commun. 111, 263-268 (1994). [CrossRef]
  10. H. J. Eichler, A. Haase, R. Menzel, and A. Siemoneit, “Thermal lensing and depolarization in a highly pumped Nd-Yag laser-amplifier,” J. Phys. D 26, 1884-1891 (1993). [CrossRef]
  11. A. A. Andrade, E. Tenorio, T. Catunda, M. L. Baesso, A. Cassanho, and H. P. Jenssen, “Discrimination between electronic and thermal contributions to the nonlinear refractive index of SrAlF5:Cr+3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 395-400 (1999). [CrossRef]
  12. D. N. Messias, A. A. Andrade, and T. Catunda are preparing a paper to be called “Determination of Auger upconversion parameter by Z-scan measurements.”
  13. C. Jacinto, T. Catunda, D. Jaque, L. E. Bausa, and J. Garcia-Sole, “Thermal lens and heat generation of Nd: YAG lasers operating at 1.064 and 1.34μm,” Opt. Express 16, 6317-6323 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. C. Jacinto, D. N. Messias, A. A. Andrade, S. M. Lima, M. L. Baesso, and T. Catunda, “Thermal lens and Z-scan measurements: thermal and optical properties of laser glasses--A review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 3582-3597 (2006). [CrossRef]
  15. M. L. Baesso, J. Shen, and R. D. Snook, “Mode-mismatched thermal lens determination of temperature-coefficient of optical-path length in soda lime glass at different wavelengths,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 3732-3737 (1994). [CrossRef]
  16. N. G. C. Astrath, J. H. Rohling, A. C. Bento, M. L. Baesso, C. Jacinto, S. M. Lima, L. A. O. Nunes, and T. Catunda, “Fluorescence quantum efficiency in Nd2O3-doped aluminosilicate glasses by multiwavelength thermal lens method,” J. Phys. IV 125, 185-187 (2005). [CrossRef]
  17. C. Jacinto, T. Catunda, D. Jaque, and J. G. Sole, “Fluorescence quantum efficiency and Auger upconversion losses of the stoichiometric laser crystal NdAl3(BO3)(4),” Phys. Rev. B 72, 235111 (2005). [CrossRef]
  18. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, and E. W. V. Stryland, “High sensitivity, single-beam n2 measurements,” Opt. Lett. 14, 955-958 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. T. Xia, D. J. Hagan, M. Sheikbahae, and E. W. VanStryland, “Eclipsing Z-scan measurement of λ/104 wave-front distortion,” Opt. Lett. 19, 317-319 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. L. C. Oliveira and S. C. Zilio, “Single-Beam Time-Resolved Z-Scan Measurements of Slow Absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2121-2123 (1994). [CrossRef]
  21. A. Rodenas, C. Jacinto, L. R. Freitas, D. Jaque, and T. Catunda, “Nonlinear refraction and absorption through phase transition in a Nd:SBN laser crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 033108 (2009). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited