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Journal of the Optical Society of America B

Journal of the Optical Society of America B


  • Editor: Henry van Driel
  • Vol. 27, Iss. 8 — Aug. 1, 2010
  • pp: 1688–1692

In situ assessment and minimization of nonlinear propagation effects for femtosecond-laser waveguide writing in dielectrics

Andrés Ferrer, Alexandro Ruiz de la Cruz, Daniel Puerto, Wojciech Gawelda, Juan A. Vallés, Miguel A. Rebolledo, Víctor Berdejo, Jan Siegel, and Javier Solis  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA B, Vol. 27, Issue 8, pp. 1688-1692 (2010)

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The effect of nonlinear propagation on the shape of the focal volume has been assessed by in situ plasma emission imaging during the subsurface processing of a commercial phosphate glass. The sample was processed with an elliptically shaped femtosecond-laser beam at 1 kHz repetition rate and scanned transversely with respect to the writing beam axis. As a consequence, optimal conditions for minimizing undesirable nonlinear propagation effects during the production of optical waveguides by direct laser writing have been determined. Under these conditions, it is possible to induce structural transformations and still preserve the focal volume shape associated with the linear propagation regime. While at low pulse energy a single scan laser-written structure does not support a guided mode, the use of multiple scans with minimized nonlinear propagation effects enables the production of optical waveguides. The latter show a significantly improved performance in terms of the refractive index change and propagation losses when compared to single scan waveguides.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(130.3120) Integrated optics : Integrated optics devices
(160.4330) Materials : Nonlinear optical materials
(190.7110) Nonlinear optics : Ultrafast nonlinear optics
(230.3120) Optical devices : Integrated optics devices
(230.7370) Optical devices : Waveguides
(320.2250) Ultrafast optics : Femtosecond phenomena

ToC Category:
Nonlinear Optics

Original Manuscript: May 13, 2010
Revised Manuscript: June 28, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: June 28, 2010
Published: July 30, 2010

Andrés Ferrer, Alexandro Ruiz de la Cruz, Daniel Puerto, Wojciech Gawelda, Juan A. Vallés, Miguel A. Rebolledo, Víctor Berdejo, Jan Siegel, and Javier Solis, "In situ assessment and minimization of nonlinear propagation effects for femtosecond-laser waveguide writing in dielectrics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 1688-1692 (2010)

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