OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America B

Journal of the Optical Society of America B


  • Editor: Henry van Driel
  • Vol. 29, Iss. 10 — Oct. 1, 2012
  • pp: 2944–2957

Cross-influence between the two servo loops of a fully stabilized Er:fiber optical frequency comb

Vladimir Dolgovskiy, Nikola Bucalovic, Pierre Thomann, Christian Schori, Gianni Di Domenico, and Stéphane Schilt  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA B, Vol. 29, Issue 10, pp. 2944-2957 (2012)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (687 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We present a study of the impact of the cross-coupling between the two servo loops used to stabilize the repetition rate frep and the carrier-envelope offset (CEO) frequency fCEO in a commercial Er:fiber frequency comb, based on the combination of experimental measurements and a model of the coupled loops. The developed theoretical model enables us to quantify the influence of the servo-loop coupling on an optical comb line, by simulating the hypothetic case where no coupling would be present. Numerical values for the model were obtained from an extensive characterization of the comb, in terms of frequency noise and dynamic response to a modulation applied to each actuator, for both frep and fCEO. To validate the model, the frequency noise of an optical comb line at 1.56 μm was experimentally measured from the heterodyne beat between the comb and a cavity-stabilized ultranarrow-linewidth laser and showed good agreement with the calculated noise spectrum. The coupling between the two stabilization loops results in a more than 10-fold reduction of the comb mode frequency noise power spectral density in a wide Fourier frequency range.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(120.3940) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Metrology
(140.4050) Lasers and laser optics : Mode-locked lasers
(320.7090) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast lasers
(140.3425) Lasers and laser optics : Laser stabilization

ToC Category:
Instrumentation, Measurement, and Metrology

Original Manuscript: June 4, 2012
Revised Manuscript: August 24, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: September 1, 2012
Published: September 28, 2012

Vladimir Dolgovskiy, Nikola Bucalovic, Pierre Thomann, Christian Schori, Gianni Di Domenico, and Stéphane Schilt, "Cross-influence between the two servo loops of a fully stabilized Er:fiber optical frequency comb," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 2944-2957 (2012)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. T. W. Hänsch, “Nobel lecture: passion for precision,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1297–1309 (2006). [CrossRef]
  2. J. Ye, H. Schnatz, and L. W. Hollberg, “Optical frequency combs: from frequency metrology to optical phase control,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1041–1058 (2003). [CrossRef]
  3. M. C. Stowe, M. J. Thorpe, A. Pe’er, J. Ye, J. E. Stalnaker, V. Gerginov, and S. A. Diddams, “Direct frequency comb spectroscopy,” Adv. At. Mol.Opt. Phys. 55, 1–60 (2008). [CrossRef]
  4. M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi, and J. Ye, “Broadband cavity ringdown spectroscopy for sensitive and rapid molecular detection,” Science 311, 1595–1599 (2006). [CrossRef]
  5. B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4, 55–57 (2010).
  6. R. Paschotta, A. Schlatter, S. C. Zeller, H. R. Telle, and U. Keller, “Optical phase noise and carrier-envelope offset of mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 82, 265–273 (2006). [CrossRef]
  7. E. Benkler, H. R. Telle, A. Zach, and F. Tauser, “Circumvention of noise contributions in fiber laser baser frequency combs,” Opt. Express 13, 5662–5668 (2005). [CrossRef]
  8. H. R. Telle, B. Lipphardt, and J. Stenger, “Kerr-lens, mode-locked lasers as transfer oscillators for optical frequency measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 1–6 (2002). [CrossRef]
  9. B. R. Washburn, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Response dynamics of the frequency comb output from a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express 13, 10622–10633 (2005). [CrossRef]
  10. K. Kim, J. W. Nicholson, M. Yan, J. C. Knight, N. R. Newbury, and S. A. Diddams, “Characterization of frequency noise on a broadband infrared frequency comb using optical heterodyne techniques,” Opt. Express 15, 17715–17723 (2007). [CrossRef]
  11. L. Hollberg, S. Diddams, A. Bartels, T. Fortier, and K. Kim, “The measurement of optical frequencies,” Metrologia 42, S105–S124 (2005). [CrossRef]
  12. F. W. Helbing, G. Steinmeyer, J. Stenger, H. R. Telle, and U. Keller, “Carrier–envelope-offset dynamics and stabilization of femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. B. 74, S35–S42 (2002). [CrossRef]
  13. J. Rauschenberger, T. Fortier, D. Jones, J. Ye, and S. Cundiff, “Control of the frequency comb from a modelocked Erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 10, 1404–1410 (2002).
  14. N. Newbury, and B. Washburn, “Theory of the frequency comb output from a femtosecond fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1388–1402 (2005). [CrossRef]
  15. W. Zhang, M. Lours, M. Fischer, R. Holzwarth, G. Santarelli, and Y. Le Coq, “Characterizing a fiber-based frequency comb with electro-optic modulator,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59, 432–438 (2012). [CrossRef]
  16. H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: a novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 327–332 (1999). [CrossRef]
  17. W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Advanced noise reduction techniques for ultra-low phase noise optical-to-microwave division with femtosecond fiber combs,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58, 900–908 (2011). [CrossRef]
  18. V. Dolgovskiy, S. Schilt, G. Di Domenico, N. Bucalovic, C. Schori, and P. Thomann, “1.5 μm cavity-stabilized laser for ultra-stable microwave generation,” in Proceedings of 2011 Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control and the European Frequency and Time Forum (FCS), San Francisco, USA, May 2–5, 2011 (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–3.
  19. S. Schilt, N. Bucalovic, L. Tombez, V. Dolgovskiy, C. Schori, G. Di Domenico, M. Zaffalon, and P. Thomann, “Frequency discriminators for the characterization of narrow-spectrum heterodyne beat signals: application to the measurement of a sub-hertz carrier-envelope-offset beat in an optical frequency comb,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 123116(2011). [CrossRef]
  20. D. R. Walker, T. Udem, C. Gohle, B. Stein, and T. W. Hänsch, “Frequency dependence of the fixed point in a fluctuating frequency comb,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 535–538 (2007). [CrossRef]
  21. N. R. Newbury, and W. C. Swann, “Low-noise fiber-laser frequency combs,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1756–1770 (2007). [CrossRef]
  22. N. Haverkamp, H. Hundertmark, C. Fallnich, and H. R. Telle, “Frequency stabilization of mode-locked Erbium fiber lasers using pump power control,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 321–324 (2004). [CrossRef]
  23. F. Riehle, Frequency Standards, Basics and Applications(Wiley, 2004), Chap. 2.
  24. O. Svelto, S. Longhi, G. Della Valle, S. Kück, G. Huber, M. Pollnau, H. Hillmer, S. Hansmann, R. Engelbrecht, H. Brand, J. Kaiser, A. B. Peterson, R. Malz, S. Steinberg, G. Marowsky, U. Brinkmann, D. Lo, A. Borsutzky, H. Wächter, M. W. Sigrist, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, M. Yurkov, K. Midorikawa, J. Hein, R. Sauerbrey, and J. Helmcke, “Lasers and coherent light sources,” in Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics, F. Träger, ed. (Springer, 2007), pp. 583–936.
  25. J. Bechhoefer, “Feedback for physicists: a tutorial essay on control,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 783–836 (2005). [CrossRef]
  26. E. Rubiola, and F. Vernotte, “The cross-spectrum experimental method,” http://arxiv.org/abs/1003.0113 .
  27. D. C. Heinecke, A. Bartels, and S. A. Diddams, “Offset frequency dynamics and phase noise properties of a self-referenced 10 GHz Ti-sapphire frequency comb,” Opt. Express 19, 18440–18451 (2011). [CrossRef]
  28. S. Schilt, N. Bucalovic, V. Dolgovskiy, C. Schori, M. C. Stumpf, G. Di Domenico, S. Pekarek, A. E. H. Oehler, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, and P. Thomann, “Fully stabilized optical frequency comb with sub-radian CEO phase noise from a SESAM-modelocked 1.5 μm solid-state laser,” Opt. Express 19, 24171–24181 (2011). [CrossRef]
  29. J. J. McFerran, W. C. Swann, B. R. Washburn, and N. R. Newbury, “Suppression of pump-induced frequency noise in fiber-laser frequency combs leading to sub-radion fceo phase excursion,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 219–227 (2007). [CrossRef]
  30. J. Millo, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, E. M. L. English, H. Jiang, J. Guéna, A. Clairon, S. Bize, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, and M. E. Tobar, “Ultra-low noise microwave generation with fiber-based optical frequency comb and application to atomic fountain clock,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141105 (2009). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited