OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America B

Journal of the Optical Society of America B

| OPTICAL PHYSICS

  • Editor: Henry van Driel
  • Vol. 27, Iss. 11 — Nov. 1, 2010
  • pp: B45–B49

Future of group-III nitride semiconductor green laser diodes [Invited]

Hiroaki Ohta, Steven P. DenBaars, and Shuji Nakamura  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA B, Vol. 27, Issue 11, pp. B45-B49 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAB.27.000B45


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (326 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Some research groups have realized green laser diodes (LDs) using InGaN-based nitride semiconductors. However, the performances of their devices, in particular wall-plug efficiency, were still one digit lower than those of established red and blue semiconductor LDs. To achieve high-performance green LDs and apply them to LD displays or micro-projectors, the field should focus on improving the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of green spontaneous emission from InGaN quantum wells (QWs). Green InGaN QWs have completely different features than blue InGaN QWs in terms of growth and concomitant material quality. The exploration of 100% IQE-quality InGaN materials for green emission continues.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(140.0140) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers and laser optics
(140.5960) Lasers and laser optics : Semiconductor lasers
(140.7300) Lasers and laser optics : Visible lasers
(160.6000) Materials : Semiconductor materials
(250.5960) Optoelectronics : Semiconductor lasers

History
Original Manuscript: June 22, 2010
Revised Manuscript: August 10, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: August 24, 2010
Published: October 18, 2010

Citation
Hiroaki Ohta, Steven P. DenBaars, and Shuji Nakamura, "Future of group-III nitride semiconductor green laser diodes [Invited]," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, B45-B49 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josab/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-27-11-B45


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. Y. Hirano, T. Sasagawa, T. Yanagisawa, S. Yamamoto, A. Nakamura, T. Yagi, and H. Sugiura, “Solid-State SHG Green Laser for Laser TV,” in International Quantum Electronics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper PThA3.
  2. SONY Corporation, “Sony Develops World’s Highest Optical Output(1*)7.2 W, 635 nm Wavelength Red Semiconductor Laser Array,” http://www.sony.net/SonyInfo/News/Press/200808/08-099E/index.html.
  3. D. Imanishi, Y. Sato, K. Naganuma, S. Ito, and S. Hirata, “7 W operation of 644 nm wavelength laser diode arrays with index-guided structure,” Electron. Lett. 41, 1172–1173 (2005). [CrossRef]
  4. S. Nakamura, S. Pearton, and G. Fasol, The Blue Laser Diode: The Complete Story, 2nd edition (Springer, 2000).
  5. J. S. Speck and S. F. Chichibu, “Nonpolar and semipolar group III nitride-based materials,” MRS Bull. 34, 304–309 (2009). [CrossRef]
  6. H. Ohta and K. Okamoto, “Nonpolar/semipolar GaN technology for violet, blue, and green laser diodes,” MRS Bull. 34, 324–327 (2009). [CrossRef]
  7. A. Michiue, T. Miyoshi, T. Yamamoto, T. Kozaki, S. Nagahama, Y. Narukawa, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Recent development of nitride LEDs and LDs,” Proc. SPIE 7216, 72161Z-1–72161Z-6 (2009). [CrossRef]
  8. T. Kamikawa, Y. Kawaguchi, P. O. Vaccaro, S. Ito, and H. Kawanishi, “Highly reliable 500 mW laser diodes with epitaxially grown AlON coating for high-density optical storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 031106-1–031106-3 (2009). [CrossRef]
  9. S. L. Chuang, Physics of Optoelectronic Devices (Wiley, 1995).
  10. H. K. Nguyen, M. H. Hu, Y. Li, K. Song, N. J. Visovsky, S. Coleman, and C.-E. Zah, “304 mW green light emission by frequency doubling of a high-power 1060-nm DBR semiconductor laser diode,” Proc. SPIE 6890, 68900I-1–68900I-6 (2008). [CrossRef]
  11. S. Nakamura and M. Riorden, “The Dawn of the Miniature Green Lasers,” Scientific American April 2009, 70–75 (2009). [CrossRef]
  12. T. Miyoshi, S. Takeshi, T. Yamamoto, T. Kozaki, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “510–515 nm InGaN-based green laser diodes on c-plane GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 062201-1–062201-3 (2009). [CrossRef]
  13. S. Lutgen, A. Avramescu, T. Lermer, M. Schillgalies, D. Queren, J. Müller, D. Dini, A. Breidenassel, and U. Strauss, “True green InGaN laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207, 1318–1322 (2010). [CrossRef]
  14. A. Avramescu, T. Lermer, J. Müller, C. Eichler, G. Bruederl, M. Sabathil, S. Lutgen, and U. Strauss, “True green laser diodes at 524 nm with 50 mW continuous wave output power on c-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 061003-1–061003-3 (2010). [CrossRef]
  15. S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, and Y. Sugimoto, “InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74–L76 (1996). [CrossRef]
  16. M. Funato, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, T. Kosugi, M. Takahashi, and T. Mukai, “Blue, Green, and Amber InGaN∕GaN Light-Emitting Diodes on Semipolar {11–22} GaN Bulk Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L659–L662 (2006). [CrossRef]
  17. K. Okamoto, H. Ohta, D. Nakagawa, M. Sonobe, J. Ichihara, and H. Takasu, “Dislocation-Free m-Plane InGaN∕GaN Light-Emitting Diodes on m-Plane GaN Single Crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L1197–L1199 (2006). [CrossRef]
  18. K. Fujito, S. Kubo, and I. Fujimura, “Development of Bulk GaN Crystals and Nonpolar/Semipolar Substrates by HVPE,” MRS Bull. 34, 313–317 (2009). [CrossRef]
  19. M. C. Schmidt, K. C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m-Plane InGaN∕GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L190–L191 (2007). [CrossRef]
  20. K. Okamoto, H. Ohta, S. F. Chichibu, J. Ichihara, and H. Takasu, “Continuous-Wave Operation of m-Plane InGaN Multiple Quantum Well Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L187–L189 (2007). [CrossRef]
  21. K. Okamoto, T. Tanaka, M. Kubota, and H. Ohta, “Pure Blue Laser Diodes Based on Nonpolar m-Plane Gallium Nitride with InGaN Waveguiding Layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L820–L822 (2007). [CrossRef]
  22. M. Kubota, K. Okamoto, T. Tanaka, and H. Ohta, “Continuous-Wave Operation of Blue Laser Diodes Based on Nonpolar m-Plane Gallium Nitride,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 011102-1–011102-3 (2008). [CrossRef]
  23. Y. Tsuda, M. Ohta, P. O. Vaccaro, S. Ito, S. Hirukawa, Y. Kawaguchi, Y. Fujishiro, Y. Takahira, Y. Ueta, T. Takakura, and T. Yuasa, “Blue Laser Diodes Fabricated on m-Plane GaN Substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 011104-1–011104-3 (2008). [CrossRef]
  24. K. Okamoto, T. Tanaka, and M. Kubota, “High-Efficiency Continuous-Wave Operation of Blue-Green Laser Diodes Based on Nonpolar m-Plane Gallium Nitride,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 072201-1–072201-3 (2008). [CrossRef]
  25. K. Okamoto, J. Kashiwagi, T. Tanaka, and M. Kubota, “Nonpolar m-plane InGaN multiple quantum well laser diodes with a lasing wavelength of 499.8 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 071105-1–071105-3 (2009). [CrossRef]
  26. K. M. Kelchner, Y. D. Lin, M. T. Hardy, C. Y. Huang, P. S. Hsu, R. M. Farrell, D. A. Haeger, H. C. Kuo, F. Wu, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, A. Chakraborty, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Nonpolar AlGaN-Cladding-Free Blue Laser Diodes with InGaN Waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 071003-1–071003-3 (2009). [CrossRef]
  27. Y. D. Lin, M. T. Hardy, P. S. Hsu, K. M. Kelchner, C. Y. Huang, D. A. Haeger, R. M. Farrell, K. Fujito, A. Chakraborty, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Blue-Green InGaN∕GaN Laser Diodes on Miscut m-Plane GaN Substrate,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 082102-1–082102-3 (2009). [CrossRef]
  28. F. Wu, Y. D. Lin, A. Chakraborty, H. Ohta, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “High quality InGaN∕AlGaN multiple quantum wells for semipolar InGaN green laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 231912-1–231912-3 (2010). [CrossRef]
  29. A. Tyagi, Y. D. Lin, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Stimulated Emission at Blue-Green (480 nm) and Green (514 nm) Wavelengths from Nonpolar (m-plane) and Semipolar (11–22) InGaN Multiple Quantum Well Laser Diode Structures,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 091103-1–091103-3 (2008). [CrossRef]
  30. H. Asamizu, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of 426 nmInGaN∕GaN Laser Diodes Fabricated on Free-Standing Semipolar (11–22) Gallium Nitride Substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 091102-1–091102-3 (2008). [CrossRef]
  31. H. Asamizu, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-Wave Operation of InGaN∕GaN Laser Diodes on Semipolar (11–22) Plane Gallium Nitrides,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 021002-1–021002-3 (2009). [CrossRef]
  32. D. S. Sizov, R. Bhat, J. Napierala, C. Gallinat, K. Song, and C. Zah, “500-nm Optical Gain Anisotropy of Semipolar (1122) InGaN Quantum Wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 071001-1–071001-3 (2009). [CrossRef]
  33. A. Tyagi, F. Wu, E. C. Young, A. Chakraborty, H. Ohta, R. Bhat, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Partial strain relaxation via misfit dislocation generation at heterointerfaces in (Al,In)GaN epitaxial layers grown on semipolar (11–22) GaN free standing substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 251905-1–251905-3 (2009). [CrossRef]
  34. Y. Enya, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Kyono, K. Akita, M. Ueno, M. Adachi, T. Sumitomo, S. Tokuyama, T. Ikegami, K. Katayama, and T. Nakamura, “531 nm Green Lasing of InGaN Based Laser Diodes on Semi-Polar {20–21} Free-Standing GaN Substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 082101-1–082101-3 (2009). [CrossRef]
  35. Y. Yoshizumi, M. Adachi, Y. Enya, T. Kyono, S. Tokuyama, T. Sumitomo, K. Akita, T. Ikegami, K. Katayama, and T. Nakamura, “Continuous-Wave Operation of 520 nm Green InGaN-Based Laser Diodes on Semi-Polar {20–21} GaN Substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 092101-1–092101-3 (2009). [CrossRef]
  36. A. Tyagi, R. M. Farrell1, K. M. Kelchner, C. Y. Huang, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, M. T. Hardy, C. Holder, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-Wave Operation of 520 nm Green InGaN-Based Laser Diodes on Semi-Polar {20–21} GaN Substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 011002-1–011002-3 (2010). [CrossRef]
  37. Y. D. Lin, S. Yamamoto, C. Y. Huang, C. L. Hsiung, F. Wu, K. Fujito, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura are preparing a manuscript to be called “High quality, InGaN∕AlGaN multiple quantum wells for semipolar InGaN green laser diodes.”
  38. Y.-D. Lin, Ph.D dissertation (University of California, Santa Barabara, 2010).
  39. J. W. Raring, E. M. Hall, M. C. Schmidt, C. Poblenz, N. Pfister, D. Kebort, Y.-C. Chang, D. F. Feezell, R. Craig, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “State-of-the-art continuous-wave InGaN laser diodes in the violet, blue, and green wavelength regimes,” SPIE Defense, Security, and Sensing Symposium 2010, 7686–18 (2010); Private communication with J. W. Raring in Kaai, Inc.
  40. T. Onuma, K. Okatomo, H. Ohta, and S. F. Chichibu, “Anisotropic optical gain in m-plane InxGa1−xN∕GaN multiple quantum well laser diode wafers fabricated on the low defect density freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 091112-1–091112-3 (2008). [CrossRef]
  41. T. Kyono, Y. Yoshizumi, Y. Enya, M. Adachi, S. Tokuyama, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, and T. Nakamura, “Optical Polarization Characteristics of InGaN Quantum Wells for Green Laser Diodes on Semi-Polar {20–21} GaN Substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 011003-1–011003-3 (2010). [CrossRef]
  42. P. Smowton and P. Blood, “The differential efficiency of quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, pp. 491–498 (1997). [CrossRef]
  43. M. Peter, A. Laubsch, W. Bergbauer, T. Meyer, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, and B. Hahn, “New developments in green LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi A 206, 1125–1129 (2009). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Figures

Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
 
Fig. 4
 

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited