OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America B

Journal of the Optical Society of America B

| OPTICAL PHYSICS

  • Editor: Henry van Driel
  • Vol. 27, Iss. 8 — Aug. 1, 2010
  • pp: 1688–1692

In situ assessment and minimization of nonlinear propagation effects for femtosecond-laser waveguide writing in dielectrics

Andrés Ferrer, Alexandro Ruiz de la Cruz, Daniel Puerto, Wojciech Gawelda, Juan A. Vallés, Miguel A. Rebolledo, Víctor Berdejo, Jan Siegel, and Javier Solis  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA B, Vol. 27, Issue 8, pp. 1688-1692 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAB.27.001688


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (267 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

The effect of nonlinear propagation on the shape of the focal volume has been assessed by in situ plasma emission imaging during the subsurface processing of a commercial phosphate glass. The sample was processed with an elliptically shaped femtosecond-laser beam at 1 kHz repetition rate and scanned transversely with respect to the writing beam axis. As a consequence, optimal conditions for minimizing undesirable nonlinear propagation effects during the production of optical waveguides by direct laser writing have been determined. Under these conditions, it is possible to induce structural transformations and still preserve the focal volume shape associated with the linear propagation regime. While at low pulse energy a single scan laser-written structure does not support a guided mode, the use of multiple scans with minimized nonlinear propagation effects enables the production of optical waveguides. The latter show a significantly improved performance in terms of the refractive index change and propagation losses when compared to single scan waveguides.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(130.3120) Integrated optics : Integrated optics devices
(160.4330) Materials : Nonlinear optical materials
(190.7110) Nonlinear optics : Ultrafast nonlinear optics
(230.3120) Optical devices : Integrated optics devices
(230.7370) Optical devices : Waveguides
(320.2250) Ultrafast optics : Femtosecond phenomena

ToC Category:
Nonlinear Optics

History
Original Manuscript: May 13, 2010
Revised Manuscript: June 28, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: June 28, 2010
Published: July 30, 2010

Citation
Andrés Ferrer, Alexandro Ruiz de la Cruz, Daniel Puerto, Wojciech Gawelda, Juan A. Vallés, Miguel A. Rebolledo, Víctor Berdejo, Jan Siegel, and Javier Solis, "In situ assessment and minimization of nonlinear propagation effects for femtosecond-laser waveguide writing in dielectrics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 1688-1692 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josab/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-27-8-1688


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. K. Hirao, T. Mitsuyu, J. Si, and J. Qiu, Active Glass For Photonic Devices: Photoinduced Structures and Their Application (Springer Verlag, 2001).
  2. H. Misawa and S. Juodkazis, 3D Laser Microfabrication: Principles and Applications (Wiley-VCH, 2006). [CrossRef]
  3. K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, and K. Midorikawa, “Three-dimensional micromachining of glass using femtosecond laser for lab-on-a-chip device manufacture,” Appl. Phys. A 81, 1–10 (2005). [CrossRef]
  4. R. M. Vazquez, R. Osellame, D. Nolli, C. Dongre, H. van den Vlekkert, R. Ramponi, M. Pollnau, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of femtosecond laser written optical waveguides in a lab-on-chip,” Lab Chip 9, 91–96 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. B. Stuart, M. Feit, A. Rubenchik, B. Shore, and M. Perry, “Laser-induced damage in dielectrics with nanosecond to subpicosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248–2251 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1729–1731 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. Minoshima, A. M. Kowalevicz, I. Hartl, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Photonic device fabrication in glass by use of nonlinear materials processing with a femtosecond laser oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1516–1518 (2001). [CrossRef]
  8. R. Osellame, G. Della Valle, N. Chiodo, S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, and G. Cerullo, “Lasing in femtosecond laser written optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. A 93, 17–26 (2008). [CrossRef]
  9. G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, “Micromachining of photonic devices by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 013001 (2009). [CrossRef]
  10. M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, M. Dubov, V. Mezentsev, I. Bennion, and M. J. Withford, “Investigation of ultrafast laser-photonic material interactions: challenges for directly written glass photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1370–1381 (2008). [CrossRef]
  11. C. B. Schaffer, J. García, and E. Mazur, “Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. A 76, 351–354 (2003). [CrossRef]
  12. S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A. Arai, “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13, 4708–4716 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. W. Gawelda, D. Puerto, J. Siegel, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz De La Cruz, H. Fernández, and J. Solis, “Ultrafast imaging of transient electronic plasmas produced in conditions of femtosecond waveguide writing in dielectrics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 121109 (2008). [CrossRef]
  14. C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “High-resolution study of photoinduced modification in fused silica produced by a tightly focused femtosecond laser beam in the presence of aberrations,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 013517 (2005). [CrossRef]
  15. Q. Sun, H. Jiang, Y. Liu, Y. Zhou, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Effect of spherical aberration on the propagation of a tightly focused femtosecond laser pulse inside fused silica,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 655–659 (2005). [CrossRef]
  16. R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1559–1567 (2003). [CrossRef]
  17. V. Diez-Blanco, J. Siegel, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz De La Cruz, and J. Solis, “Deep subsurface waveguides with circular cross section produced by femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051104 (2007). [CrossRef]
  18. M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, D. J. Spence, and M. J. Withford, “Slit beam shaping method for femtosecond laser direct-write fabrication of symmetric waveguides in bulk glasses,” Opt. Express 13, 5676–5681 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. D. Rayner, A. Naumov, and P. Corkum, “Ultrashort pulse nonlinear optical absorption in transparent media,” Opt. Express 13, 3208–3217 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, G. Fibich, and B. Ilan, “Multiple filamentation induced by input-beam ellipticity,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1126–1128 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. Y. Nasu, M. Kohtoku, and Y. Hibino, “Low-loss waveguides written with a femtosecond laser for flexible interconnection in a planar light-wave circuit,” Opt. Lett. 30, 723–725 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. N. D. Psaila, R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, N. Chiodo, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, A. Jha, and S. Shen, “Er:Yb-doped oxyfluoride silicate glass waveguide amplifier fabricated using femtosecond laser inscription,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 131102 (2007). [CrossRef]
  23. Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, and K. Shihoyama, “Control of the cross-sectional shape of a hollow microchannel embedded in photostructurable glass by use of a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 28, 55–57 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “Study of the influence of femtosecond laser polarisation on direct writing of waveguides,” Opt. Express 14, 13158–13163 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. C. Hnatovsky, R. Taylor, E. Simova, P. Rajeev, D. Rayner, V. Bhardwaj, and P. Corkum, “Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching,” Appl. Phys. A 84, 47–61 (2006). [CrossRef]
  26. Y. Shimotsuma, P. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. A. Ferrer, V. Diez-Blanco, A. Ruiz, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, “Deep subsurface optical waveguides produced by direct writing with femtosecond laser pulses in fused silica and phosphate glass,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 1121–1125 (2007). [CrossRef]
  28. A. Brodeur and S. L. Chin, “Ultrafast white-light continuum generation and self-focusing in transparent condensed media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 637–650 (1999). [CrossRef]
  29. A. Brodeur and S. Chin, “Band-gap dependence of the ultrafast white-light continuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4406–4409 (1998). [CrossRef]
  30. S. Mao, F. Quéré, S. Guizard, X. Mao, R. Russo, G. Petite, and P. Martin, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser interactions with dielectrics,” Appl. Phys. A 79, 1695–1709 (2004). [CrossRef]
  31. D. Homoelle, S. Wielandy, A. L. Gaeta, N. F. Borrelli, and C. Smith, “Infrared photosensitivity in silica glasses exposed to femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1311–1313 (1999). [CrossRef]
  32. A. Mairaj, H. Rutt, and D. Hewak, “Fabrication and characterization of continuous wave direct UV (λ=244 nm) written channel waveguides in chalcogenide (Ga:La:S) glass,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1578–1584 (2002). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Figures

Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
 
Fig. 4
 

« Previous Article

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited