OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America B

Journal of the Optical Society of America B


  • Editor: Henry van Driel
  • Vol. 27, Iss. 5 — May. 1, 2010
  • pp: 941–947

Signal power tapped with low polarization dependence and insensitive wavelength on silicon-on-insulator platforms

Shih-Hsiang Hsu  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA B, Vol. 27, Issue 5, pp. 941-947 (2010)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (679 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The length of a directional coupler, including the straight and curved parts, is strongly polarization dependent, especially for use in waveguide tap monitoring applications. Three types of curved structure in the coupled regions are presented to demonstrate the different phase contributions in a directional coupler. A 12 μ m thick silicon-on-insulator waveguide single-mode region was theoretically verified by using the beam propagation method, thereby significantly improving the polarization dependence and coupling loss with a conventional fiber. The Mach–Zehnder directional coupler made of a 12 μ m thick silicon-on-insulator waveguide could minimize the severe polarization dependence on the optical tap port and achieve a flattened wavelength response by implementing the coupled phase effect from the directional coupler’s curved structures. The results demonstrated that the optical waveguide tap port, carrying a portion of the light signal, showed a 0.024 coupling ratio and 0.3 dB for the polarization-dependent loss at a 1550 nm wavelength. The wavelength variation in the tap splitting ratio and polarization was less than 1% and 0.6 dB , respectively, across the entire C-band. A 0.26 dB per interface coupling loss was also achieved between the 12 μ m thick silicon-on-insulator waveguide and SMF-28 fiber.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(230.0230) Optical devices : Optical devices
(230.7370) Optical devices : Waveguides

ToC Category:
Optical Devices

Original Manuscript: September 2, 2009
Revised Manuscript: February 12, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: February 20, 2010
Published: April 20, 2010

Shih-Hsiang Hsu, "Signal power tapped with low polarization dependence and insensitive wavelength on silicon-on-insulator platforms," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 941-947 (2010)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. C. A. Al Sayeed, A. Vukovic, O. W. W. Yang, and Heng Hua, “Low-loss reconfigurable OADM for metro core optical network,” IET Optoelectron. 1, 178—184 (2007). [CrossRef]
  2. S. H. Hsu, “Polarization-dependent loss compensation on silicon-wire waveguide tap by complex refractive index of metals,” Opt. Lett. 34,1798—1800 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. B. Cao, F. Gao, J. Jiang, and F. Zhang, “Directional couplers realized on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1671–1673 (2005). [CrossRef]
  4. A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Photonics: Optical Electronics in Modern Communications, 6th ed. (Oxford Univ. Press, 2007), Chap. 13.
  5. K. Jinguji, N. Takato, A. Sugita, and M. Kawachi, “Mach–Zehnder interferometer type optical waveguide coupler with wavelength-flattened coupling ratio,” Electron. Lett. 26, 1326–1327 (1990). [CrossRef]
  6. B. E. Little and T. Murphy, “Design rules for maximally flat wavelength-insensitive optical power dividers using Mach–Zehnder structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1607–1609 (1997). [CrossRef]
  7. J.-M. Liu, Photonic Devices (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2005), Chap. 5. [CrossRef]
  8. D. Yevick and B. Hermansson, “New formulations of the matrix beam propagation method: application to rib waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25,221–229 (1989). [CrossRef]
  9. S. Jungling and J. C. Chen, “A study and optimization of eigenmode calculations using the imaginary-distance beam-propagation method,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30,2098–2105 (1994). [CrossRef]
  10. G. R. Hadley and R. E. Smith, “Full-vector waveguide modeling using an iterative finite-difference method with transparent boundary conditions,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13,465–469 (1995). [CrossRef]
  11. S. H. Hsu, “A 5 μm-thick SOI waveguide with low birefringence and low roughness and optical interconnection using high numerical aperture fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20,1003—1005 (2008). [CrossRef]
  12. S.-H. Hsu and Y.-L. Tsai, “Tapping signal power on 12 μm-thick SOI optical waveguide for performance monitoring,” Electron. Lett. 45(3),161–163 (2009). [CrossRef]
  13. Y. P. Li and C. H. Henry, “Silica-based optical integrated circuits,” IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. 143,263–280 (1996). [CrossRef]
  14. S. Pogossian, L. Vescan, and A. Vonsovici, “The single mode condition for semiconductor rib waveguides with large cross-section,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16,1851–1853 (1998). [CrossRef]
  15. O. Powell, “Single-mode condition for silicon rib waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20,1851–1855 (2002). [CrossRef]
  16. R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen, and K. Petermann, “Large single-mode rib waveguides in Ge-Si-Si and Si-on-SiO2,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27,1971–1974 (1991). [CrossRef]
  17. G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics—an IntroductionWiley, 2004), Chap. 4. [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited