OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America B

Journal of the Optical Society of America B


  • Editor: Henry van Driel
  • Vol. 28, Iss. 12 — Dec. 1, 2011
  • pp: 2925–2930

Design and experimental characterization of nonlinear metamaterials

Da Huang, Ekaterina Poutrina, Huifeng Zheng, and David R. Smith  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA B, Vol. 28, Issue 12, pp. 2925-2930 (2011)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (374 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We apply an analytic theory [ New J. Phys. 12, 093010 (2010)] toward the design of varactor-loaded split-ring resonator metacrystals, having nonlinear electromagnetic properties on demand. The design methodology here is shown to be efficient and is validated by the excellent agreement between the analytically predicted and experimentally measured harmonic generation. The analytic formulas enable a path toward optimization of nonlinear properties, which we demonstrate by varying the spacing of the metamaterial elements to maximize the second-order nonlinear susceptibility of the system.

© 2011 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(190.4400) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, materials
(160.3918) Materials : Metamaterials

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: July 14, 2011
Revised Manuscript: September 30, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: October 14, 2011
Published: November 17, 2011

Da Huang, Ekaterina Poutrina, Huifeng Zheng, and David R. Smith, "Design and experimental characterization of nonlinear metamaterials," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 2925-2930 (2011)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184–4187(2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. N. M. Litchinitser, I. R. Gabitov, and A. I. Maimistov, “Optical bistability in a nonlinear optical coupler with a negative index channel,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 113902 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306, 1351–1353 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, Y. S. Kivshar, and M. V. Gorkunov, “Self-tuning mechanisms of nonlinear split-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 144107 (2007). [CrossRef]
  5. B. Wang, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Nonlinear properties of split-ring resonators” Opt. Express 16, 16058–16063 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. Huang, E. Poutrina, and D. R. Smith, “Analysis of the power dependent tuning of a varactor-loaded metamaterial at microwave frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 104104 (2010). [CrossRef]
  7. T. H. Hand and S. A. Cummer, “Frequency tunable electromagnetic metamaterial using ferroelectric loaded split rings,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 066105 (2008). [CrossRef]
  8. N. M. Litchinitser, I. R. Gabitov, A. I. Maimistov, and V. M. Shalaev, “Effect of an optical negative index thin film on optical bistability,” Opt. Lett. 32, 151–153 (2007). [CrossRef]
  9. I. Gabitov, R. Indik, L. Mollenauer, M. Shkarayev, M. Stepanov, and P. M. Lushnikov, “Twin families of bisolitons in dispersion-managed systems,” Opt. Lett. 32, 605–607 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Peleg, M. Chertkov, and I. Gabitov, “Inelastic interchannel collisions of pulses in optical fibers in the presence of third-order dispersion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 18–23 (2004). [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Liu, G. Bartal, D. A. Genov, and X. Zhang, “Subwavelength discrete solitons in nonlinear metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 153901 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. R. Katko, S. Gu, J. P. Barrett, B.-I. Popa, G. Shvets, and S. A. Cummer, “Phase conjugation and negative refraction using nonlinear active metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 123905(2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 71, 36617 (2005). [CrossRef]
  14. M. Lapine, M. Gorkunov, and K. H. Ringhofer, “Nonlinearity of a metamaterial arising from diode insertions into resonant conductive elements,” Phys. Rev. E 67, 065601 (2003). [CrossRef]
  15. E. Poutrina, D. Huang, and D. R. Smith, “Analysis of nonlinear electromagnetic metamaterials,” New J. Phys. 12, 093010(2010). [CrossRef]
  16. S. Larouche and D. R. Smith, “A retrieval method for nonlinear metamaterials,” Opt. Commun. 283, 1621–1627 (2010). [CrossRef]
  17. A. Rose, S. Larouche, D. Huang, E. Poutrina, and D. R. Smith, “Nonlinear parameter retrieval from three- and four-wave mixing in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 82 (2010). [CrossRef]
  18. J. Pendry, A. Holden, D. Robbins, and W. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075–2084 (1999). [CrossRef]
  19. D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, and D. R. Smith, “Electric-field-coupled resonators for negative permittivity metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041109 (2006). [CrossRef]
  20. A. Zharov, I. Shadrivov, and Y. Kivshar, “Nonlinear properties of left-handed metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. A. I. Maimistov and I. R. Gabitov, “Nonlinear response of a thin metamaterial film containing Josephson junctions,” Opt. Commun. 283, 1633–1639 (2010). [CrossRef]
  22. Skyworks, “Skyworks SMV123x series hyperabrupt junction tuning varactors,” Tech. Report (2009).
  23. K. Aydin and E. Ozbay, “Capacitor-loaded split ring resonators as tunable metamaterial components,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 024911 (2007). [CrossRef]
  24. D. R. Smith, “Analytic expressions for the constitutive parameters of magnetoelectric metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 81, 036605 (2010). [CrossRef]
  25. C. A. Balanis, Advanced Engineering Electromagnetics (Wiley, 1989).
  26. A. Rose and D. R. Smith, “Broadly tunable quasi-phase-matching in nonlinear metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 013823(2011). [CrossRef]
  27. E. Poutrina, D. Huang, Y. Urzhumov, and D. R. Smith, “Nonlinear oscillator metamaterial model: numerical and experimental verification,” Opt. Express 19, 8312–8319 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited