Optics InfoBase > JOSA B > Volume 29 > Issue 2 > Page A69
Optical two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy of semiconductor nanostructures [Invited]Steven T. Cundiff »View Author Affiliations
Steven T. Cundiff
^{}JILA, National Institute of Standards and Technology and University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0440, USA (cundiff@jila.colorado.edu) |
JOSA B, Vol. 29, Issue 2, pp. A69-A81 (2012)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAB.29.000A69
View Full Text Article
Enhanced HTML Acrobat PDF (2689 KB)
Abstract
Optical two-dimensional Fourier transform (2DFT) spectroscopy has been developed over the last decade as a powerful tool for studying a variety of physical systems, ranging from atoms to molecules to solids. This review covers our use of 2DFT spectroscopy to study exciton dynamics in semiconductor nanostructures. In quantum wells, 2DFT spectroscopy confirms the importance of many-body contributions to the coherent optical response and reveals nonradiative double-quantum and Raman coherences. For natural quantum dots, 2DFT spectroscopy enables ensemble measurements of the homogeneous linewidth, including the temperature and density dependence. Relaxation from quantum well states into the quantum dots can also be studied using 2DFT spectroscopy.
OCIS Codes
(160.6000) Materials : Semiconductor materials
(300.6300) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, Fourier transforms
(300.6470) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, semiconductors
History
Original Manuscript: November 14, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: November 28, 2011
Published: January 26, 2012
Virtual Issues
(2012) Advances in Optics and Photonics
Citation
Steven T. Cundiff, "Optical two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy of semiconductor nanostructures [Invited]," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, A69-A81 (2012)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josab/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-29-2-A69
Sort: Author | Year | Journal | Reset
References
- N. Kurnit, S. Hartmann, and I. Abella, “Observation of photon echo,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 567–568 (1964). [CrossRef]
- I. Abella, N. Kurnit, and S. Hartmann, “Photon echoes,” Phys. Rev. 141, 391–406 (1966). [CrossRef]
- E. Hahn, “Spin echoes,” Phys. Rev. 80, 580–594 (1950). [CrossRef]
- S. Mukamel, “Multidimensional femtosecond correlation spectroscopies of electronic and vibrational excitations,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 51, 691–729 (2000). [CrossRef]
- D. Jonas, “Two-dimensional femtosecond spectroscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 54, 425–463 (2003). [CrossRef]
- M. Cho, “Coherent two-dimensional optical spectroscopy,” Chem. Rev. 108, 1331–1418 (2008). [CrossRef]
- R. R. Ernst, G. Bodenhausen, and A. Wokaun, Principles of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in One and Two Dimensions(Oxford Science, Oxford, 1987).
- S. T. Cundiff, “Coherent spectroscopy of semiconductors,” Opt. Express 16, 4639–4664 (2008). [CrossRef]
- X. Q. Li, T. H. Zhang, C. N. Borca, and S. T. Cundiff, “Many-body interactions in semiconductors probed by optical two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057406 (2006). [CrossRef]
- T. Zhang, I. Kuznetsova, T. Meier, X. Li, R. Mirin, P. Thomas, and S. Cundiff, “Polarization-dependent optical 2D Fourier transform spectroscopy of semiconductors,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 14227–14232 (2007). [CrossRef]
- A. D. Bristow, D. Karaiskaj, X. Dai, R. P. Mirin, and S. T. Cundiff, “Polarization dependence of semiconductor exciton and biexciton contributions to phase-resolved optical two-dimensional Fourier transform spectra,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 161305 (2009). [CrossRef]
- A. D. Bristow, T. Zhang, M. E. Siemens, S. T. Cundiff, and R. P. Mirin, “Separating homogeneous and inhomogeneous line widths of heavy- and light-hole excitons in weakly disordered semiconductor quantum wells,” J. Phys. Chem. B 115, 5365–5371 (2011). [CrossRef]
- D. Karaiskaj, A. D. Bristow, L. Yang, X. Dai, R. P. Mirin, S. Mukamel, and S. T. Cundiff, “Two-quantum many-body coherences in two-dimensional Fourier transform spectra of exciton resonances in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 117401 (2010). [CrossRef]
- G. Moody, M. E. Siemens, A. D. Bristow, X. Dai, D. Karaiskaj, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and S. T. Cundiff, “Exciton-exciton and exciton-phonon interactions in an interfacial GaAs quantum dot ensemble,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 115324 (2011). [CrossRef]
- G. Moody, M. E. Siemens, A. D. Bristow, X. Dai, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and S. T. Cundiff, “Exciton relaxation and coupling dynamics in a GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs quantum well and quantum dot ensemble,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 245316 (2011). [CrossRef]
- J. Shah, Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Semiconductors and Semiconductor Nanostructures (Springer, 1996).
- O. Madelung, Semiconductor Data Handbook (Springer, 2006).
- D. Gammon, E. Snow, B. Shanabrook, D. Katzer, and D. Park, “Homogeneous linewidths in the optical spectrum of a single gallium arsenide quantum dot,” Science 273, 87–90 (1996). [CrossRef]
- R. J. Elliott, “Intensity of optical absorption by excitons,” Phys. Rev. 108, 1384–1389 (1957). [CrossRef]
- T. Yajima and Y. Taira, “Spatial optical parametric coupling of picosecond light-pulses and transverse relaxation effect in resonant media,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 47, 1620–1626 (1979). [CrossRef]
- M. Koch, J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, E. O. Göbel, P. Thomas, and K. Kohler, “Quantum beats versus polarization interference—an experimental distinction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3631–3634 (1992). [CrossRef]
- M. D. Webb, S. T. Cundiff, and D. G. Steel, “Observation of time-resolved picosecond stimulated photon-echoes and free polarization decay in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 934–937 (1991). [CrossRef]
- V. G. Lyssenko, J. Erland, I. Balslev, K. H. Pantke, B. S. Razbirin, and J. M. Hvam, “Nature of nonlinear 4-wave-mixing beats in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 5720–5723 (1993). [CrossRef]
- J. Hegarty, M. D. Sturge, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Resonant degenerate 4-wave mixing in GaAs multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 132–134 (1982). [CrossRef]
- L. Schultheis, M. D. Sturge, and J. Hegarty, “Photon-echoes from two-dimensional excitons in GaAs-AlGaAs quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 995–997 (1985). [CrossRef]
- L. Schultheis, J. Kuhl, A. Honold, and C. W. Tu, “Picosecond phase coherence and orientational relaxation of excitons in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1797–1800 (1986). [CrossRef]
- L. Schultheis, A. Honold, J. Kuhl, K. Köhler, and C. W. Tu, “Optical dephasing of homogeneously broadened two-dimensional exciton-transitions in GaAs quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 9027–9030 (1986). [CrossRef]
- P. C. Becker, H. L. Fragnito, C. H. B. Cruz, R. L. Fork, J. E. Cunningham, J. E. Henry, and C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond photon-echoes from band-to-band transitions in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1647–1649 (1988). [CrossRef]
- E. O. Göbel, K. Leo, T. C. Damen, J. Shah, S. Schmitt-Rink, W. Schäfer, J. F. Muller, and K. Köhler, “Quantum beats of excitons in quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1801–1804 (1990). [CrossRef]
- S. T. Cundiff, “Effects of correlation between inhomogeneously broadened transitions on quantum beats in transient 4-wave-mixing,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 3114–3118 (1994). [CrossRef]
- M. Koch, J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, S. T. Cundiff, E. O. Göbel, P. Thomas, and K. Köhler, “Koch et al. reply,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 210 (1994). [CrossRef]
- X. Zhu, M. S. Hybertsen, and P. B. Littlewood, “Quantum beats in photon echo from four-waving mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 209 (1994). [CrossRef]
- B. Feuerbacher, J. Kuhl, R. Eccleston, and K. Ploog, “Quantum beats between the light and heavy hole excitons in a quantum well,” Solid State Commun. 74, 1279–1283 (1990). [CrossRef]
- K. Leo, T. C. Damen, J. Shah, E. O. Göbel, and K. Kohler, “Quantum beats of light hole and heavy hole excitons in quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 19–21 (1990). [CrossRef]
- X. Chen, W. J. Walecki, O. Buccafusca, D. N. Fittinghoff, and A. L. Smirl, “Temporally and spectrally resolved amplitude and phase of coherent four-wave-mixing emission from GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 9738–9743 (1997). [CrossRef]
- M. Phillips and H. Wang, “Coherent oscillation in four-wave mixing of interacting excitons,” Solid State Commun. 111, 317–321 (1999). [CrossRef]
- A. L. Smirl, M. J. Stevens, X. Chen, and O. Buccafusca, “Heavy-hole and light-hole oscillations in the coherent emission from quantum wells: evidence for exciton-exciton correlations,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 8267–8275 (1999). [CrossRef]
- D. S. Chemla and J. Shah, “Many-body and correlation effects in semiconductors,” Nature 411, 549–557 (2001). [CrossRef]
- K. Leo, M. Wegener, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, E. O. Göbel, T. C. Damen, S. Schmitt-Rink, and W. Schäfer, “Effects of coherent polarization interactions on time-resolved degenerate 4-wave-mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1340–1343 (1990). [CrossRef]
- M. Wegener, D. S. Chemla, S. Schmitt-Rink, and W. Schäfer, “Line-shape of time-resolved 4-wave-mixing,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 5675–5683 (1990). [CrossRef]
- M. Lindberg, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Theory of the semiconductor photon-echo,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 1865–1875 (1992). [CrossRef]
- W. Schäfer, F. Jahnke, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Many-particle effects on transient 4-wave-mixing signals in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 1217–1220 (1993). [CrossRef]
- D. S. Kim, J. Shah, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, F. Jahnke, S. Schmitt-Rink, and K. Köhler, “Unusually slow temporal evolution of femtosecond 4-wave-mixing signals in intrinsic GaAs quantum-wells—direct evidence for the dominance of interaction effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2725–2728 (1992). [CrossRef]
- S. Weiss, M. A. Mycek, J. Y. Bigot, S. Schmitt-Rink, and D. S. Chemla, “Collective effects in excitonic free induction decay—do semiconductors and atoms emit coherent-light in different ways,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2685–2688 (1992). [CrossRef]
- H. L. Wang, K. Ferrio, D. G. Steel, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Transient nonlinear-optical response from excitation induced dephasing in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1261–1264 (1993). [CrossRef]
- Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, S. W. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, H. Wang, and D. G. Steel, “Excitation and polarization effects in semiconductor 4-wave-mixing spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 14382–14386 (1994). [CrossRef]
- J. M. Shacklette and S. T. Cundiff, “Role of excitation-induced shift in the coherent optical response of semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 045309 (2002). [CrossRef]
- V. M. Axt and A. Stahl, “A dynamics-controlled truncation scheme for the hierarchy of density-matrices in semiconductor optics,” Z. Phys. B 93, 195–204 (1994). [CrossRef]
- M. Lindberg, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “χ(3) formalism in optically-excited semiconductors and its applications in 4-wave-mixing spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 18060–18072 (1994). [CrossRef]
- D. A. Kleinman, “Binding energy of biexcitons and bound excitons in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 28, 871–879 (1983). [CrossRef]
- B. F. Feuerbacher, J. Kuhl, and K. Ploog, “Biexcitonic contribution to the degenerate-4-wave-mixing signal from a GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs quantum-well,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 2439–2441(1991). [CrossRef]
- D. J. Lovering, R. T. Phillips, G. J. Denton, and G. W. Smith, “Resonant generation of biexcitons in a GaAs quantum-well,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1880–1883 (1992). [CrossRef]
- K. Bott, O. Heller, D. Bennhardt, S. T. Cundiff, P. Thomas, E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, R. Eccleston, J. Kuhl, and K. Ploog, “Influence of exciton-exciton interactions on the coherent optical-response in GaAs quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 17418–17426(1993). [CrossRef]
- E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heuckeroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, D. Bennhardt, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Evidence of biexcitonic contributions to 4-wave-mixing in GaAs quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14730–14733 (1994). [CrossRef]
- V. M. Axt and A. Stahl, “The role of the biexciton in a dynamic density-matrix theory of the semiconductor band-edge,” Z. Phys. B 93, 205–211 (1994). [CrossRef]
- P. Kner, W. Schäfer, R. Lövenich, and D. S. Chemla, “Coherence of four-particle correlations in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5386–5389 (1998). [CrossRef]
- D. S. Kim, J. Shah, J. E. Cunningham, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, M. Hartmann, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Giant excitonic resonance in time-resolved 4-wave-mixing in quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1006–1009 (1992). [CrossRef]
- D. Birkedal, V. G. Lyssenko, J. M. Hvam, and K. E. Sayed, “Continuum contribution to excitonic four-wave mixing due to interaction-induced nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. B 54, R14250–R14253 (1996). [CrossRef]
- S. T. Cundiff, M. Koch, W. H. Knox, J. Shah, and W. Stolz, “Optical coherence in semiconductors: strong emission mediated by nondegenerate interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1107–1110 (1996). [CrossRef]
- M. U. Wehner, D. Steinbach, and M. Wegener, “Ultrafast coherent transients due to exciton-continuum scattering in bulk GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 54, R5211–R5214 (1996). [CrossRef]
- T. Takagahara, “Localization and homogeneous dephasing relaxation of quasi-2-dimensional excitons in quantum-well heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 32, 7013–7015 (1985). [CrossRef]
- T. Takagahara, “Localization and energy-transfer of quasi-2-dimensional excitons in GaAs-AlAs quantum-well heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 31, 6552–6573 (1985). [CrossRef]
- M. D. Webb, S. T. Cundiff, and D. G. Steel, “Stimulated-picosecond-photon-echo studies of localized exciton relaxation and dephasing in GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs multiple quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 12658–12661 (1991). [CrossRef]
- S. G. Carter, Z. Chen, and S. T. Cundiff, “Echo peak-shift spectroscopy of non-Markovian exciton dynamics in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 121303 (2007). [CrossRef]
- G. Noll, U. Siegner, S. G. Shevel, and E. O. Göbel, “Picosecond stimulated photon-echo due to intrinsic excitations in semiconductor mixed-crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 792–795 (1990). [CrossRef]
- S. T. Cundiff and D. G. Steel, “Coherent transient spectroscopy of excitons in GaAs-AlGaAs quantum-wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2423–2433 (1992). [CrossRef]
- S. T. Cundiff, H. Wang, and D. G. Steel, “Polarization-dependent picosecond excitonic nonlinearities and the complexities of disorder,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 7248–7251 (1992). [CrossRef]
- H. H. Yaffe, Y. Prior, J. P. Harbison, and L. T. Florez, “Polarization dependence and selection rules of transient four-wave mixing in GaAs quantum-well excitons,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 578–583 (1993). [CrossRef]
- D. Bennhardt, P. Thomas, R. Eccleston, E. J. Mayer, and J. Kuhl, “Polarization dependence of four-wave-mixing signals in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 13485–13490 (1993). [CrossRef]
- S. Weiser, T. Meier, J. Mobius, A. Euteneuer, E. J. Mayer, W. Stolz, M. Hofmann, W. W. Ruhle, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, “Disorder-induced dephasing in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 13088–13098 (2000). [CrossRef]
- L. Lepetit, G. Cheriaux, and M. Joffre, “Linear techniques of phase measurement by femtosecond spectral interferometry for applications in spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2467–2474 (1995). [CrossRef]
- J. Hybl, A. Ferro, and D. Jonas, “Two-dimensional Fourier transform electronic spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 115, 6606–6622 (2001). [CrossRef]
- P. Tian, D. Keusters, Y. Suzaki, and W. Warren, “Femtosecond phase-coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy,” Science 300, 1553–1555 (2003). [CrossRef]
- T. Brixner, T. Mancal, I. Stiopkin, and G. Fleming, “Phase-stabilized two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 121, 4221–4236 (2004). [CrossRef]
- M. Cowan, J. Ogilvie, and R. Miller, “Two-dimensional spectroscopy using diffractive optics based phased-locked photon echoes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 386, 184–189 (2004). [CrossRef]
- P. F. Tekavec, G. A. Lott, and A. H. Marcus, “Fluorescence-detected two-dimensional electronic coherence spectroscopy by acousto-optic phase modulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 127, 214307 (2007). [CrossRef]
- T. H. Zhang, C. N. Borca, X. Q. Li, and S. T. Cundiff, “Optical two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy with active interferometric stabilization,” Opt. Express 13, 7432–7441 (2005). [CrossRef]
- A. D. Bristow, D. Karaiskaj, X. Dai, T. Zhang, C. Carlsson, K. R. Hagen, R. Jimenez, and S. T. Cundiff, “A versatile ultrastable platform for optical multidimensional Fourier-transform spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 073108 (2009). [CrossRef]
- J. Kasprzak, B. Patton, V. Savona, and W. Langbein, “Coherent coupling between distant excitons revealed by two-dimensional nonlinear hyperspectral imaging,” Nat. Photon. 5, 57–63(2011). [CrossRef]
- M. U. Wehner, M. H. Ulm, and M. Wegener, “Scanning interferometer stabilized by use of Pancharatnam’s phase,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1455–1457 (1997). [CrossRef]
- A. D. Bristow, D. Karaiskaj, X. Dai, and S. T. Cundiff, “All-optical retrieval of the global phase for two-dimensional Fourier-transform spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 16, 18017–18027(2008). [CrossRef]
- L. J. Yang, I. V. Schweigert, S. T. Cundiff, and S. Mukamel, “Two-dimensional optical spectroscopy of excitons in semiconductor quantum wells: Liouville-space pathway analysis,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 125302 (2007). [CrossRef]
- L. Yang, T. Zhang, A. D. Bristow, S. T. Cundiff, and S. Mukamel, “Isolating excitonic Raman coherence in semiconductors using two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 129, 234711 (2008). [CrossRef]
- M. Khalil, N. Demirdoven, and A. Tokmakoff, “Obtaining absorptive line shapes in two-dimensional infrared vibrational correlation spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 047401 (2003). [CrossRef]
- K. W. Stone, K. Gundogdu, D. B. Turner, X. Li, S. T. Cundiff, and K. A. Nelson, “Two-quantum 2D FT electronic spectroscopy of biexcitons in GaAs quantum wells,” Science 324, 1169–1173 (2009). [CrossRef]
- M. E. Siemens, G. Moody, H. Li, A. D. Bristow, and S. T. Cundiff, “Resonance lineshapes in two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 18, 17699–17708 (2010). [CrossRef]
- C. N. Borca, T. H. Zhang, X. Q. Li, and S. T. Cundiff, “Optical two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy of semiconductors,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 416, 311–315 (2005). [CrossRef]
- H. Wang, K. B. Ferrio, D. G. Steel, P. R. Berman, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Transient 4-wave-mixing line-shapes—effects of excitation-induced dephasing,” Phys. Rev. A 49, R1551–R1554 (1994). [CrossRef]
- I. Kuznetsova, P. Thomas, T. Meier, T. Zhang, X. Li, R. P. Mirin, and S. T. Cundiff, “Signatures of many-particle correlations in two-dimensional Fourier-transform spectra of semiconductor nanostructures,” Solid State Commun. 142, 154–158(2007). [CrossRef]
- R. Eccleston, J. Kuhl, D. Bennhardt, and P. Thomas, “Intensity dependent four-wave-mixing polarization rules in quantum wells,” Solid State Commun. 86, 93–97 (1993). [CrossRef]
- K. B. Ferrio and D. G. Steel, “Raman quantum beats of interacting excitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 786–789 (1998). [CrossRef]
- S. A. Hawkins, E. J. Gansen, M. J. Stevens, A. L. Smirl, I. Rumyantsev, R. Takayama, N. H. Kwong, R. Binder, and D. G. Steel, “Differential measurements of Raman coherence and two-exciton correlations in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 035313 (2003). [CrossRef]
- H. Wang, J. Shah, T. Damen, and L. Pfeiffer, “Polarization-dependent coherent nonlinear optical response in GaAs quantum wells: dominant effects of two-photon coherence between ground and biexciton states,” Solid State Commun. 91, 869–874 (1994). [CrossRef]
- K. B. Ferrio and D. G. Steel, “Observation of the ultrafast two-photon coherent biexciton oscillation in a GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs multiple quantum well,” Phys. Rev. B 54, R5231–R5234(1996). [CrossRef]
- K. W. Stone, D. B. Turner, K. Gundogdu, S. T. Cundiff, and K. A. Nelson, “Exciton-exciton correlations revealed by two-quantum two-dimensional Fourier transform optical spectroscopy,” Acc. Chem. Res. 42, 1452–1461 (2009). [CrossRef]
- L. Schultheis, J. Kuhl, A. Honold, and C. W. Tu, “Ultrafast phase relaxation of excitons via exciton-exciton and exciton-electron collisions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1635–1638 (1986). [CrossRef]
- I. Kuznetsova, N. Gogh, J. Foerstner, T. Meier, S. T. Cundiff, I. Varga, and P. Thomas, “Modeling excitonic line shapes in weakly disordered semiconductor nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 81 (2010). [CrossRef]
- D. Bimberg, M. Grundmann, and N. N. Ledentsov, Quantum Dot Heterostructures (Wiley, 1999).
- T. Takagahara, “Theory of exciton dephasing in semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 2638–2652 (1999). [CrossRef]
- L. Andreani, G. Panzarini, and J.-M. Gérard, “Vacuum—field rabi splitting for quantum boxes in pillar microcavities?,” Phys. Stat. Sol. A 178, 145–148 (2000). [CrossRef]
- J. Guest, T. Stievater, X. Li, J. Cheng, D. Steel, D. Gammon, D. Katzer, D. Park, C. Ell, A. Thranhardt, G. Khitrova, and H. Gibbs, “Measurement of optical absorption by a single quantum dot exciton,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 241310 (2002). [CrossRef]
- I. Abella, N. Kurnit, and S. Hartmann, “Photon echoes,” Phys. Rev. 141, 391–406 (1966). [CrossRef]
- N. Kurnit, S. Hartmann, and I. Abella, “Observation of photon echo,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 567–568 (1964). [CrossRef]
- L. Andreani, G. Panzarini, and J.-M. Gérard, “Vacuum—field rabi splitting for quantum boxes in pillar microcavities?,” Phys. Stat. Sol. A 178, 145–148 (2000). [CrossRef]
- V. M. Axt and A. Stahl, “A dynamics-controlled truncation scheme for the hierarchy of density-matrices in semiconductor optics,” Z. Phys. B 93, 195–204 (1994). [CrossRef]
- V. M. Axt and A. Stahl, “The role of the biexciton in a dynamic density-matrix theory of the semiconductor band-edge,” Z. Phys. B 93, 205–211 (1994). [CrossRef]
- V. G. Lyssenko, J. Erland, I. Balslev, K. H. Pantke, B. S. Razbirin, and J. M. Hvam, “Nature of nonlinear 4-wave-mixing beats in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 5720–5723 (1993). [CrossRef]
- P. C. Becker, H. L. Fragnito, C. H. B. Cruz, R. L. Fork, J. E. Cunningham, J. E. Henry, and C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond photon-echoes from band-to-band transitions in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1647–1649 (1988). [CrossRef]
- E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heuckeroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, D. Bennhardt, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Evidence of biexcitonic contributions to 4-wave-mixing in GaAs quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14730–14733 (1994). [CrossRef]
- K. Bott, O. Heller, D. Bennhardt, S. T. Cundiff, P. Thomas, E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, R. Eccleston, J. Kuhl, and K. Ploog, “Influence of exciton-exciton interactions on the coherent optical-response in GaAs quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 17418–17426(1993). [CrossRef]
- D. Bennhardt, P. Thomas, R. Eccleston, E. J. Mayer, and J. Kuhl, “Polarization dependence of four-wave-mixing signals in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 13485–13490 (1993). [CrossRef]
- R. Eccleston, J. Kuhl, D. Bennhardt, and P. Thomas, “Intensity dependent four-wave-mixing polarization rules in quantum wells,” Solid State Commun. 86, 93–97 (1993). [CrossRef]
- H. Wang, K. B. Ferrio, D. G. Steel, P. R. Berman, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Transient 4-wave-mixing line-shapes—effects of excitation-induced dephasing,” Phys. Rev. A 49, R1551–R1554 (1994). [CrossRef]
- S. Weiss, M. A. Mycek, J. Y. Bigot, S. Schmitt-Rink, and D. S. Chemla, “Collective effects in excitonic free induction decay—do semiconductors and atoms emit coherent-light in different ways,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2685–2688 (1992). [CrossRef]
- D. Bimberg, M. Grundmann, and N. N. Ledentsov, Quantum Dot Heterostructures (Wiley, 1999).
- S. A. Hawkins, E. J. Gansen, M. J. Stevens, A. L. Smirl, I. Rumyantsev, R. Takayama, N. H. Kwong, R. Binder, and D. G. Steel, “Differential measurements of Raman coherence and two-exciton correlations in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 035313 (2003). [CrossRef]
- H. Wang, K. B. Ferrio, D. G. Steel, P. R. Berman, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Transient 4-wave-mixing line-shapes—effects of excitation-induced dephasing,” Phys. Rev. A 49, R1551–R1554 (1994). [CrossRef]
- Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, S. W. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, H. Wang, and D. G. Steel, “Excitation and polarization effects in semiconductor 4-wave-mixing spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 14382–14386 (1994). [CrossRef]
- M. Lindberg, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “χ(3) formalism in optically-excited semiconductors and its applications in 4-wave-mixing spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 18060–18072 (1994). [CrossRef]
- H. L. Wang, K. Ferrio, D. G. Steel, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Transient nonlinear-optical response from excitation induced dephasing in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1261–1264 (1993). [CrossRef]
- M. Lindberg, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Theory of the semiconductor photon-echo,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 1865–1875 (1992). [CrossRef]
- D. Birkedal, V. G. Lyssenko, J. M. Hvam, and K. E. Sayed, “Continuum contribution to excitonic four-wave mixing due to interaction-induced nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. B 54, R14250–R14253 (1996). [CrossRef]
- R. R. Ernst, G. Bodenhausen, and A. Wokaun, Principles of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in One and Two Dimensions(Oxford Science, Oxford, 1987).
- X. Q. Li, T. H. Zhang, C. N. Borca, and S. T. Cundiff, “Many-body interactions in semiconductors probed by optical two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057406 (2006). [CrossRef]
- C. N. Borca, T. H. Zhang, X. Q. Li, and S. T. Cundiff, “Optical two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy of semiconductors,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 416, 311–315 (2005). [CrossRef]
- T. H. Zhang, C. N. Borca, X. Q. Li, and S. T. Cundiff, “Optical two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy with active interferometric stabilization,” Opt. Express 13, 7432–7441 (2005). [CrossRef]
- E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heuckeroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, D. Bennhardt, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Evidence of biexcitonic contributions to 4-wave-mixing in GaAs quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14730–14733 (1994). [CrossRef]
- K. Bott, O. Heller, D. Bennhardt, S. T. Cundiff, P. Thomas, E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, R. Eccleston, J. Kuhl, and K. Ploog, “Influence of exciton-exciton interactions on the coherent optical-response in GaAs quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 17418–17426(1993). [CrossRef]
- G. Moody, M. E. Siemens, A. D. Bristow, X. Dai, D. Karaiskaj, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and S. T. Cundiff, “Exciton-exciton and exciton-phonon interactions in an interfacial GaAs quantum dot ensemble,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 115324 (2011). [CrossRef]
- G. Moody, M. E. Siemens, A. D. Bristow, X. Dai, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and S. T. Cundiff, “Exciton relaxation and coupling dynamics in a GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs quantum well and quantum dot ensemble,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 245316 (2011). [CrossRef]
- G. Moody, M. E. Siemens, A. D. Bristow, X. Dai, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and S. T. Cundiff, “Exciton relaxation and coupling dynamics in a GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs quantum well and quantum dot ensemble,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 245316 (2011). [CrossRef]
- G. Moody, M. E. Siemens, A. D. Bristow, X. Dai, D. Karaiskaj, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and S. T. Cundiff, “Exciton-exciton and exciton-phonon interactions in an interfacial GaAs quantum dot ensemble,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 115324 (2011). [CrossRef]
- A. D. Bristow, T. Zhang, M. E. Siemens, S. T. Cundiff, and R. P. Mirin, “Separating homogeneous and inhomogeneous line widths of heavy- and light-hole excitons in weakly disordered semiconductor quantum wells,” J. Phys. Chem. B 115, 5365–5371 (2011). [CrossRef]
- D. Karaiskaj, A. D. Bristow, L. Yang, X. Dai, R. P. Mirin, S. Mukamel, and S. T. Cundiff, “Two-quantum many-body coherences in two-dimensional Fourier transform spectra of exciton resonances in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 117401 (2010). [CrossRef]
- M. E. Siemens, G. Moody, H. Li, A. D. Bristow, and S. T. Cundiff, “Resonance lineshapes in two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 18, 17699–17708 (2010). [CrossRef]
- A. D. Bristow, D. Karaiskaj, X. Dai, T. Zhang, C. Carlsson, K. R. Hagen, R. Jimenez, and S. T. Cundiff, “A versatile ultrastable platform for optical multidimensional Fourier-transform spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 073108 (2009). [CrossRef]
- A. D. Bristow, D. Karaiskaj, X. Dai, R. P. Mirin, and S. T. Cundiff, “Polarization dependence of semiconductor exciton and biexciton contributions to phase-resolved optical two-dimensional Fourier transform spectra,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 161305 (2009). [CrossRef]
- A. D. Bristow, D. Karaiskaj, X. Dai, and S. T. Cundiff, “All-optical retrieval of the global phase for two-dimensional Fourier-transform spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 16, 18017–18027(2008). [CrossRef]
- L. Yang, T. Zhang, A. D. Bristow, S. T. Cundiff, and S. Mukamel, “Isolating excitonic Raman coherence in semiconductors using two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 129, 234711 (2008). [CrossRef]
- T. Brixner, T. Mancal, I. Stiopkin, and G. Fleming, “Phase-stabilized two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 121, 4221–4236 (2004). [CrossRef]
- A. L. Smirl, M. J. Stevens, X. Chen, and O. Buccafusca, “Heavy-hole and light-hole oscillations in the coherent emission from quantum wells: evidence for exciton-exciton correlations,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 8267–8275 (1999). [CrossRef]
- X. Chen, W. J. Walecki, O. Buccafusca, D. N. Fittinghoff, and A. L. Smirl, “Temporally and spectrally resolved amplitude and phase of coherent four-wave-mixing emission from GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 9738–9743 (1997). [CrossRef]
- A. D. Bristow, D. Karaiskaj, X. Dai, T. Zhang, C. Carlsson, K. R. Hagen, R. Jimenez, and S. T. Cundiff, “A versatile ultrastable platform for optical multidimensional Fourier-transform spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 073108 (2009). [CrossRef]
- S. G. Carter, Z. Chen, and S. T. Cundiff, “Echo peak-shift spectroscopy of non-Markovian exciton dynamics in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 121303 (2007). [CrossRef]
- D. S. Chemla and J. Shah, “Many-body and correlation effects in semiconductors,” Nature 411, 549–557 (2001). [CrossRef]
- P. Kner, W. Schäfer, R. Lövenich, and D. S. Chemla, “Coherence of four-particle correlations in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5386–5389 (1998). [CrossRef]
- S. Weiss, M. A. Mycek, J. Y. Bigot, S. Schmitt-Rink, and D. S. Chemla, “Collective effects in excitonic free induction decay—do semiconductors and atoms emit coherent-light in different ways,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2685–2688 (1992). [CrossRef]
- K. Leo, M. Wegener, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, E. O. Göbel, T. C. Damen, S. Schmitt-Rink, and W. Schäfer, “Effects of coherent polarization interactions on time-resolved degenerate 4-wave-mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1340–1343 (1990). [CrossRef]
- M. Wegener, D. S. Chemla, S. Schmitt-Rink, and W. Schäfer, “Line-shape of time-resolved 4-wave-mixing,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 5675–5683 (1990). [CrossRef]
- A. L. Smirl, M. J. Stevens, X. Chen, and O. Buccafusca, “Heavy-hole and light-hole oscillations in the coherent emission from quantum wells: evidence for exciton-exciton correlations,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 8267–8275 (1999). [CrossRef]
- X. Chen, W. J. Walecki, O. Buccafusca, D. N. Fittinghoff, and A. L. Smirl, “Temporally and spectrally resolved amplitude and phase of coherent four-wave-mixing emission from GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 9738–9743 (1997). [CrossRef]
- S. G. Carter, Z. Chen, and S. T. Cundiff, “Echo peak-shift spectroscopy of non-Markovian exciton dynamics in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 121303 (2007). [CrossRef]
- J. Guest, T. Stievater, X. Li, J. Cheng, D. Steel, D. Gammon, D. Katzer, D. Park, C. Ell, A. Thranhardt, G. Khitrova, and H. Gibbs, “Measurement of optical absorption by a single quantum dot exciton,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 241310 (2002). [CrossRef]
- M. Cho, “Coherent two-dimensional optical spectroscopy,” Chem. Rev. 108, 1331–1418 (2008). [CrossRef]
- M. Cowan, J. Ogilvie, and R. Miller, “Two-dimensional spectroscopy using diffractive optics based phased-locked photon echoes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 386, 184–189 (2004). [CrossRef]
- P. C. Becker, H. L. Fragnito, C. H. B. Cruz, R. L. Fork, J. E. Cunningham, J. E. Henry, and C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond photon-echoes from band-to-band transitions in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1647–1649 (1988). [CrossRef]
- T. Zhang, I. Kuznetsova, T. Meier, X. Li, R. Mirin, P. Thomas, and S. Cundiff, “Polarization-dependent optical 2D Fourier transform spectroscopy of semiconductors,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 14227–14232 (2007). [CrossRef]
- A. D. Bristow, T. Zhang, M. E. Siemens, S. T. Cundiff, and R. P. Mirin, “Separating homogeneous and inhomogeneous line widths of heavy- and light-hole excitons in weakly disordered semiconductor quantum wells,” J. Phys. Chem. B 115, 5365–5371 (2011). [CrossRef]
- G. Moody, M. E. Siemens, A. D. Bristow, X. Dai, D. Karaiskaj, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and S. T. Cundiff, “Exciton-exciton and exciton-phonon interactions in an interfacial GaAs quantum dot ensemble,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 115324 (2011). [CrossRef]
- G. Moody, M. E. Siemens, A. D. Bristow, X. Dai, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and S. T. Cundiff, “Exciton relaxation and coupling dynamics in a GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs quantum well and quantum dot ensemble,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 245316 (2011). [CrossRef]
- D. Karaiskaj, A. D. Bristow, L. Yang, X. Dai, R. P. Mirin, S. Mukamel, and S. T. Cundiff, “Two-quantum many-body coherences in two-dimensional Fourier transform spectra of exciton resonances in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 117401 (2010). [CrossRef]
- M. E. Siemens, G. Moody, H. Li, A. D. Bristow, and S. T. Cundiff, “Resonance lineshapes in two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 18, 17699–17708 (2010). [CrossRef]
- I. Kuznetsova, N. Gogh, J. Foerstner, T. Meier, S. T. Cundiff, I. Varga, and P. Thomas, “Modeling excitonic line shapes in weakly disordered semiconductor nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 81 (2010). [CrossRef]
- K. W. Stone, D. B. Turner, K. Gundogdu, S. T. Cundiff, and K. A. Nelson, “Exciton-exciton correlations revealed by two-quantum two-dimensional Fourier transform optical spectroscopy,” Acc. Chem. Res. 42, 1452–1461 (2009). [CrossRef]
- A. D. Bristow, D. Karaiskaj, X. Dai, T. Zhang, C. Carlsson, K. R. Hagen, R. Jimenez, and S. T. Cundiff, “A versatile ultrastable platform for optical multidimensional Fourier-transform spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 073108 (2009). [CrossRef]
- K. W. Stone, K. Gundogdu, D. B. Turner, X. Li, S. T. Cundiff, and K. A. Nelson, “Two-quantum 2D FT electronic spectroscopy of biexcitons in GaAs quantum wells,” Science 324, 1169–1173 (2009). [CrossRef]
- A. D. Bristow, D. Karaiskaj, X. Dai, R. P. Mirin, and S. T. Cundiff, “Polarization dependence of semiconductor exciton and biexciton contributions to phase-resolved optical two-dimensional Fourier transform spectra,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 161305 (2009). [CrossRef]
- S. T. Cundiff, “Coherent spectroscopy of semiconductors,” Opt. Express 16, 4639–4664 (2008). [CrossRef]
- L. Yang, T. Zhang, A. D. Bristow, S. T. Cundiff, and S. Mukamel, “Isolating excitonic Raman coherence in semiconductors using two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 129, 234711 (2008). [CrossRef]
- A. D. Bristow, D. Karaiskaj, X. Dai, and S. T. Cundiff, “All-optical retrieval of the global phase for two-dimensional Fourier-transform spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 16, 18017–18027(2008). [CrossRef]
- L. J. Yang, I. V. Schweigert, S. T. Cundiff, and S. Mukamel, “Two-dimensional optical spectroscopy of excitons in semiconductor quantum wells: Liouville-space pathway analysis,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 125302 (2007). [CrossRef]
- I. Kuznetsova, P. Thomas, T. Meier, T. Zhang, X. Li, R. P. Mirin, and S. T. Cundiff, “Signatures of many-particle correlations in two-dimensional Fourier-transform spectra of semiconductor nanostructures,” Solid State Commun. 142, 154–158(2007). [CrossRef]
- S. G. Carter, Z. Chen, and S. T. Cundiff, “Echo peak-shift spectroscopy of non-Markovian exciton dynamics in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 121303 (2007). [CrossRef]
- X. Q. Li, T. H. Zhang, C. N. Borca, and S. T. Cundiff, “Many-body interactions in semiconductors probed by optical two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057406 (2006). [CrossRef]
- C. N. Borca, T. H. Zhang, X. Q. Li, and S. T. Cundiff, “Optical two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy of semiconductors,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 416, 311–315 (2005). [CrossRef]
- T. H. Zhang, C. N. Borca, X. Q. Li, and S. T. Cundiff, “Optical two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy with active interferometric stabilization,” Opt. Express 13, 7432–7441 (2005). [CrossRef]
- J. M. Shacklette and S. T. Cundiff, “Role of excitation-induced shift in the coherent optical response of semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 045309 (2002). [CrossRef]
- S. T. Cundiff, M. Koch, W. H. Knox, J. Shah, and W. Stolz, “Optical coherence in semiconductors: strong emission mediated by nondegenerate interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1107–1110 (1996). [CrossRef]
- Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, S. W. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, H. Wang, and D. G. Steel, “Excitation and polarization effects in semiconductor 4-wave-mixing spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 14382–14386 (1994). [CrossRef]
- S. T. Cundiff, “Effects of correlation between inhomogeneously broadened transitions on quantum beats in transient 4-wave-mixing,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 3114–3118 (1994). [CrossRef]
- M. Koch, J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, S. T. Cundiff, E. O. Göbel, P. Thomas, and K. Köhler, “Koch et al. reply,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 210 (1994). [CrossRef]
- K. Bott, O. Heller, D. Bennhardt, S. T. Cundiff, P. Thomas, E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, R. Eccleston, J. Kuhl, and K. Ploog, “Influence of exciton-exciton interactions on the coherent optical-response in GaAs quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 17418–17426(1993). [CrossRef]
- S. T. Cundiff and D. G. Steel, “Coherent transient spectroscopy of excitons in GaAs-AlGaAs quantum-wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2423–2433 (1992). [CrossRef]
- S. T. Cundiff, H. Wang, and D. G. Steel, “Polarization-dependent picosecond excitonic nonlinearities and the complexities of disorder,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 7248–7251 (1992). [CrossRef]
- M. D. Webb, S. T. Cundiff, and D. G. Steel, “Stimulated-picosecond-photon-echo studies of localized exciton relaxation and dephasing in GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs multiple quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 12658–12661 (1991). [CrossRef]
- M. D. Webb, S. T. Cundiff, and D. G. Steel, “Observation of time-resolved picosecond stimulated photon-echoes and free polarization decay in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 934–937 (1991). [CrossRef]
- D. S. Kim, J. Shah, J. E. Cunningham, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, M. Hartmann, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Giant excitonic resonance in time-resolved 4-wave-mixing in quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1006–1009 (1992). [CrossRef]
- P. C. Becker, H. L. Fragnito, C. H. B. Cruz, R. L. Fork, J. E. Cunningham, J. E. Henry, and C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond photon-echoes from band-to-band transitions in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1647–1649 (1988). [CrossRef]
- G. Moody, M. E. Siemens, A. D. Bristow, X. Dai, D. Karaiskaj, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and S. T. Cundiff, “Exciton-exciton and exciton-phonon interactions in an interfacial GaAs quantum dot ensemble,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 115324 (2011). [CrossRef]
- G. Moody, M. E. Siemens, A. D. Bristow, X. Dai, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and S. T. Cundiff, “Exciton relaxation and coupling dynamics in a GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs quantum well and quantum dot ensemble,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 245316 (2011). [CrossRef]
- D. Karaiskaj, A. D. Bristow, L. Yang, X. Dai, R. P. Mirin, S. Mukamel, and S. T. Cundiff, “Two-quantum many-body coherences in two-dimensional Fourier transform spectra of exciton resonances in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 117401 (2010). [CrossRef]
- A. D. Bristow, D. Karaiskaj, X. Dai, R. P. Mirin, and S. T. Cundiff, “Polarization dependence of semiconductor exciton and biexciton contributions to phase-resolved optical two-dimensional Fourier transform spectra,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 161305 (2009). [CrossRef]
- A. D. Bristow, D. Karaiskaj, X. Dai, T. Zhang, C. Carlsson, K. R. Hagen, R. Jimenez, and S. T. Cundiff, “A versatile ultrastable platform for optical multidimensional Fourier-transform spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 073108 (2009). [CrossRef]
- A. D. Bristow, D. Karaiskaj, X. Dai, and S. T. Cundiff, “All-optical retrieval of the global phase for two-dimensional Fourier-transform spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 16, 18017–18027(2008). [CrossRef]
- H. Wang, J. Shah, T. Damen, and L. Pfeiffer, “Polarization-dependent coherent nonlinear optical response in GaAs quantum wells: dominant effects of two-photon coherence between ground and biexciton states,” Solid State Commun. 91, 869–874 (1994). [CrossRef]
- D. S. Kim, J. Shah, J. E. Cunningham, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, M. Hartmann, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Giant excitonic resonance in time-resolved 4-wave-mixing in quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1006–1009 (1992). [CrossRef]
- D. S. Kim, J. Shah, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, F. Jahnke, S. Schmitt-Rink, and K. Köhler, “Unusually slow temporal evolution of femtosecond 4-wave-mixing signals in intrinsic GaAs quantum-wells—direct evidence for the dominance of interaction effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2725–2728 (1992). [CrossRef]
- K. Leo, M. Wegener, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, E. O. Göbel, T. C. Damen, S. Schmitt-Rink, and W. Schäfer, “Effects of coherent polarization interactions on time-resolved degenerate 4-wave-mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1340–1343 (1990). [CrossRef]
- E. O. Göbel, K. Leo, T. C. Damen, J. Shah, S. Schmitt-Rink, W. Schäfer, J. F. Muller, and K. Köhler, “Quantum beats of excitons in quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1801–1804 (1990). [CrossRef]
- K. Leo, T. C. Damen, J. Shah, E. O. Göbel, and K. Kohler, “Quantum beats of light hole and heavy hole excitons in quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 19–21 (1990). [CrossRef]
- M. Khalil, N. Demirdoven, and A. Tokmakoff, “Obtaining absorptive line shapes in two-dimensional infrared vibrational correlation spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 047401 (2003). [CrossRef]
- D. J. Lovering, R. T. Phillips, G. J. Denton, and G. W. Smith, “Resonant generation of biexcitons in a GaAs quantum-well,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1880–1883 (1992). [CrossRef]
- K. Bott, O. Heller, D. Bennhardt, S. T. Cundiff, P. Thomas, E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, R. Eccleston, J. Kuhl, and K. Ploog, “Influence of exciton-exciton interactions on the coherent optical-response in GaAs quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 17418–17426(1993). [CrossRef]
- D. Bennhardt, P. Thomas, R. Eccleston, E. J. Mayer, and J. Kuhl, “Polarization dependence of four-wave-mixing signals in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 13485–13490 (1993). [CrossRef]
- R. Eccleston, J. Kuhl, D. Bennhardt, and P. Thomas, “Intensity dependent four-wave-mixing polarization rules in quantum wells,” Solid State Commun. 86, 93–97 (1993). [CrossRef]
- B. Feuerbacher, J. Kuhl, R. Eccleston, and K. Ploog, “Quantum beats between the light and heavy hole excitons in a quantum well,” Solid State Commun. 74, 1279–1283 (1990). [CrossRef]
- J. Guest, T. Stievater, X. Li, J. Cheng, D. Steel, D. Gammon, D. Katzer, D. Park, C. Ell, A. Thranhardt, G. Khitrova, and H. Gibbs, “Measurement of optical absorption by a single quantum dot exciton,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 241310 (2002). [CrossRef]
- R. J. Elliott, “Intensity of optical absorption by excitons,” Phys. Rev. 108, 1384–1389 (1957). [CrossRef]
- V. G. Lyssenko, J. Erland, I. Balslev, K. H. Pantke, B. S. Razbirin, and J. M. Hvam, “Nature of nonlinear 4-wave-mixing beats in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 5720–5723 (1993). [CrossRef]
- R. R. Ernst, G. Bodenhausen, and A. Wokaun, Principles of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in One and Two Dimensions(Oxford Science, Oxford, 1987).
- S. Weiser, T. Meier, J. Mobius, A. Euteneuer, E. J. Mayer, W. Stolz, M. Hofmann, W. W. Ruhle, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, “Disorder-induced dephasing in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 13088–13098 (2000). [CrossRef]
- M. Koch, J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, S. T. Cundiff, E. O. Göbel, P. Thomas, and K. Köhler, “Koch et al. reply,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 210 (1994). [CrossRef]
- M. Koch, J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, E. O. Göbel, P. Thomas, and K. Kohler, “Quantum beats versus polarization interference—an experimental distinction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3631–3634 (1992). [CrossRef]
- H. L. Wang, K. Ferrio, D. G. Steel, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Transient nonlinear-optical response from excitation induced dephasing in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1261–1264 (1993). [CrossRef]
- K. B. Ferrio and D. G. Steel, “Raman quantum beats of interacting excitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 786–789 (1998). [CrossRef]
- K. B. Ferrio and D. G. Steel, “Observation of the ultrafast two-photon coherent biexciton oscillation in a GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs multiple quantum well,” Phys. Rev. B 54, R5231–R5234(1996). [CrossRef]
- H. Wang, K. B. Ferrio, D. G. Steel, P. R. Berman, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Transient 4-wave-mixing line-shapes—effects of excitation-induced dephasing,” Phys. Rev. A 49, R1551–R1554 (1994). [CrossRef]
- J. Hybl, A. Ferro, and D. Jonas, “Two-dimensional Fourier transform electronic spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 115, 6606–6622 (2001). [CrossRef]
- B. Feuerbacher, J. Kuhl, R. Eccleston, and K. Ploog, “Quantum beats between the light and heavy hole excitons in a quantum well,” Solid State Commun. 74, 1279–1283 (1990). [CrossRef]
- B. F. Feuerbacher, J. Kuhl, and K. Ploog, “Biexcitonic contribution to the degenerate-4-wave-mixing signal from a GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs quantum-well,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 2439–2441(1991). [CrossRef]
- X. Chen, W. J. Walecki, O. Buccafusca, D. N. Fittinghoff, and A. L. Smirl, “Temporally and spectrally resolved amplitude and phase of coherent four-wave-mixing emission from GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 9738–9743 (1997). [CrossRef]
- T. Brixner, T. Mancal, I. Stiopkin, and G. Fleming, “Phase-stabilized two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 121, 4221–4236 (2004). [CrossRef]
- I. Kuznetsova, N. Gogh, J. Foerstner, T. Meier, S. T. Cundiff, I. Varga, and P. Thomas, “Modeling excitonic line shapes in weakly disordered semiconductor nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 81 (2010). [CrossRef]
- P. C. Becker, H. L. Fragnito, C. H. B. Cruz, R. L. Fork, J. E. Cunningham, J. E. Henry, and C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond photon-echoes from band-to-band transitions in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1647–1649 (1988). [CrossRef]
- P. C. Becker, H. L. Fragnito, C. H. B. Cruz, R. L. Fork, J. E. Cunningham, J. E. Henry, and C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond photon-echoes from band-to-band transitions in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1647–1649 (1988). [CrossRef]
- G. Moody, M. E. Siemens, A. D. Bristow, X. Dai, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and S. T. Cundiff, “Exciton relaxation and coupling dynamics in a GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs quantum well and quantum dot ensemble,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 245316 (2011). [CrossRef]
- G. Moody, M. E. Siemens, A. D. Bristow, X. Dai, D. Karaiskaj, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and S. T. Cundiff, “Exciton-exciton and exciton-phonon interactions in an interfacial GaAs quantum dot ensemble,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 115324 (2011). [CrossRef]
- J. Guest, T. Stievater, X. Li, J. Cheng, D. Steel, D. Gammon, D. Katzer, D. Park, C. Ell, A. Thranhardt, G. Khitrova, and H. Gibbs, “Measurement of optical absorption by a single quantum dot exciton,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 241310 (2002). [CrossRef]
- D. Gammon, E. Snow, B. Shanabrook, D. Katzer, and D. Park, “Homogeneous linewidths in the optical spectrum of a single gallium arsenide quantum dot,” Science 273, 87–90 (1996). [CrossRef]
- S. A. Hawkins, E. J. Gansen, M. J. Stevens, A. L. Smirl, I. Rumyantsev, R. Takayama, N. H. Kwong, R. Binder, and D. G. Steel, “Differential measurements of Raman coherence and two-exciton correlations in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 035313 (2003). [CrossRef]
- L. Andreani, G. Panzarini, and J.-M. Gérard, “Vacuum—field rabi splitting for quantum boxes in pillar microcavities?,” Phys. Stat. Sol. A 178, 145–148 (2000). [CrossRef]
- J. Guest, T. Stievater, X. Li, J. Cheng, D. Steel, D. Gammon, D. Katzer, D. Park, C. Ell, A. Thranhardt, G. Khitrova, and H. Gibbs, “Measurement of optical absorption by a single quantum dot exciton,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 241310 (2002). [CrossRef]
- M. Koch, J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, S. T. Cundiff, E. O. Göbel, P. Thomas, and K. Köhler, “Koch et al. reply,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 210 (1994). [CrossRef]
- M. Koch, J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, E. O. Göbel, P. Thomas, and K. Kohler, “Quantum beats versus polarization interference—an experimental distinction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3631–3634 (1992). [CrossRef]
- E. O. Göbel, K. Leo, T. C. Damen, J. Shah, S. Schmitt-Rink, W. Schäfer, J. F. Muller, and K. Köhler, “Quantum beats of excitons in quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1801–1804 (1990). [CrossRef]
- K. Leo, T. C. Damen, J. Shah, E. O. Göbel, and K. Kohler, “Quantum beats of light hole and heavy hole excitons in quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 19–21 (1990). [CrossRef]
- K. Leo, M. Wegener, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, E. O. Göbel, T. C. Damen, S. Schmitt-Rink, and W. Schäfer, “Effects of coherent polarization interactions on time-resolved degenerate 4-wave-mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1340–1343 (1990). [CrossRef]
- G. Noll, U. Siegner, S. G. Shevel, and E. O. Göbel, “Picosecond stimulated photon-echo due to intrinsic excitations in semiconductor mixed-crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 792–795 (1990). [CrossRef]
- I. Kuznetsova, N. Gogh, J. Foerstner, T. Meier, S. T. Cundiff, I. Varga, and P. Thomas, “Modeling excitonic line shapes in weakly disordered semiconductor nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 81 (2010). [CrossRef]
- J. Hegarty, M. D. Sturge, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Resonant degenerate 4-wave mixing in GaAs multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 132–134 (1982). [CrossRef]
- D. Bimberg, M. Grundmann, and N. N. Ledentsov, Quantum Dot Heterostructures (Wiley, 1999).
- J. Guest, T. Stievater, X. Li, J. Cheng, D. Steel, D. Gammon, D. Katzer, D. Park, C. Ell, A. Thranhardt, G. Khitrova, and H. Gibbs, “Measurement of optical absorption by a single quantum dot exciton,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 241310 (2002). [CrossRef]
- K. W. Stone, D. B. Turner, K. Gundogdu, S. T. Cundiff, and K. A. Nelson, “Exciton-exciton correlations revealed by two-quantum two-dimensional Fourier transform optical spectroscopy,” Acc. Chem. Res. 42, 1452–1461 (2009). [CrossRef]
- K. W. Stone, K. Gundogdu, D. B. Turner, X. Li, S. T. Cundiff, and K. A. Nelson, “Two-quantum 2D FT electronic spectroscopy of biexcitons in GaAs quantum wells,” Science 324, 1169–1173 (2009). [CrossRef]
- A. D. Bristow, D. Karaiskaj, X. Dai, T. Zhang, C. Carlsson, K. R. Hagen, R. Jimenez, and S. T. Cundiff, “A versatile ultrastable platform for optical multidimensional Fourier-transform spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 073108 (2009). [CrossRef]
- E. Hahn, “Spin echoes,” Phys. Rev. 80, 580–594 (1950). [CrossRef]
- D. S. Kim, J. Shah, J. E. Cunningham, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, M. Hartmann, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Giant excitonic resonance in time-resolved 4-wave-mixing in quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1006–1009 (1992). [CrossRef]
- I. Abella, N. Kurnit, and S. Hartmann, “Photon echoes,” Phys. Rev. 141, 391–406 (1966). [CrossRef]
- N. Kurnit, S. Hartmann, and I. Abella, “Observation of photon echo,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 567–568 (1964). [CrossRef]
- S. A. Hawkins, E. J. Gansen, M. J. Stevens, A. L. Smirl, I. Rumyantsev, R. Takayama, N. H. Kwong, R. Binder, and D. G. Steel, “Differential measurements of Raman coherence and two-exciton correlations in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 035313 (2003). [CrossRef]
- L. Schultheis, M. D. Sturge, and J. Hegarty, “Photon-echoes from two-dimensional excitons in GaAs-AlGaAs quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 995–997 (1985). [CrossRef]
- J. Hegarty, M. D. Sturge, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Resonant degenerate 4-wave mixing in GaAs multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 132–134 (1982). [CrossRef]
- K. Bott, O. Heller, D. Bennhardt, S. T. Cundiff, P. Thomas, E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, R. Eccleston, J. Kuhl, and K. Ploog, “Influence of exciton-exciton interactions on the coherent optical-response in GaAs quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 17418–17426(1993). [CrossRef]
- P. C. Becker, H. L. Fragnito, C. H. B. Cruz, R. L. Fork, J. E. Cunningham, J. E. Henry, and C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond photon-echoes from band-to-band transitions in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1647–1649 (1988). [CrossRef]
- E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heuckeroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, D. Bennhardt, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Evidence of biexcitonic contributions to 4-wave-mixing in GaAs quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14730–14733 (1994). [CrossRef]
- E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heuckeroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, D. Bennhardt, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Evidence of biexcitonic contributions to 4-wave-mixing in GaAs quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14730–14733 (1994). [CrossRef]
- S. Weiser, T. Meier, J. Mobius, A. Euteneuer, E. J. Mayer, W. Stolz, M. Hofmann, W. W. Ruhle, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, “Disorder-induced dephasing in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 13088–13098 (2000). [CrossRef]
- L. Schultheis, J. Kuhl, A. Honold, and C. W. Tu, “Ultrafast phase relaxation of excitons via exciton-exciton and exciton-electron collisions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1635–1638 (1986). [CrossRef]
- L. Schultheis, J. Kuhl, A. Honold, and C. W. Tu, “Picosecond phase coherence and orientational relaxation of excitons in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1797–1800 (1986). [CrossRef]
- L. Schultheis, A. Honold, J. Kuhl, K. Köhler, and C. W. Tu, “Optical dephasing of homogeneously broadened two-dimensional exciton-transitions in GaAs quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 9027–9030 (1986). [CrossRef]
- M. Lindberg, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “χ(3) formalism in optically-excited semiconductors and its applications in 4-wave-mixing spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 18060–18072 (1994). [CrossRef]
- Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, S. W. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, H. Wang, and D. G. Steel, “Excitation and polarization effects in semiconductor 4-wave-mixing spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 14382–14386 (1994). [CrossRef]
- H. Wang, K. B. Ferrio, D. G. Steel, P. R. Berman, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Transient 4-wave-mixing line-shapes—effects of excitation-induced dephasing,” Phys. Rev. A 49, R1551–R1554 (1994). [CrossRef]
- H. L. Wang, K. Ferrio, D. G. Steel, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Transient nonlinear-optical response from excitation induced dephasing in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1261–1264 (1993). [CrossRef]
- D. Birkedal, V. G. Lyssenko, J. M. Hvam, and K. E. Sayed, “Continuum contribution to excitonic four-wave mixing due to interaction-induced nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. B 54, R14250–R14253 (1996). [CrossRef]
- V. G. Lyssenko, J. Erland, I. Balslev, K. H. Pantke, B. S. Razbirin, and J. M. Hvam, “Nature of nonlinear 4-wave-mixing beats in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 5720–5723 (1993). [CrossRef]
- X. Zhu, M. S. Hybertsen, and P. B. Littlewood, “Quantum beats in photon echo from four-waving mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 209 (1994). [CrossRef]
- J. Hybl, A. Ferro, and D. Jonas, “Two-dimensional Fourier transform electronic spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 115, 6606–6622 (2001). [CrossRef]
- W. Schäfer, F. Jahnke, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Many-particle effects on transient 4-wave-mixing signals in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 1217–1220 (1993). [CrossRef]
- D. S. Kim, J. Shah, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, F. Jahnke, S. Schmitt-Rink, and K. Köhler, “Unusually slow temporal evolution of femtosecond 4-wave-mixing signals in intrinsic GaAs quantum-wells—direct evidence for the dominance of interaction effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2725–2728 (1992). [CrossRef]
- A. D. Bristow, D. Karaiskaj, X. Dai, T. Zhang, C. Carlsson, K. R. Hagen, R. Jimenez, and S. T. Cundiff, “A versatile ultrastable platform for optical multidimensional Fourier-transform spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 073108 (2009). [CrossRef]
- D. Jonas, “Two-dimensional femtosecond spectroscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 54, 425–463 (2003). [CrossRef]
- J. Hybl, A. Ferro, and D. Jonas, “Two-dimensional Fourier transform electronic spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 115, 6606–6622 (2001). [CrossRef]
- G. Moody, M. E. Siemens, A. D. Bristow, X. Dai, D. Karaiskaj, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and S. T. Cundiff, “Exciton-exciton and exciton-phonon interactions in an interfacial GaAs quantum dot ensemble,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 115324 (2011). [CrossRef]
- D. Karaiskaj, A. D. Bristow, L. Yang, X. Dai, R. P. Mirin, S. Mukamel, and S. T. Cundiff, “Two-quantum many-body coherences in two-dimensional Fourier transform spectra of exciton resonances in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 117401 (2010). [CrossRef]
- A. D. Bristow, D. Karaiskaj, X. Dai, R. P. Mirin, and S. T. Cundiff, “Polarization dependence of semiconductor exciton and biexciton contributions to phase-resolved optical two-dimensional Fourier transform spectra,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 161305 (2009). [CrossRef]
- A. D. Bristow, D. Karaiskaj, X. Dai, T. Zhang, C. Carlsson, K. R. Hagen, R. Jimenez, and S. T. Cundiff, “A versatile ultrastable platform for optical multidimensional Fourier-transform spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 073108 (2009). [CrossRef]
- A. D. Bristow, D. Karaiskaj, X. Dai, and S. T. Cundiff, “All-optical retrieval of the global phase for two-dimensional Fourier-transform spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 16, 18017–18027(2008). [CrossRef]
- J. Kasprzak, B. Patton, V. Savona, and W. Langbein, “Coherent coupling between distant excitons revealed by two-dimensional nonlinear hyperspectral imaging,” Nat. Photon. 5, 57–63(2011). [CrossRef]
- J. Guest, T. Stievater, X. Li, J. Cheng, D. Steel, D. Gammon, D. Katzer, D. Park, C. Ell, A. Thranhardt, G. Khitrova, and H. Gibbs, “Measurement of optical absorption by a single quantum dot exciton,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 241310 (2002). [CrossRef]
- D. Gammon, E. Snow, B. Shanabrook, D. Katzer, and D. Park, “Homogeneous linewidths in the optical spectrum of a single gallium arsenide quantum dot,” Science 273, 87–90 (1996). [CrossRef]
- P. Tian, D. Keusters, Y. Suzaki, and W. Warren, “Femtosecond phase-coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy,” Science 300, 1553–1555 (2003). [CrossRef]
- M. Khalil, N. Demirdoven, and A. Tokmakoff, “Obtaining absorptive line shapes in two-dimensional infrared vibrational correlation spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 047401 (2003). [CrossRef]
- J. Guest, T. Stievater, X. Li, J. Cheng, D. Steel, D. Gammon, D. Katzer, D. Park, C. Ell, A. Thranhardt, G. Khitrova, and H. Gibbs, “Measurement of optical absorption by a single quantum dot exciton,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 241310 (2002). [CrossRef]
- D. S. Kim, J. Shah, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, F. Jahnke, S. Schmitt-Rink, and K. Köhler, “Unusually slow temporal evolution of femtosecond 4-wave-mixing signals in intrinsic GaAs quantum-wells—direct evidence for the dominance of interaction effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2725–2728 (1992). [CrossRef]
- D. S. Kim, J. Shah, J. E. Cunningham, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, M. Hartmann, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Giant excitonic resonance in time-resolved 4-wave-mixing in quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1006–1009 (1992). [CrossRef]
- D. A. Kleinman, “Binding energy of biexcitons and bound excitons in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 28, 871–879 (1983). [CrossRef]
- P. Kner, W. Schäfer, R. Lövenich, and D. S. Chemla, “Coherence of four-particle correlations in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5386–5389 (1998). [CrossRef]
- S. T. Cundiff, M. Koch, W. H. Knox, J. Shah, and W. Stolz, “Optical coherence in semiconductors: strong emission mediated by nondegenerate interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1107–1110 (1996). [CrossRef]
- S. T. Cundiff, M. Koch, W. H. Knox, J. Shah, and W. Stolz, “Optical coherence in semiconductors: strong emission mediated by nondegenerate interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1107–1110 (1996). [CrossRef]
- M. Koch, J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, S. T. Cundiff, E. O. Göbel, P. Thomas, and K. Köhler, “Koch et al. reply,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 210 (1994). [CrossRef]
- M. Koch, J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, E. O. Göbel, P. Thomas, and K. Kohler, “Quantum beats versus polarization interference—an experimental distinction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3631–3634 (1992). [CrossRef]
- S. Weiser, T. Meier, J. Mobius, A. Euteneuer, E. J. Mayer, W. Stolz, M. Hofmann, W. W. Ruhle, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, “Disorder-induced dephasing in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 13088–13098 (2000). [CrossRef]
- H. Wang, K. B. Ferrio, D. G. Steel, P. R. Berman, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Transient 4-wave-mixing line-shapes—effects of excitation-induced dephasing,” Phys. Rev. A 49, R1551–R1554 (1994). [CrossRef]
- E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heuckeroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, D. Bennhardt, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Evidence of biexcitonic contributions to 4-wave-mixing in GaAs quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14730–14733 (1994). [CrossRef]
- M. Lindberg, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “χ(3) formalism in optically-excited semiconductors and its applications in 4-wave-mixing spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 18060–18072 (1994). [CrossRef]
- Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, S. W. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, H. Wang, and D. G. Steel, “Excitation and polarization effects in semiconductor 4-wave-mixing spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 14382–14386 (1994). [CrossRef]
- H. L. Wang, K. Ferrio, D. G. Steel, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Transient nonlinear-optical response from excitation induced dephasing in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1261–1264 (1993). [CrossRef]
- M. Lindberg, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Theory of the semiconductor photon-echo,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 1865–1875 (1992). [CrossRef]
- M. Koch, J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, E. O. Göbel, P. Thomas, and K. Kohler, “Quantum beats versus polarization interference—an experimental distinction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3631–3634 (1992). [CrossRef]
- K. Leo, T. C. Damen, J. Shah, E. O. Göbel, and K. Kohler, “Quantum beats of light hole and heavy hole excitons in quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 19–21 (1990). [CrossRef]
- M. Koch, J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, S. T. Cundiff, E. O. Göbel, P. Thomas, and K. Köhler, “Koch et al. reply,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 210 (1994). [CrossRef]
- D. S. Kim, J. Shah, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, F. Jahnke, S. Schmitt-Rink, and K. Köhler, “Unusually slow temporal evolution of femtosecond 4-wave-mixing signals in intrinsic GaAs quantum-wells—direct evidence for the dominance of interaction effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2725–2728 (1992). [CrossRef]
- E. O. Göbel, K. Leo, T. C. Damen, J. Shah, S. Schmitt-Rink, W. Schäfer, J. F. Muller, and K. Köhler, “Quantum beats of excitons in quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1801–1804 (1990). [CrossRef]
- L. Schultheis, A. Honold, J. Kuhl, K. Köhler, and C. W. Tu, “Optical dephasing of homogeneously broadened two-dimensional exciton-transitions in GaAs quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 9027–9030 (1986). [CrossRef]
- E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heuckeroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, D. Bennhardt, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Evidence of biexcitonic contributions to 4-wave-mixing in GaAs quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14730–14733 (1994). [CrossRef]
- K. Bott, O. Heller, D. Bennhardt, S. T. Cundiff, P. Thomas, E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, R. Eccleston, J. Kuhl, and K. Ploog, “Influence of exciton-exciton interactions on the coherent optical-response in GaAs quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 17418–17426(1993). [CrossRef]
- D. Bennhardt, P. Thomas, R. Eccleston, E. J. Mayer, and J. Kuhl, “Polarization dependence of four-wave-mixing signals in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 13485–13490 (1993). [CrossRef]
- R. Eccleston, J. Kuhl, D. Bennhardt, and P. Thomas, “Intensity dependent four-wave-mixing polarization rules in quantum wells,” Solid State Commun. 86, 93–97 (1993). [CrossRef]
- B. F. Feuerbacher, J. Kuhl, and K. Ploog, “Biexcitonic contribution to the degenerate-4-wave-mixing signal from a GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs quantum-well,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 2439–2441(1991). [CrossRef]
- B. Feuerbacher, J. Kuhl, R. Eccleston, and K. Ploog, “Quantum beats between the light and heavy hole excitons in a quantum well,” Solid State Commun. 74, 1279–1283 (1990). [CrossRef]
- L. Schultheis, A. Honold, J. Kuhl, K. Köhler, and C. W. Tu, “Optical dephasing of homogeneously broadened two-dimensional exciton-transitions in GaAs quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 9027–9030 (1986). [CrossRef]
- L. Schultheis, J. Kuhl, A. Honold, and C. W. Tu, “Picosecond phase coherence and orientational relaxation of excitons in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1797–1800 (1986). [CrossRef]
- L. Schultheis, J. Kuhl, A. Honold, and C. W. Tu, “Ultrafast phase relaxation of excitons via exciton-exciton and exciton-electron collisions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1635–1638 (1986). [CrossRef]
- I. Abella, N. Kurnit, and S. Hartmann, “Photon echoes,” Phys. Rev. 141, 391–406 (1966). [CrossRef]
- N. Kurnit, S. Hartmann, and I. Abella, “Observation of photon echo,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 567–568 (1964). [CrossRef]
- I. Kuznetsova, N. Gogh, J. Foerstner, T. Meier, S. T. Cundiff, I. Varga, and P. Thomas, “Modeling excitonic line shapes in weakly disordered semiconductor nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 81 (2010). [CrossRef]
- I. Kuznetsova, P. Thomas, T. Meier, T. Zhang, X. Li, R. P. Mirin, and S. T. Cundiff, “Signatures of many-particle correlations in two-dimensional Fourier-transform spectra of semiconductor nanostructures,” Solid State Commun. 142, 154–158(2007). [CrossRef]
- T. Zhang, I. Kuznetsova, T. Meier, X. Li, R. Mirin, P. Thomas, and S. Cundiff, “Polarization-dependent optical 2D Fourier transform spectroscopy of semiconductors,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 14227–14232 (2007). [CrossRef]
- S. A. Hawkins, E. J. Gansen, M. J. Stevens, A. L. Smirl, I. Rumyantsev, R. Takayama, N. H. Kwong, R. Binder, and D. G. Steel, “Differential measurements of Raman coherence and two-exciton correlations in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 035313 (2003). [CrossRef]
- J. Kasprzak, B. Patton, V. Savona, and W. Langbein, “Coherent coupling between distant excitons revealed by two-dimensional nonlinear hyperspectral imaging,” Nat. Photon. 5, 57–63(2011). [CrossRef]
- D. Bimberg, M. Grundmann, and N. N. Ledentsov, Quantum Dot Heterostructures (Wiley, 1999).
- E. O. Göbel, K. Leo, T. C. Damen, J. Shah, S. Schmitt-Rink, W. Schäfer, J. F. Muller, and K. Köhler, “Quantum beats of excitons in quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1801–1804 (1990). [CrossRef]
- K. Leo, T. C. Damen, J. Shah, E. O. Göbel, and K. Kohler, “Quantum beats of light hole and heavy hole excitons in quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 19–21 (1990). [CrossRef]
- K. Leo, M. Wegener, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, E. O. Göbel, T. C. Damen, S. Schmitt-Rink, and W. Schäfer, “Effects of coherent polarization interactions on time-resolved degenerate 4-wave-mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1340–1343 (1990). [CrossRef]
- K. W. Stone, K. Gundogdu, D. B. Turner, X. Li, S. T. Cundiff, and K. A. Nelson, “Two-quantum 2D FT electronic spectroscopy of biexcitons in GaAs quantum wells,” Science 324, 1169–1173 (2009). [CrossRef]
- I. Kuznetsova, P. Thomas, T. Meier, T. Zhang, X. Li, R. P. Mirin, and S. T. Cundiff, “Signatures of many-particle correlations in two-dimensional Fourier-transform spectra of semiconductor nanostructures,” Solid State Commun. 142, 154–158(2007). [CrossRef]
- T. Zhang, I. Kuznetsova, T. Meier, X. Li, R. Mirin, P. Thomas, and S. Cundiff, “Polarization-dependent optical 2D Fourier transform spectroscopy of semiconductors,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 14227–14232 (2007). [CrossRef]
- J. Guest, T. Stievater, X. Li, J. Cheng, D. Steel, D. Gammon, D. Katzer, D. Park, C. Ell, A. Thranhardt, G. Khitrova, and H. Gibbs, “Measurement of optical absorption by a single quantum dot exciton,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 241310 (2002). [CrossRef]
- X. Q. Li, T. H. Zhang, C. N. Borca, and S. T. Cundiff, “Many-body interactions in semiconductors probed by optical two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057406 (2006). [CrossRef]
- C. N. Borca, T. H. Zhang, X. Q. Li, and S. T. Cundiff, “Optical two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy of semiconductors,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 416, 311–315 (2005). [CrossRef]
- T. H. Zhang, C. N. Borca, X. Q. Li, and S. T. Cundiff, “Optical two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy with active interferometric stabilization,” Opt. Express 13, 7432–7441 (2005). [CrossRef]
- M. Lindberg, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “χ(3) formalism in optically-excited semiconductors and its applications in 4-wave-mixing spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 18060–18072 (1994). [CrossRef]
- M. Lindberg, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Theory of the semiconductor photon-echo,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 1865–1875 (1992). [CrossRef]
- X. Zhu, M. S. Hybertsen, and P. B. Littlewood, “Quantum beats in photon echo from four-waving mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 209 (1994). [CrossRef]
- P. F. Tekavec, G. A. Lott, and A. H. Marcus, “Fluorescence-detected two-dimensional electronic coherence spectroscopy by acousto-optic phase modulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 127, 214307 (2007). [CrossRef]
- P. Kner, W. Schäfer, R. Lövenich, and D. S. Chemla, “Coherence of four-particle correlations in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5386–5389 (1998). [CrossRef]
- D. J. Lovering, R. T. Phillips, G. J. Denton, and G. W. Smith, “Resonant generation of biexcitons in a GaAs quantum-well,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1880–1883 (1992). [CrossRef]
- D. Birkedal, V. G. Lyssenko, J. M. Hvam, and K. E. Sayed, “Continuum contribution to excitonic four-wave mixing due to interaction-induced nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. B 54, R14250–R14253 (1996). [CrossRef]
- V. G. Lyssenko, J. Erland, I. Balslev, K. H. Pantke, B. S. Razbirin, and J. M. Hvam, “Nature of nonlinear 4-wave-mixing beats in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 5720–5723 (1993). [CrossRef]
- O. Madelung, Semiconductor Data Handbook (Springer, 2006).
- T. Brixner, T. Mancal, I. Stiopkin, and G. Fleming, “Phase-stabilized two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 121, 4221–4236 (2004). [CrossRef]
- P. F. Tekavec, G. A. Lott, and A. H. Marcus, “Fluorescence-detected two-dimensional electronic coherence spectroscopy by acousto-optic phase modulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 127, 214307 (2007). [CrossRef]
- S. Weiser, T. Meier, J. Mobius, A. Euteneuer, E. J. Mayer, W. Stolz, M. Hofmann, W. W. Ruhle, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, “Disorder-induced dephasing in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 13088–13098 (2000). [CrossRef]
- E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heuckeroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, D. Bennhardt, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Evidence of biexcitonic contributions to 4-wave-mixing in GaAs quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14730–14733 (1994). [CrossRef]
- K. Bott, O. Heller, D. Bennhardt, S. T. Cundiff, P. Thomas, E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, R. Eccleston, J. Kuhl, and K. Ploog, “Influence of exciton-exciton interactions on the coherent optical-response in GaAs quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 17418–17426(1993). [CrossRef]
- D. Bennhardt, P. Thomas, R. Eccleston, E. J. Mayer, and J. Kuhl, “Polarization dependence of four-wave-mixing signals in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 13485–13490 (1993). [CrossRef]
- I. Kuznetsova, N. Gogh, J. Foerstner, T. Meier, S. T. Cundiff, I. Varga, and P. Thomas, “Modeling excitonic line shapes in weakly disordered semiconductor nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 81 (2010). [CrossRef]
- I. Kuznetsova, P. Thomas, T. Meier, T. Zhang, X. Li, R. P. Mirin, and S. T. Cundiff, “Signatures of many-particle correlations in two-dimensional Fourier-transform spectra of semiconductor nanostructures,” Solid State Commun. 142, 154–158(2007). [CrossRef]
- T. Zhang, I. Kuznetsova, T. Meier, X. Li, R. Mirin, P. Thomas, and S. Cundiff, “Polarization-dependent optical 2D Fourier transform spectroscopy of semiconductors,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 14227–14232 (2007). [CrossRef]
- S. Weiser, T. Meier, J. Mobius, A. Euteneuer, E. J. Mayer, W. Stolz, M. Hofmann, W. W. Ruhle, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, “Disorder-induced dephasing in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 13088–13098 (2000). [CrossRef]
- E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heuckeroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, D. Bennhardt, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Evidence of biexcitonic contributions to 4-wave-mixing in GaAs quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14730–14733 (1994). [CrossRef]
- M. Cowan, J. Ogilvie, and R. Miller, “Two-dimensional spectroscopy using diffractive optics based phased-locked photon echoes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 386, 184–189 (2004). [CrossRef]
- T. Zhang, I. Kuznetsova, T. Meier, X. Li, R. Mirin, P. Thomas, and S. Cundiff, “Polarization-dependent optical 2D Fourier transform spectroscopy of semiconductors,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 14227–14232 (2007). [CrossRef]
- A. D. Bristow, T. Zhang, M. E. Siemens, S. T. Cundiff, and R. P. Mirin, “Separating homogeneous and inhomogeneous line widths of heavy- and light-hole excitons in weakly disordered semiconductor quantum wells,” J. Phys. Chem. B 115, 5365–5371 (2011). [CrossRef]
- D. Karaiskaj, A. D. Bristow, L. Yang, X. Dai, R. P. Mirin, S. Mukamel, and S. T. Cundiff, “Two-quantum many-body coherences in two-dimensional Fourier transform spectra of exciton resonances in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 117401 (2010). [CrossRef]
- A. D. Bristow, D. Karaiskaj, X. Dai, R. P. Mirin, and S. T. Cundiff, “Polarization dependence of semiconductor exciton and biexciton contributions to phase-resolved optical two-dimensional Fourier transform spectra,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 161305 (2009). [CrossRef]
- I. Kuznetsova, P. Thomas, T. Meier, T. Zhang, X. Li, R. P. Mirin, and S. T. Cundiff, “Signatures of many-particle correlations in two-dimensional Fourier-transform spectra of semiconductor nanostructures,” Solid State Commun. 142, 154–158(2007). [CrossRef]
- S. Weiser, T. Meier, J. Mobius, A. Euteneuer, E. J. Mayer, W. Stolz, M. Hofmann, W. W. Ruhle, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, “Disorder-induced dephasing in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 13088–13098 (2000). [CrossRef]
- G. Moody, M. E. Siemens, A. D. Bristow, X. Dai, D. Karaiskaj, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and S. T. Cundiff, “Exciton-exciton and exciton-phonon interactions in an interfacial GaAs quantum dot ensemble,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 115324 (2011). [CrossRef]
- G. Moody, M. E. Siemens, A. D. Bristow, X. Dai, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and S. T. Cundiff, “Exciton relaxation and coupling dynamics in a GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs quantum well and quantum dot ensemble,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 245316 (2011). [CrossRef]
- M. E. Siemens, G. Moody, H. Li, A. D. Bristow, and S. T. Cundiff, “Resonance lineshapes in two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 18, 17699–17708 (2010). [CrossRef]
- D. Karaiskaj, A. D. Bristow, L. Yang, X. Dai, R. P. Mirin, S. Mukamel, and S. T. Cundiff, “Two-quantum many-body coherences in two-dimensional Fourier transform spectra of exciton resonances in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 117401 (2010). [CrossRef]
- L. Yang, T. Zhang, A. D. Bristow, S. T. Cundiff, and S. Mukamel, “Isolating excitonic Raman coherence in semiconductors using two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 129, 234711 (2008). [CrossRef]
- L. J. Yang, I. V. Schweigert, S. T. Cundiff, and S. Mukamel, “Two-dimensional optical spectroscopy of excitons in semiconductor quantum wells: Liouville-space pathway analysis,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 125302 (2007). [CrossRef]
- S. Mukamel, “Multidimensional femtosecond correlation spectroscopies of electronic and vibrational excitations,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 51, 691–729 (2000). [CrossRef]
- E. O. Göbel, K. Leo, T. C. Damen, J. Shah, S. Schmitt-Rink, W. Schäfer, J. F. Muller, and K. Köhler, “Quantum beats of excitons in quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1801–1804 (1990). [CrossRef]
- S. Weiss, M. A. Mycek, J. Y. Bigot, S. Schmitt-Rink, and D. S. Chemla, “Collective effects in excitonic free induction decay—do semiconductors and atoms emit coherent-light in different ways,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2685–2688 (1992). [CrossRef]
- K. W. Stone, K. Gundogdu, D. B. Turner, X. Li, S. T. Cundiff, and K. A. Nelson, “Two-quantum 2D FT electronic spectroscopy of biexcitons in GaAs quantum wells,” Science 324, 1169–1173 (2009). [CrossRef]
- K. W. Stone, D. B. Turner, K. Gundogdu, S. T. Cundiff, and K. A. Nelson, “Exciton-exciton correlations revealed by two-quantum two-dimensional Fourier transform optical spectroscopy,” Acc. Chem. Res. 42, 1452–1461 (2009). [CrossRef]
- G. Noll, U. Siegner, S. G. Shevel, and E. O. Göbel, “Picosecond stimulated photon-echo due to intrinsic excitations in semiconductor mixed-crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 792–795 (1990). [CrossRef]
- M. Cowan, J. Ogilvie, and R. Miller, “Two-dimensional spectroscopy using diffractive optics based phased-locked photon echoes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 386, 184–189 (2004). [CrossRef]
- V. G. Lyssenko, J. Erland, I. Balslev, K. H. Pantke, B. S. Razbirin, and J. M. Hvam, “Nature of nonlinear 4-wave-mixing beats in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 5720–5723 (1993). [CrossRef]
- L. Andreani, G. Panzarini, and J.-M. Gérard, “Vacuum—field rabi splitting for quantum boxes in pillar microcavities?,” Phys. Stat. Sol. A 178, 145–148 (2000). [CrossRef]
- J. Guest, T. Stievater, X. Li, J. Cheng, D. Steel, D. Gammon, D. Katzer, D. Park, C. Ell, A. Thranhardt, G. Khitrova, and H. Gibbs, “Measurement of optical absorption by a single quantum dot exciton,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 241310 (2002). [CrossRef]
- D. Gammon, E. Snow, B. Shanabrook, D. Katzer, and D. Park, “Homogeneous linewidths in the optical spectrum of a single gallium arsenide quantum dot,” Science 273, 87–90 (1996). [CrossRef]
- J. Kasprzak, B. Patton, V. Savona, and W. Langbein, “Coherent coupling between distant excitons revealed by two-dimensional nonlinear hyperspectral imaging,” Nat. Photon. 5, 57–63(2011). [CrossRef]
- H. Wang, J. Shah, T. Damen, and L. Pfeiffer, “Polarization-dependent coherent nonlinear optical response in GaAs quantum wells: dominant effects of two-photon coherence between ground and biexciton states,” Solid State Commun. 91, 869–874 (1994). [CrossRef]
- M. Phillips and H. Wang, “Coherent oscillation in four-wave mixing of interacting excitons,” Solid State Commun. 111, 317–321 (1999). [CrossRef]
- D. J. Lovering, R. T. Phillips, G. J. Denton, and G. W. Smith, “Resonant generation of biexcitons in a GaAs quantum-well,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1880–1883 (1992). [CrossRef]
- E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heuckeroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, D. Bennhardt, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Evidence of biexcitonic contributions to 4-wave-mixing in GaAs quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14730–14733 (1994). [CrossRef]
- K. Bott, O. Heller, D. Bennhardt, S. T. Cundiff, P. Thomas, E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, R. Eccleston, J. Kuhl, and K. Ploog, “Influence of exciton-exciton interactions on the coherent optical-response in GaAs quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 17418–17426(1993). [CrossRef]
- B. F. Feuerbacher, J. Kuhl, and K. Ploog, “Biexcitonic contribution to the degenerate-4-wave-mixing signal from a GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs quantum-well,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 2439–2441(1991). [CrossRef]
- B. Feuerbacher, J. Kuhl, R. Eccleston, and K. Ploog, “Quantum beats between the light and heavy hole excitons in a quantum well,” Solid State Commun. 74, 1279–1283 (1990). [CrossRef]
- V. G. Lyssenko, J. Erland, I. Balslev, K. H. Pantke, B. S. Razbirin, and J. M. Hvam, “Nature of nonlinear 4-wave-mixing beats in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 5720–5723 (1993). [CrossRef]
- S. Weiser, T. Meier, J. Mobius, A. Euteneuer, E. J. Mayer, W. Stolz, M. Hofmann, W. W. Ruhle, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, “Disorder-induced dephasing in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 13088–13098 (2000). [CrossRef]
- S. A. Hawkins, E. J. Gansen, M. J. Stevens, A. L. Smirl, I. Rumyantsev, R. Takayama, N. H. Kwong, R. Binder, and D. G. Steel, “Differential measurements of Raman coherence and two-exciton correlations in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 035313 (2003). [CrossRef]
- J. Kasprzak, B. Patton, V. Savona, and W. Langbein, “Coherent coupling between distant excitons revealed by two-dimensional nonlinear hyperspectral imaging,” Nat. Photon. 5, 57–63(2011). [CrossRef]
- D. Birkedal, V. G. Lyssenko, J. M. Hvam, and K. E. Sayed, “Continuum contribution to excitonic four-wave mixing due to interaction-induced nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. B 54, R14250–R14253 (1996). [CrossRef]
- P. Kner, W. Schäfer, R. Lövenich, and D. S. Chemla, “Coherence of four-particle correlations in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5386–5389 (1998). [CrossRef]
- W. Schäfer, F. Jahnke, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Many-particle effects on transient 4-wave-mixing signals in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 1217–1220 (1993). [CrossRef]
- D. S. Kim, J. Shah, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, F. Jahnke, S. Schmitt-Rink, and K. Köhler, “Unusually slow temporal evolution of femtosecond 4-wave-mixing signals in intrinsic GaAs quantum-wells—direct evidence for the dominance of interaction effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2725–2728 (1992). [CrossRef]
- D. S. Kim, J. Shah, J. E. Cunningham, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, M. Hartmann, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Giant excitonic resonance in time-resolved 4-wave-mixing in quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1006–1009 (1992). [CrossRef]
- M. Wegener, D. S. Chemla, S. Schmitt-Rink, and W. Schäfer, “Line-shape of time-resolved 4-wave-mixing,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 5675–5683 (1990). [CrossRef]
- K. Leo, M. Wegener, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, E. O. Göbel, T. C. Damen, S. Schmitt-Rink, and W. Schäfer, “Effects of coherent polarization interactions on time-resolved degenerate 4-wave-mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1340–1343 (1990). [CrossRef]
- E. O. Göbel, K. Leo, T. C. Damen, J. Shah, S. Schmitt-Rink, W. Schäfer, J. F. Muller, and K. Köhler, “Quantum beats of excitons in quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1801–1804 (1990). [CrossRef]
- W. Schäfer, F. Jahnke, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Many-particle effects on transient 4-wave-mixing signals in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 1217–1220 (1993). [CrossRef]
- D. S. Kim, J. Shah, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, F. Jahnke, S. Schmitt-Rink, and K. Köhler, “Unusually slow temporal evolution of femtosecond 4-wave-mixing signals in intrinsic GaAs quantum-wells—direct evidence for the dominance of interaction effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2725–2728 (1992). [CrossRef]
- S. Weiss, M. A. Mycek, J. Y. Bigot, S. Schmitt-Rink, and D. S. Chemla, “Collective effects in excitonic free induction decay—do semiconductors and atoms emit coherent-light in different ways,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2685–2688 (1992). [CrossRef]
- D. S. Kim, J. Shah, J. E. Cunningham, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, M. Hartmann, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Giant excitonic resonance in time-resolved 4-wave-mixing in quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1006–1009 (1992). [CrossRef]
- M. Wegener, D. S. Chemla, S. Schmitt-Rink, and W. Schäfer, “Line-shape of time-resolved 4-wave-mixing,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 5675–5683 (1990). [CrossRef]
- K. Leo, M. Wegener, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, E. O. Göbel, T. C. Damen, S. Schmitt-Rink, and W. Schäfer, “Effects of coherent polarization interactions on time-resolved degenerate 4-wave-mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1340–1343 (1990). [CrossRef]
- E. O. Göbel, K. Leo, T. C. Damen, J. Shah, S. Schmitt-Rink, W. Schäfer, J. F. Muller, and K. Köhler, “Quantum beats of excitons in quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1801–1804 (1990). [CrossRef]
- L. Schultheis, A. Honold, J. Kuhl, K. Köhler, and C. W. Tu, “Optical dephasing of homogeneously broadened two-dimensional exciton-transitions in GaAs quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 9027–9030 (1986). [CrossRef]
- L. Schultheis, J. Kuhl, A. Honold, and C. W. Tu, “Picosecond phase coherence and orientational relaxation of excitons in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1797–1800 (1986). [CrossRef]
- L. Schultheis, J. Kuhl, A. Honold, and C. W. Tu, “Ultrafast phase relaxation of excitons via exciton-exciton and exciton-electron collisions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1635–1638 (1986). [CrossRef]
- L. Schultheis, M. D. Sturge, and J. Hegarty, “Photon-echoes from two-dimensional excitons in GaAs-AlGaAs quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 995–997 (1985). [CrossRef]
- E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heuckeroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, D. Bennhardt, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Evidence of biexcitonic contributions to 4-wave-mixing in GaAs quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14730–14733 (1994). [CrossRef]
- L. J. Yang, I. V. Schweigert, S. T. Cundiff, and S. Mukamel, “Two-dimensional optical spectroscopy of excitons in semiconductor quantum wells: Liouville-space pathway analysis,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 125302 (2007). [CrossRef]
- J. M. Shacklette and S. T. Cundiff, “Role of excitation-induced shift in the coherent optical response of semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 045309 (2002). [CrossRef]
- D. S. Chemla and J. Shah, “Many-body and correlation effects in semiconductors,” Nature 411, 549–557 (2001). [CrossRef]
- S. T. Cundiff, M. Koch, W. H. Knox, J. Shah, and W. Stolz, “Optical coherence in semiconductors: strong emission mediated by nondegenerate interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1107–1110 (1996). [CrossRef]
- H. Wang, J. Shah, T. Damen, and L. Pfeiffer, “Polarization-dependent coherent nonlinear optical response in GaAs quantum wells: dominant effects of two-photon coherence between ground and biexciton states,” Solid State Commun. 91, 869–874 (1994). [CrossRef]
- D. S. Kim, J. Shah, J. E. Cunningham, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, M. Hartmann, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Giant excitonic resonance in time-resolved 4-wave-mixing in quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1006–1009 (1992). [CrossRef]
- D. S. Kim, J. Shah, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, F. Jahnke, S. Schmitt-Rink, and K. Köhler, “Unusually slow temporal evolution of femtosecond 4-wave-mixing signals in intrinsic GaAs quantum-wells—direct evidence for the dominance of interaction effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2725–2728 (1992). [CrossRef]
- K. Leo, M. Wegener, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, E. O. Göbel, T. C. Damen, S. Schmitt-Rink, and W. Schäfer, “Effects of coherent polarization interactions on time-resolved degenerate 4-wave-mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1340–1343 (1990). [CrossRef]
- E. O. Göbel, K. Leo, T. C. Damen, J. Shah, S. Schmitt-Rink, W. Schäfer, J. F. Muller, and K. Köhler, “Quantum beats of excitons in quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1801–1804 (1990). [CrossRef]
- K. Leo, T. C. Damen, J. Shah, E. O. Göbel, and K. Kohler, “Quantum beats of light hole and heavy hole excitons in quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 19–21 (1990). [CrossRef]
- J. Shah, Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Semiconductors and Semiconductor Nanostructures (Springer, 1996).
- D. Gammon, E. Snow, B. Shanabrook, D. Katzer, and D. Park, “Homogeneous linewidths in the optical spectrum of a single gallium arsenide quantum dot,” Science 273, 87–90 (1996). [CrossRef]
- P. C. Becker, H. L. Fragnito, C. H. B. Cruz, R. L. Fork, J. E. Cunningham, J. E. Henry, and C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond photon-echoes from band-to-band transitions in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1647–1649 (1988). [CrossRef]
- G. Noll, U. Siegner, S. G. Shevel, and E. O. Göbel, “Picosecond stimulated photon-echo due to intrinsic excitations in semiconductor mixed-crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 792–795 (1990). [CrossRef]
- G. Noll, U. Siegner, S. G. Shevel, and E. O. Göbel, “Picosecond stimulated photon-echo due to intrinsic excitations in semiconductor mixed-crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 792–795 (1990). [CrossRef]
- G. Moody, M. E. Siemens, A. D. Bristow, X. Dai, D. Karaiskaj, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and S. T. Cundiff, “Exciton-exciton and exciton-phonon interactions in an interfacial GaAs quantum dot ensemble,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 115324 (2011). [CrossRef]
- G. Moody, M. E. Siemens, A. D. Bristow, X. Dai, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and S. T. Cundiff, “Exciton relaxation and coupling dynamics in a GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs quantum well and quantum dot ensemble,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 245316 (2011). [CrossRef]
- A. D. Bristow, T. Zhang, M. E. Siemens, S. T. Cundiff, and R. P. Mirin, “Separating homogeneous and inhomogeneous line widths of heavy- and light-hole excitons in weakly disordered semiconductor quantum wells,” J. Phys. Chem. B 115, 5365–5371 (2011). [CrossRef]
- M. E. Siemens, G. Moody, H. Li, A. D. Bristow, and S. T. Cundiff, “Resonance lineshapes in two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 18, 17699–17708 (2010). [CrossRef]
- S. A. Hawkins, E. J. Gansen, M. J. Stevens, A. L. Smirl, I. Rumyantsev, R. Takayama, N. H. Kwong, R. Binder, and D. G. Steel, “Differential measurements of Raman coherence and two-exciton correlations in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 035313 (2003). [CrossRef]
- A. L. Smirl, M. J. Stevens, X. Chen, and O. Buccafusca, “Heavy-hole and light-hole oscillations in the coherent emission from quantum wells: evidence for exciton-exciton correlations,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 8267–8275 (1999). [CrossRef]
- X. Chen, W. J. Walecki, O. Buccafusca, D. N. Fittinghoff, and A. L. Smirl, “Temporally and spectrally resolved amplitude and phase of coherent four-wave-mixing emission from GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 9738–9743 (1997). [CrossRef]
- E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heuckeroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, D. Bennhardt, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Evidence of biexcitonic contributions to 4-wave-mixing in GaAs quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14730–14733 (1994). [CrossRef]
- K. Bott, O. Heller, D. Bennhardt, S. T. Cundiff, P. Thomas, E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, R. Eccleston, J. Kuhl, and K. Ploog, “Influence of exciton-exciton interactions on the coherent optical-response in GaAs quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 17418–17426(1993). [CrossRef]
- D. J. Lovering, R. T. Phillips, G. J. Denton, and G. W. Smith, “Resonant generation of biexcitons in a GaAs quantum-well,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1880–1883 (1992). [CrossRef]
- D. Gammon, E. Snow, B. Shanabrook, D. Katzer, and D. Park, “Homogeneous linewidths in the optical spectrum of a single gallium arsenide quantum dot,” Science 273, 87–90 (1996). [CrossRef]
- V. M. Axt and A. Stahl, “A dynamics-controlled truncation scheme for the hierarchy of density-matrices in semiconductor optics,” Z. Phys. B 93, 195–204 (1994). [CrossRef]
- V. M. Axt and A. Stahl, “The role of the biexciton in a dynamic density-matrix theory of the semiconductor band-edge,” Z. Phys. B 93, 205–211 (1994). [CrossRef]
- J. Guest, T. Stievater, X. Li, J. Cheng, D. Steel, D. Gammon, D. Katzer, D. Park, C. Ell, A. Thranhardt, G. Khitrova, and H. Gibbs, “Measurement of optical absorption by a single quantum dot exciton,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 241310 (2002). [CrossRef]
- S. A. Hawkins, E. J. Gansen, M. J. Stevens, A. L. Smirl, I. Rumyantsev, R. Takayama, N. H. Kwong, R. Binder, and D. G. Steel, “Differential measurements of Raman coherence and two-exciton correlations in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 035313 (2003). [CrossRef]
- K. B. Ferrio and D. G. Steel, “Raman quantum beats of interacting excitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 786–789 (1998). [CrossRef]
- K. B. Ferrio and D. G. Steel, “Observation of the ultrafast two-photon coherent biexciton oscillation in a GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs multiple quantum well,” Phys. Rev. B 54, R5231–R5234(1996). [CrossRef]
- H. Wang, K. B. Ferrio, D. G. Steel, P. R. Berman, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Transient 4-wave-mixing line-shapes—effects of excitation-induced dephasing,” Phys. Rev. A 49, R1551–R1554 (1994). [CrossRef]
- Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, S. W. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, H. Wang, and D. G. Steel, “Excitation and polarization effects in semiconductor 4-wave-mixing spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 14382–14386 (1994). [CrossRef]
- H. L. Wang, K. Ferrio, D. G. Steel, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Transient nonlinear-optical response from excitation induced dephasing in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1261–1264 (1993). [CrossRef]
- S. T. Cundiff and D. G. Steel, “Coherent transient spectroscopy of excitons in GaAs-AlGaAs quantum-wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2423–2433 (1992). [CrossRef]
- S. T. Cundiff, H. Wang, and D. G. Steel, “Polarization-dependent picosecond excitonic nonlinearities and the complexities of disorder,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 7248–7251 (1992). [CrossRef]
- M. D. Webb, S. T. Cundiff, and D. G. Steel, “Stimulated-picosecond-photon-echo studies of localized exciton relaxation and dephasing in GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs multiple quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 12658–12661 (1991). [CrossRef]
- M. D. Webb, S. T. Cundiff, and D. G. Steel, “Observation of time-resolved picosecond stimulated photon-echoes and free polarization decay in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 934–937 (1991). [CrossRef]
- M. U. Wehner, D. Steinbach, and M. Wegener, “Ultrafast coherent transients due to exciton-continuum scattering in bulk GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 54, R5211–R5214 (1996). [CrossRef]
- S. A. Hawkins, E. J. Gansen, M. J. Stevens, A. L. Smirl, I. Rumyantsev, R. Takayama, N. H. Kwong, R. Binder, and D. G. Steel, “Differential measurements of Raman coherence and two-exciton correlations in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 035313 (2003). [CrossRef]
- A. L. Smirl, M. J. Stevens, X. Chen, and O. Buccafusca, “Heavy-hole and light-hole oscillations in the coherent emission from quantum wells: evidence for exciton-exciton correlations,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 8267–8275 (1999). [CrossRef]
- J. Guest, T. Stievater, X. Li, J. Cheng, D. Steel, D. Gammon, D. Katzer, D. Park, C. Ell, A. Thranhardt, G. Khitrova, and H. Gibbs, “Measurement of optical absorption by a single quantum dot exciton,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 241310 (2002). [CrossRef]
- T. Brixner, T. Mancal, I. Stiopkin, and G. Fleming, “Phase-stabilized two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 121, 4221–4236 (2004). [CrossRef]
- S. Weiser, T. Meier, J. Mobius, A. Euteneuer, E. J. Mayer, W. Stolz, M. Hofmann, W. W. Ruhle, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, “Disorder-induced dephasing in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 13088–13098 (2000). [CrossRef]
- S. T. Cundiff, M. Koch, W. H. Knox, J. Shah, and W. Stolz, “Optical coherence in semiconductors: strong emission mediated by nondegenerate interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1107–1110 (1996). [CrossRef]
- K. W. Stone, K. Gundogdu, D. B. Turner, X. Li, S. T. Cundiff, and K. A. Nelson, “Two-quantum 2D FT electronic spectroscopy of biexcitons in GaAs quantum wells,” Science 324, 1169–1173 (2009). [CrossRef]
- K. W. Stone, D. B. Turner, K. Gundogdu, S. T. Cundiff, and K. A. Nelson, “Exciton-exciton correlations revealed by two-quantum two-dimensional Fourier transform optical spectroscopy,” Acc. Chem. Res. 42, 1452–1461 (2009). [CrossRef]
- L. Schultheis, M. D. Sturge, and J. Hegarty, “Photon-echoes from two-dimensional excitons in GaAs-AlGaAs quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 995–997 (1985). [CrossRef]
- J. Hegarty, M. D. Sturge, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Resonant degenerate 4-wave mixing in GaAs multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 132–134 (1982). [CrossRef]
- P. Tian, D. Keusters, Y. Suzaki, and W. Warren, “Femtosecond phase-coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy,” Science 300, 1553–1555 (2003). [CrossRef]
- T. Yajima and Y. Taira, “Spatial optical parametric coupling of picosecond light-pulses and transverse relaxation effect in resonant media,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 47, 1620–1626 (1979). [CrossRef]
- T. Takagahara, “Theory of exciton dephasing in semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 2638–2652 (1999). [CrossRef]
- T. Takagahara, “Localization and homogeneous dephasing relaxation of quasi-2-dimensional excitons in quantum-well heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 32, 7013–7015 (1985). [CrossRef]
- T. Takagahara, “Localization and energy-transfer of quasi-2-dimensional excitons in GaAs-AlAs quantum-well heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 31, 6552–6573 (1985). [CrossRef]
- S. A. Hawkins, E. J. Gansen, M. J. Stevens, A. L. Smirl, I. Rumyantsev, R. Takayama, N. H. Kwong, R. Binder, and D. G. Steel, “Differential measurements of Raman coherence and two-exciton correlations in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 035313 (2003). [CrossRef]
- P. F. Tekavec, G. A. Lott, and A. H. Marcus, “Fluorescence-detected two-dimensional electronic coherence spectroscopy by acousto-optic phase modulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 127, 214307 (2007). [CrossRef]
- I. Kuznetsova, N. Gogh, J. Foerstner, T. Meier, S. T. Cundiff, I. Varga, and P. Thomas, “Modeling excitonic line shapes in weakly disordered semiconductor nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 81 (2010). [CrossRef]
- I. Kuznetsova, P. Thomas, T. Meier, T. Zhang, X. Li, R. P. Mirin, and S. T. Cundiff, “Signatures of many-particle correlations in two-dimensional Fourier-transform spectra of semiconductor nanostructures,” Solid State Commun. 142, 154–158(2007). [CrossRef]
- T. Zhang, I. Kuznetsova, T. Meier, X. Li, R. Mirin, P. Thomas, and S. Cundiff, “Polarization-dependent optical 2D Fourier transform spectroscopy of semiconductors,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 14227–14232 (2007). [CrossRef]
- S. Weiser, T. Meier, J. Mobius, A. Euteneuer, E. J. Mayer, W. Stolz, M. Hofmann, W. W. Ruhle, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, “Disorder-induced dephasing in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 13088–13098 (2000). [CrossRef]
- M. Koch, J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, S. T. Cundiff, E. O. Göbel, P. Thomas, and K. Köhler, “Koch et al. reply,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 210 (1994). [CrossRef]
- E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heuckeroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, D. Bennhardt, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Evidence of biexcitonic contributions to 4-wave-mixing in GaAs quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14730–14733 (1994). [CrossRef]
- K. Bott, O. Heller, D. Bennhardt, S. T. Cundiff, P. Thomas, E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, R. Eccleston, J. Kuhl, and K. Ploog, “Influence of exciton-exciton interactions on the coherent optical-response in GaAs quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 17418–17426(1993). [CrossRef]
- D. Bennhardt, P. Thomas, R. Eccleston, E. J. Mayer, and J. Kuhl, “Polarization dependence of four-wave-mixing signals in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 13485–13490 (1993). [CrossRef]
- R. Eccleston, J. Kuhl, D. Bennhardt, and P. Thomas, “Intensity dependent four-wave-mixing polarization rules in quantum wells,” Solid State Commun. 86, 93–97 (1993). [CrossRef]
- M. Koch, J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, E. O. Göbel, P. Thomas, and K. Kohler, “Quantum beats versus polarization interference—an experimental distinction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3631–3634 (1992). [CrossRef]
- J. Guest, T. Stievater, X. Li, J. Cheng, D. Steel, D. Gammon, D. Katzer, D. Park, C. Ell, A. Thranhardt, G. Khitrova, and H. Gibbs, “Measurement of optical absorption by a single quantum dot exciton,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 241310 (2002). [CrossRef]
- P. Tian, D. Keusters, Y. Suzaki, and W. Warren, “Femtosecond phase-coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy,” Science 300, 1553–1555 (2003). [CrossRef]
- M. Khalil, N. Demirdoven, and A. Tokmakoff, “Obtaining absorptive line shapes in two-dimensional infrared vibrational correlation spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 047401 (2003). [CrossRef]
- L. Schultheis, J. Kuhl, A. Honold, and C. W. Tu, “Ultrafast phase relaxation of excitons via exciton-exciton and exciton-electron collisions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1635–1638 (1986). [CrossRef]
- L. Schultheis, A. Honold, J. Kuhl, K. Köhler, and C. W. Tu, “Optical dephasing of homogeneously broadened two-dimensional exciton-transitions in GaAs quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 9027–9030 (1986). [CrossRef]
- L. Schultheis, J. Kuhl, A. Honold, and C. W. Tu, “Picosecond phase coherence and orientational relaxation of excitons in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1797–1800 (1986). [CrossRef]
- K. W. Stone, D. B. Turner, K. Gundogdu, S. T. Cundiff, and K. A. Nelson, “Exciton-exciton correlations revealed by two-quantum two-dimensional Fourier transform optical spectroscopy,” Acc. Chem. Res. 42, 1452–1461 (2009). [CrossRef]
- K. W. Stone, K. Gundogdu, D. B. Turner, X. Li, S. T. Cundiff, and K. A. Nelson, “Two-quantum 2D FT electronic spectroscopy of biexcitons in GaAs quantum wells,” Science 324, 1169–1173 (2009). [CrossRef]
- I. Kuznetsova, N. Gogh, J. Foerstner, T. Meier, S. T. Cundiff, I. Varga, and P. Thomas, “Modeling excitonic line shapes in weakly disordered semiconductor nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 81 (2010). [CrossRef]
- M. Koch, J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, S. T. Cundiff, E. O. Göbel, P. Thomas, and K. Köhler, “Koch et al. reply,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 210 (1994). [CrossRef]
- M. Koch, J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, E. O. Göbel, P. Thomas, and K. Kohler, “Quantum beats versus polarization interference—an experimental distinction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3631–3634 (1992). [CrossRef]
- X. Chen, W. J. Walecki, O. Buccafusca, D. N. Fittinghoff, and A. L. Smirl, “Temporally and spectrally resolved amplitude and phase of coherent four-wave-mixing emission from GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 9738–9743 (1997). [CrossRef]
- M. Phillips and H. Wang, “Coherent oscillation in four-wave mixing of interacting excitons,” Solid State Commun. 111, 317–321 (1999). [CrossRef]
- Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, S. W. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, H. Wang, and D. G. Steel, “Excitation and polarization effects in semiconductor 4-wave-mixing spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 14382–14386 (1994). [CrossRef]
- H. Wang, J. Shah, T. Damen, and L. Pfeiffer, “Polarization-dependent coherent nonlinear optical response in GaAs quantum wells: dominant effects of two-photon coherence between ground and biexciton states,” Solid State Commun. 91, 869–874 (1994). [CrossRef]
- H. Wang, K. B. Ferrio, D. G. Steel, P. R. Berman, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Transient 4-wave-mixing line-shapes—effects of excitation-induced dephasing,” Phys. Rev. A 49, R1551–R1554 (1994). [CrossRef]
- S. T. Cundiff, H. Wang, and D. G. Steel, “Polarization-dependent picosecond excitonic nonlinearities and the complexities of disorder,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 7248–7251 (1992). [CrossRef]
- H. L. Wang, K. Ferrio, D. G. Steel, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Transient nonlinear-optical response from excitation induced dephasing in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1261–1264 (1993). [CrossRef]
- P. Tian, D. Keusters, Y. Suzaki, and W. Warren, “Femtosecond phase-coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy,” Science 300, 1553–1555 (2003). [CrossRef]
- M. D. Webb, S. T. Cundiff, and D. G. Steel, “Stimulated-picosecond-photon-echo studies of localized exciton relaxation and dephasing in GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs multiple quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 12658–12661 (1991). [CrossRef]
- M. D. Webb, S. T. Cundiff, and D. G. Steel, “Observation of time-resolved picosecond stimulated photon-echoes and free polarization decay in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 934–937 (1991). [CrossRef]
- M. U. Wehner, M. H. Ulm, and M. Wegener, “Scanning interferometer stabilized by use of Pancharatnam’s phase,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1455–1457 (1997). [CrossRef]
- M. U. Wehner, D. Steinbach, and M. Wegener, “Ultrafast coherent transients due to exciton-continuum scattering in bulk GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 54, R5211–R5214 (1996). [CrossRef]
- K. Leo, M. Wegener, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, E. O. Göbel, T. C. Damen, S. Schmitt-Rink, and W. Schäfer, “Effects of coherent polarization interactions on time-resolved degenerate 4-wave-mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1340–1343 (1990). [CrossRef]
- M. Wegener, D. S. Chemla, S. Schmitt-Rink, and W. Schäfer, “Line-shape of time-resolved 4-wave-mixing,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 5675–5683 (1990). [CrossRef]
- M. U. Wehner, M. H. Ulm, and M. Wegener, “Scanning interferometer stabilized by use of Pancharatnam’s phase,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1455–1457 (1997). [CrossRef]
- M. U. Wehner, D. Steinbach, and M. Wegener, “Ultrafast coherent transients due to exciton-continuum scattering in bulk GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 54, R5211–R5214 (1996). [CrossRef]
- S. Weiser, T. Meier, J. Mobius, A. Euteneuer, E. J. Mayer, W. Stolz, M. Hofmann, W. W. Ruhle, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, “Disorder-induced dephasing in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 13088–13098 (2000). [CrossRef]
- S. Weiss, M. A. Mycek, J. Y. Bigot, S. Schmitt-Rink, and D. S. Chemla, “Collective effects in excitonic free induction decay—do semiconductors and atoms emit coherent-light in different ways,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2685–2688 (1992). [CrossRef]
- J. Hegarty, M. D. Sturge, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Resonant degenerate 4-wave mixing in GaAs multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 132–134 (1982). [CrossRef]
- R. R. Ernst, G. Bodenhausen, and A. Wokaun, Principles of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in One and Two Dimensions(Oxford Science, Oxford, 1987).
- T. Yajima and Y. Taira, “Spatial optical parametric coupling of picosecond light-pulses and transverse relaxation effect in resonant media,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 47, 1620–1626 (1979). [CrossRef]
- D. Karaiskaj, A. D. Bristow, L. Yang, X. Dai, R. P. Mirin, S. Mukamel, and S. T. Cundiff, “Two-quantum many-body coherences in two-dimensional Fourier transform spectra of exciton resonances in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 117401 (2010). [CrossRef]
- L. Yang, T. Zhang, A. D. Bristow, S. T. Cundiff, and S. Mukamel, “Isolating excitonic Raman coherence in semiconductors using two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 129, 234711 (2008). [CrossRef]
- L. J. Yang, I. V. Schweigert, S. T. Cundiff, and S. Mukamel, “Two-dimensional optical spectroscopy of excitons in semiconductor quantum wells: Liouville-space pathway analysis,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 125302 (2007). [CrossRef]
- A. D. Bristow, T. Zhang, M. E. Siemens, S. T. Cundiff, and R. P. Mirin, “Separating homogeneous and inhomogeneous line widths of heavy- and light-hole excitons in weakly disordered semiconductor quantum wells,” J. Phys. Chem. B 115, 5365–5371 (2011). [CrossRef]
- A. D. Bristow, D. Karaiskaj, X. Dai, T. Zhang, C. Carlsson, K. R. Hagen, R. Jimenez, and S. T. Cundiff, “A versatile ultrastable platform for optical multidimensional Fourier-transform spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 073108 (2009). [CrossRef]
- L. Yang, T. Zhang, A. D. Bristow, S. T. Cundiff, and S. Mukamel, “Isolating excitonic Raman coherence in semiconductors using two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 129, 234711 (2008). [CrossRef]
- I. Kuznetsova, P. Thomas, T. Meier, T. Zhang, X. Li, R. P. Mirin, and S. T. Cundiff, “Signatures of many-particle correlations in two-dimensional Fourier-transform spectra of semiconductor nanostructures,” Solid State Commun. 142, 154–158(2007). [CrossRef]
- T. Zhang, I. Kuznetsova, T. Meier, X. Li, R. Mirin, P. Thomas, and S. Cundiff, “Polarization-dependent optical 2D Fourier transform spectroscopy of semiconductors,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 14227–14232 (2007). [CrossRef]
- X. Q. Li, T. H. Zhang, C. N. Borca, and S. T. Cundiff, “Many-body interactions in semiconductors probed by optical two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057406 (2006). [CrossRef]
- C. N. Borca, T. H. Zhang, X. Q. Li, and S. T. Cundiff, “Optical two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy of semiconductors,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 416, 311–315 (2005). [CrossRef]
- T. H. Zhang, C. N. Borca, X. Q. Li, and S. T. Cundiff, “Optical two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy with active interferometric stabilization,” Opt. Express 13, 7432–7441 (2005). [CrossRef]
- X. Zhu, M. S. Hybertsen, and P. B. Littlewood, “Quantum beats in photon echo from four-waving mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 209 (1994). [CrossRef]
Acc. Chem. Res.
- K. W. Stone, D. B. Turner, K. Gundogdu, S. T. Cundiff, and K. A. Nelson, “Exciton-exciton correlations revealed by two-quantum two-dimensional Fourier transform optical spectroscopy,” Acc. Chem. Res. 42, 1452–1461 (2009). [CrossRef]
Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.
- S. Mukamel, “Multidimensional femtosecond correlation spectroscopies of electronic and vibrational excitations,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 51, 691–729 (2000). [CrossRef]
- D. Jonas, “Two-dimensional femtosecond spectroscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 54, 425–463 (2003). [CrossRef]
Appl. Phys. Lett.
- J. Hegarty, M. D. Sturge, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Resonant degenerate 4-wave mixing in GaAs multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 132–134 (1982). [CrossRef]
- L. Schultheis, M. D. Sturge, and J. Hegarty, “Photon-echoes from two-dimensional excitons in GaAs-AlGaAs quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 995–997 (1985). [CrossRef]
- K. Leo, T. C. Damen, J. Shah, E. O. Göbel, and K. Kohler, “Quantum beats of light hole and heavy hole excitons in quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 19–21 (1990). [CrossRef]
Chem. Phys. Lett.
- M. Cowan, J. Ogilvie, and R. Miller, “Two-dimensional spectroscopy using diffractive optics based phased-locked photon echoes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 386, 184–189 (2004). [CrossRef]
- C. N. Borca, T. H. Zhang, X. Q. Li, and S. T. Cundiff, “Optical two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy of semiconductors,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 416, 311–315 (2005). [CrossRef]
Chem. Rev.
- M. Cho, “Coherent two-dimensional optical spectroscopy,” Chem. Rev. 108, 1331–1418 (2008). [CrossRef]
IEEE J. Quantum Electron.
- S. T. Cundiff and D. G. Steel, “Coherent transient spectroscopy of excitons in GaAs-AlGaAs quantum-wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2423–2433 (1992). [CrossRef]
J. Chem. Phys.
- P. F. Tekavec, G. A. Lott, and A. H. Marcus, “Fluorescence-detected two-dimensional electronic coherence spectroscopy by acousto-optic phase modulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 127, 214307 (2007). [CrossRef]
- J. Hybl, A. Ferro, and D. Jonas, “Two-dimensional Fourier transform electronic spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 115, 6606–6622 (2001). [CrossRef]
- T. Brixner, T. Mancal, I. Stiopkin, and G. Fleming, “Phase-stabilized two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 121, 4221–4236 (2004). [CrossRef]
- L. Yang, T. Zhang, A. D. Bristow, S. T. Cundiff, and S. Mukamel, “Isolating excitonic Raman coherence in semiconductors using two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 129, 234711 (2008). [CrossRef]
J. Opt. Soc. Am. B
- L. Lepetit, G. Cheriaux, and M. Joffre, “Linear techniques of phase measurement by femtosecond spectral interferometry for applications in spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2467–2474 (1995). [CrossRef]
- H. H. Yaffe, Y. Prior, J. P. Harbison, and L. T. Florez, “Polarization dependence and selection rules of transient four-wave mixing in GaAs quantum-well excitons,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 578–583 (1993). [CrossRef]
J. Phys. Chem. B
- A. D. Bristow, T. Zhang, M. E. Siemens, S. T. Cundiff, and R. P. Mirin, “Separating homogeneous and inhomogeneous line widths of heavy- and light-hole excitons in weakly disordered semiconductor quantum wells,” J. Phys. Chem. B 115, 5365–5371 (2011). [CrossRef]
J. Phys. Soc. Jpn.
- T. Yajima and Y. Taira, “Spatial optical parametric coupling of picosecond light-pulses and transverse relaxation effect in resonant media,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 47, 1620–1626 (1979). [CrossRef]
Nat. Photon.
- J. Kasprzak, B. Patton, V. Savona, and W. Langbein, “Coherent coupling between distant excitons revealed by two-dimensional nonlinear hyperspectral imaging,” Nat. Photon. 5, 57–63(2011). [CrossRef]
Nature
- D. S. Chemla and J. Shah, “Many-body and correlation effects in semiconductors,” Nature 411, 549–557 (2001). [CrossRef]
Opt. Express
- T. H. Zhang, C. N. Borca, X. Q. Li, and S. T. Cundiff, “Optical two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy with active interferometric stabilization,” Opt. Express 13, 7432–7441 (2005). [CrossRef]
- S. T. Cundiff, “Coherent spectroscopy of semiconductors,” Opt. Express 16, 4639–4664 (2008). [CrossRef]
- A. D. Bristow, D. Karaiskaj, X. Dai, and S. T. Cundiff, “All-optical retrieval of the global phase for two-dimensional Fourier-transform spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 16, 18017–18027(2008). [CrossRef]
- M. E. Siemens, G. Moody, H. Li, A. D. Bristow, and S. T. Cundiff, “Resonance lineshapes in two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 18, 17699–17708 (2010). [CrossRef]
Opt. Lett.
- M. U. Wehner, M. H. Ulm, and M. Wegener, “Scanning interferometer stabilized by use of Pancharatnam’s phase,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1455–1457 (1997). [CrossRef]
Phys. Rev.
- I. Abella, N. Kurnit, and S. Hartmann, “Photon echoes,” Phys. Rev. 141, 391–406 (1966). [CrossRef]
- E. Hahn, “Spin echoes,” Phys. Rev. 80, 580–594 (1950). [CrossRef]
- R. J. Elliott, “Intensity of optical absorption by excitons,” Phys. Rev. 108, 1384–1389 (1957). [CrossRef]
Phys. Rev. A
- S. T. Cundiff, “Effects of correlation between inhomogeneously broadened transitions on quantum beats in transient 4-wave-mixing,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 3114–3118 (1994). [CrossRef]
- M. Wegener, D. S. Chemla, S. Schmitt-Rink, and W. Schäfer, “Line-shape of time-resolved 4-wave-mixing,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 5675–5683 (1990). [CrossRef]
- M. Lindberg, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Theory of the semiconductor photon-echo,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 1865–1875 (1992). [CrossRef]
- H. Wang, K. B. Ferrio, D. G. Steel, P. R. Berman, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Transient 4-wave-mixing line-shapes—effects of excitation-induced dephasing,” Phys. Rev. A 49, R1551–R1554 (1994). [CrossRef]
Phys. Rev. B
- S. A. Hawkins, E. J. Gansen, M. J. Stevens, A. L. Smirl, I. Rumyantsev, R. Takayama, N. H. Kwong, R. Binder, and D. G. Steel, “Differential measurements of Raman coherence and two-exciton correlations in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 035313 (2003). [CrossRef]
- L. J. Yang, I. V. Schweigert, S. T. Cundiff, and S. Mukamel, “Two-dimensional optical spectroscopy of excitons in semiconductor quantum wells: Liouville-space pathway analysis,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 125302 (2007). [CrossRef]
- I. Kuznetsova, N. Gogh, J. Foerstner, T. Meier, S. T. Cundiff, I. Varga, and P. Thomas, “Modeling excitonic line shapes in weakly disordered semiconductor nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 81 (2010). [CrossRef]
- T. Takagahara, “Theory of exciton dephasing in semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 2638–2652 (1999). [CrossRef]
- K. B. Ferrio and D. G. Steel, “Observation of the ultrafast two-photon coherent biexciton oscillation in a GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs multiple quantum well,” Phys. Rev. B 54, R5231–R5234(1996). [CrossRef]
- J. Guest, T. Stievater, X. Li, J. Cheng, D. Steel, D. Gammon, D. Katzer, D. Park, C. Ell, A. Thranhardt, G. Khitrova, and H. Gibbs, “Measurement of optical absorption by a single quantum dot exciton,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 241310 (2002). [CrossRef]
- W. Schäfer, F. Jahnke, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Many-particle effects on transient 4-wave-mixing signals in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 1217–1220 (1993). [CrossRef]
- Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, S. W. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, H. Wang, and D. G. Steel, “Excitation and polarization effects in semiconductor 4-wave-mixing spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 14382–14386 (1994). [CrossRef]
- J. M. Shacklette and S. T. Cundiff, “Role of excitation-induced shift in the coherent optical response of semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 045309 (2002). [CrossRef]
- M. Lindberg, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “χ(3) formalism in optically-excited semiconductors and its applications in 4-wave-mixing spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 18060–18072 (1994). [CrossRef]
- D. A. Kleinman, “Binding energy of biexcitons and bound excitons in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 28, 871–879 (1983). [CrossRef]
- B. F. Feuerbacher, J. Kuhl, and K. Ploog, “Biexcitonic contribution to the degenerate-4-wave-mixing signal from a GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs quantum-well,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 2439–2441(1991). [CrossRef]
- K. Bott, O. Heller, D. Bennhardt, S. T. Cundiff, P. Thomas, E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, R. Eccleston, J. Kuhl, and K. Ploog, “Influence of exciton-exciton interactions on the coherent optical-response in GaAs quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 17418–17426(1993). [CrossRef]
- E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heuckeroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, D. Bennhardt, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Evidence of biexcitonic contributions to 4-wave-mixing in GaAs quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14730–14733 (1994). [CrossRef]
- D. Bennhardt, P. Thomas, R. Eccleston, E. J. Mayer, and J. Kuhl, “Polarization dependence of four-wave-mixing signals in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 13485–13490 (1993). [CrossRef]
- S. Weiser, T. Meier, J. Mobius, A. Euteneuer, E. J. Mayer, W. Stolz, M. Hofmann, W. W. Ruhle, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, “Disorder-induced dephasing in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 13088–13098 (2000). [CrossRef]
- S. T. Cundiff, H. Wang, and D. G. Steel, “Polarization-dependent picosecond excitonic nonlinearities and the complexities of disorder,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 7248–7251 (1992). [CrossRef]
- D. Birkedal, V. G. Lyssenko, J. M. Hvam, and K. E. Sayed, “Continuum contribution to excitonic four-wave mixing due to interaction-induced nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. B 54, R14250–R14253 (1996). [CrossRef]
- M. U. Wehner, D. Steinbach, and M. Wegener, “Ultrafast coherent transients due to exciton-continuum scattering in bulk GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 54, R5211–R5214 (1996). [CrossRef]
- T. Takagahara, “Localization and homogeneous dephasing relaxation of quasi-2-dimensional excitons in quantum-well heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 32, 7013–7015 (1985). [CrossRef]
- T. Takagahara, “Localization and energy-transfer of quasi-2-dimensional excitons in GaAs-AlAs quantum-well heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 31, 6552–6573 (1985). [CrossRef]
- M. D. Webb, S. T. Cundiff, and D. G. Steel, “Stimulated-picosecond-photon-echo studies of localized exciton relaxation and dephasing in GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs multiple quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 12658–12661 (1991). [CrossRef]
- S. G. Carter, Z. Chen, and S. T. Cundiff, “Echo peak-shift spectroscopy of non-Markovian exciton dynamics in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 121303 (2007). [CrossRef]
- X. Chen, W. J. Walecki, O. Buccafusca, D. N. Fittinghoff, and A. L. Smirl, “Temporally and spectrally resolved amplitude and phase of coherent four-wave-mixing emission from GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 9738–9743 (1997). [CrossRef]
- V. G. Lyssenko, J. Erland, I. Balslev, K. H. Pantke, B. S. Razbirin, and J. M. Hvam, “Nature of nonlinear 4-wave-mixing beats in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 5720–5723 (1993). [CrossRef]
- A. L. Smirl, M. J. Stevens, X. Chen, and O. Buccafusca, “Heavy-hole and light-hole oscillations in the coherent emission from quantum wells: evidence for exciton-exciton correlations,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 8267–8275 (1999). [CrossRef]
- L. Schultheis, A. Honold, J. Kuhl, K. Köhler, and C. W. Tu, “Optical dephasing of homogeneously broadened two-dimensional exciton-transitions in GaAs quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 9027–9030 (1986). [CrossRef]
- A. D. Bristow, D. Karaiskaj, X. Dai, R. P. Mirin, and S. T. Cundiff, “Polarization dependence of semiconductor exciton and biexciton contributions to phase-resolved optical two-dimensional Fourier transform spectra,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 161305 (2009). [CrossRef]
- G. Moody, M. E. Siemens, A. D. Bristow, X. Dai, D. Karaiskaj, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and S. T. Cundiff, “Exciton-exciton and exciton-phonon interactions in an interfacial GaAs quantum dot ensemble,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 115324 (2011). [CrossRef]
- G. Moody, M. E. Siemens, A. D. Bristow, X. Dai, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and S. T. Cundiff, “Exciton relaxation and coupling dynamics in a GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs quantum well and quantum dot ensemble,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 245316 (2011). [CrossRef]
Phys. Rev. Lett.
- N. Kurnit, S. Hartmann, and I. Abella, “Observation of photon echo,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 567–568 (1964). [CrossRef]
- D. Karaiskaj, A. D. Bristow, L. Yang, X. Dai, R. P. Mirin, S. Mukamel, and S. T. Cundiff, “Two-quantum many-body coherences in two-dimensional Fourier transform spectra of exciton resonances in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 117401 (2010). [CrossRef]
- X. Q. Li, T. H. Zhang, C. N. Borca, and S. T. Cundiff, “Many-body interactions in semiconductors probed by optical two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057406 (2006). [CrossRef]
- P. C. Becker, H. L. Fragnito, C. H. B. Cruz, R. L. Fork, J. E. Cunningham, J. E. Henry, and C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond photon-echoes from band-to-band transitions in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1647–1649 (1988). [CrossRef]
- E. O. Göbel, K. Leo, T. C. Damen, J. Shah, S. Schmitt-Rink, W. Schäfer, J. F. Muller, and K. Köhler, “Quantum beats of excitons in quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1801–1804 (1990). [CrossRef]
- L. Schultheis, J. Kuhl, A. Honold, and C. W. Tu, “Picosecond phase coherence and orientational relaxation of excitons in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1797–1800 (1986). [CrossRef]
- M. Koch, J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, E. O. Göbel, P. Thomas, and K. Kohler, “Quantum beats versus polarization interference—an experimental distinction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3631–3634 (1992). [CrossRef]
- M. D. Webb, S. T. Cundiff, and D. G. Steel, “Observation of time-resolved picosecond stimulated photon-echoes and free polarization decay in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 934–937 (1991). [CrossRef]
- M. Koch, J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, S. T. Cundiff, E. O. Göbel, P. Thomas, and K. Köhler, “Koch et al. reply,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 210 (1994). [CrossRef]
- X. Zhu, M. S. Hybertsen, and P. B. Littlewood, “Quantum beats in photon echo from four-waving mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 209 (1994). [CrossRef]
- G. Noll, U. Siegner, S. G. Shevel, and E. O. Göbel, “Picosecond stimulated photon-echo due to intrinsic excitations in semiconductor mixed-crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 792–795 (1990). [CrossRef]
- S. T. Cundiff, M. Koch, W. H. Knox, J. Shah, and W. Stolz, “Optical coherence in semiconductors: strong emission mediated by nondegenerate interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1107–1110 (1996). [CrossRef]
- P. Kner, W. Schäfer, R. Lövenich, and D. S. Chemla, “Coherence of four-particle correlations in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5386–5389 (1998). [CrossRef]
- D. S. Kim, J. Shah, J. E. Cunningham, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, M. Hartmann, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Giant excitonic resonance in time-resolved 4-wave-mixing in quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1006–1009 (1992). [CrossRef]
- D. J. Lovering, R. T. Phillips, G. J. Denton, and G. W. Smith, “Resonant generation of biexcitons in a GaAs quantum-well,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1880–1883 (1992). [CrossRef]
- K. Leo, M. Wegener, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, E. O. Göbel, T. C. Damen, S. Schmitt-Rink, and W. Schäfer, “Effects of coherent polarization interactions on time-resolved degenerate 4-wave-mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1340–1343 (1990). [CrossRef]
- D. S. Kim, J. Shah, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, F. Jahnke, S. Schmitt-Rink, and K. Köhler, “Unusually slow temporal evolution of femtosecond 4-wave-mixing signals in intrinsic GaAs quantum-wells—direct evidence for the dominance of interaction effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2725–2728 (1992). [CrossRef]
- S. Weiss, M. A. Mycek, J. Y. Bigot, S. Schmitt-Rink, and D. S. Chemla, “Collective effects in excitonic free induction decay—do semiconductors and atoms emit coherent-light in different ways,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2685–2688 (1992). [CrossRef]
- H. L. Wang, K. Ferrio, D. G. Steel, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Transient nonlinear-optical response from excitation induced dephasing in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1261–1264 (1993). [CrossRef]
- L. Schultheis, J. Kuhl, A. Honold, and C. W. Tu, “Ultrafast phase relaxation of excitons via exciton-exciton and exciton-electron collisions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1635–1638 (1986). [CrossRef]
- M. Khalil, N. Demirdoven, and A. Tokmakoff, “Obtaining absorptive line shapes in two-dimensional infrared vibrational correlation spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 047401 (2003). [CrossRef]
- K. B. Ferrio and D. G. Steel, “Raman quantum beats of interacting excitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 786–789 (1998). [CrossRef]
Phys. Stat. Sol. A
- L. Andreani, G. Panzarini, and J.-M. Gérard, “Vacuum—field rabi splitting for quantum boxes in pillar microcavities?,” Phys. Stat. Sol. A 178, 145–148 (2000). [CrossRef]
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
- T. Zhang, I. Kuznetsova, T. Meier, X. Li, R. Mirin, P. Thomas, and S. Cundiff, “Polarization-dependent optical 2D Fourier transform spectroscopy of semiconductors,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 14227–14232 (2007). [CrossRef]
Rev. Sci. Instrum.
- A. D. Bristow, D. Karaiskaj, X. Dai, T. Zhang, C. Carlsson, K. R. Hagen, R. Jimenez, and S. T. Cundiff, “A versatile ultrastable platform for optical multidimensional Fourier-transform spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 073108 (2009). [CrossRef]
Science
- P. Tian, D. Keusters, Y. Suzaki, and W. Warren, “Femtosecond phase-coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy,” Science 300, 1553–1555 (2003). [CrossRef]
- D. Gammon, E. Snow, B. Shanabrook, D. Katzer, and D. Park, “Homogeneous linewidths in the optical spectrum of a single gallium arsenide quantum dot,” Science 273, 87–90 (1996). [CrossRef]
- K. W. Stone, K. Gundogdu, D. B. Turner, X. Li, S. T. Cundiff, and K. A. Nelson, “Two-quantum 2D FT electronic spectroscopy of biexcitons in GaAs quantum wells,” Science 324, 1169–1173 (2009). [CrossRef]
Solid State Commun.
- H. Wang, J. Shah, T. Damen, and L. Pfeiffer, “Polarization-dependent coherent nonlinear optical response in GaAs quantum wells: dominant effects of two-photon coherence between ground and biexciton states,” Solid State Commun. 91, 869–874 (1994). [CrossRef]
- I. Kuznetsova, P. Thomas, T. Meier, T. Zhang, X. Li, R. P. Mirin, and S. T. Cundiff, “Signatures of many-particle correlations in two-dimensional Fourier-transform spectra of semiconductor nanostructures,” Solid State Commun. 142, 154–158(2007). [CrossRef]
- R. Eccleston, J. Kuhl, D. Bennhardt, and P. Thomas, “Intensity dependent four-wave-mixing polarization rules in quantum wells,” Solid State Commun. 86, 93–97 (1993). [CrossRef]
- B. Feuerbacher, J. Kuhl, R. Eccleston, and K. Ploog, “Quantum beats between the light and heavy hole excitons in a quantum well,” Solid State Commun. 74, 1279–1283 (1990). [CrossRef]
- M. Phillips and H. Wang, “Coherent oscillation in four-wave mixing of interacting excitons,” Solid State Commun. 111, 317–321 (1999). [CrossRef]
Z. Phys. B
- V. M. Axt and A. Stahl, “A dynamics-controlled truncation scheme for the hierarchy of density-matrices in semiconductor optics,” Z. Phys. B 93, 195–204 (1994). [CrossRef]
- V. M. Axt and A. Stahl, “The role of the biexciton in a dynamic density-matrix theory of the semiconductor band-edge,” Z. Phys. B 93, 205–211 (1994). [CrossRef]
Other
- R. R. Ernst, G. Bodenhausen, and A. Wokaun, Principles of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in One and Two Dimensions(Oxford Science, Oxford, 1987).
- J. Shah, Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Semiconductors and Semiconductor Nanostructures (Springer, 1996).
- O. Madelung, Semiconductor Data Handbook (Springer, 2006).
- D. Bimberg, M. Grundmann, and N. N. Ledentsov, Quantum Dot Heterostructures (Wiley, 1999).
2011, Moody, Phys. Rev. B
- G. Moody, M. E. Siemens, A. D. Bristow, X. Dai, D. Karaiskaj, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and S. T. Cundiff, “Exciton-exciton and exciton-phonon interactions in an interfacial GaAs quantum dot ensemble,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 115324 (2011). [CrossRef]
- G. Moody, M. E. Siemens, A. D. Bristow, X. Dai, A. S. Bracker, D. Gammon, and S. T. Cundiff, “Exciton relaxation and coupling dynamics in a GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs quantum well and quantum dot ensemble,” Phys. Rev. B 83, 245316 (2011). [CrossRef]
- A. D. Bristow, T. Zhang, M. E. Siemens, S. T. Cundiff, and R. P. Mirin, “Separating homogeneous and inhomogeneous line widths of heavy- and light-hole excitons in weakly disordered semiconductor quantum wells,” J. Phys. Chem. B 115, 5365–5371 (2011). [CrossRef]
- J. Kasprzak, B. Patton, V. Savona, and W. Langbein, “Coherent coupling between distant excitons revealed by two-dimensional nonlinear hyperspectral imaging,” Nat. Photon. 5, 57–63(2011). [CrossRef]
- I. Kuznetsova, N. Gogh, J. Foerstner, T. Meier, S. T. Cundiff, I. Varga, and P. Thomas, “Modeling excitonic line shapes in weakly disordered semiconductor nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 81 (2010). [CrossRef]
- D. Karaiskaj, A. D. Bristow, L. Yang, X. Dai, R. P. Mirin, S. Mukamel, and S. T. Cundiff, “Two-quantum many-body coherences in two-dimensional Fourier transform spectra of exciton resonances in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 117401 (2010). [CrossRef]
- A. D. Bristow, D. Karaiskaj, X. Dai, R. P. Mirin, and S. T. Cundiff, “Polarization dependence of semiconductor exciton and biexciton contributions to phase-resolved optical two-dimensional Fourier transform spectra,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 161305 (2009). [CrossRef]
- K. W. Stone, D. B. Turner, K. Gundogdu, S. T. Cundiff, and K. A. Nelson, “Exciton-exciton correlations revealed by two-quantum two-dimensional Fourier transform optical spectroscopy,” Acc. Chem. Res. 42, 1452–1461 (2009). [CrossRef]
- K. W. Stone, K. Gundogdu, D. B. Turner, X. Li, S. T. Cundiff, and K. A. Nelson, “Two-quantum 2D FT electronic spectroscopy of biexcitons in GaAs quantum wells,” Science 324, 1169–1173 (2009). [CrossRef]
- A. D. Bristow, D. Karaiskaj, X. Dai, T. Zhang, C. Carlsson, K. R. Hagen, R. Jimenez, and S. T. Cundiff, “A versatile ultrastable platform for optical multidimensional Fourier-transform spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 073108 (2009). [CrossRef]
- L. Yang, T. Zhang, A. D. Bristow, S. T. Cundiff, and S. Mukamel, “Isolating excitonic Raman coherence in semiconductors using two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 129, 234711 (2008). [CrossRef]
- M. Cho, “Coherent two-dimensional optical spectroscopy,” Chem. Rev. 108, 1331–1418 (2008). [CrossRef]
- T. Zhang, I. Kuznetsova, T. Meier, X. Li, R. Mirin, P. Thomas, and S. Cundiff, “Polarization-dependent optical 2D Fourier transform spectroscopy of semiconductors,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 14227–14232 (2007). [CrossRef]
- S. G. Carter, Z. Chen, and S. T. Cundiff, “Echo peak-shift spectroscopy of non-Markovian exciton dynamics in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 121303 (2007). [CrossRef]
- L. J. Yang, I. V. Schweigert, S. T. Cundiff, and S. Mukamel, “Two-dimensional optical spectroscopy of excitons in semiconductor quantum wells: Liouville-space pathway analysis,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 125302 (2007). [CrossRef]
- I. Kuznetsova, P. Thomas, T. Meier, T. Zhang, X. Li, R. P. Mirin, and S. T. Cundiff, “Signatures of many-particle correlations in two-dimensional Fourier-transform spectra of semiconductor nanostructures,” Solid State Commun. 142, 154–158(2007). [CrossRef]
- P. F. Tekavec, G. A. Lott, and A. H. Marcus, “Fluorescence-detected two-dimensional electronic coherence spectroscopy by acousto-optic phase modulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 127, 214307 (2007). [CrossRef]
- X. Q. Li, T. H. Zhang, C. N. Borca, and S. T. Cundiff, “Many-body interactions in semiconductors probed by optical two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057406 (2006). [CrossRef]
- C. N. Borca, T. H. Zhang, X. Q. Li, and S. T. Cundiff, “Optical two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy of semiconductors,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 416, 311–315 (2005). [CrossRef]
- T. Brixner, T. Mancal, I. Stiopkin, and G. Fleming, “Phase-stabilized two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 121, 4221–4236 (2004). [CrossRef]
- M. Cowan, J. Ogilvie, and R. Miller, “Two-dimensional spectroscopy using diffractive optics based phased-locked photon echoes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 386, 184–189 (2004). [CrossRef]
- P. Tian, D. Keusters, Y. Suzaki, and W. Warren, “Femtosecond phase-coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy,” Science 300, 1553–1555 (2003). [CrossRef]
- M. Khalil, N. Demirdoven, and A. Tokmakoff, “Obtaining absorptive line shapes in two-dimensional infrared vibrational correlation spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 047401 (2003). [CrossRef]
- S. A. Hawkins, E. J. Gansen, M. J. Stevens, A. L. Smirl, I. Rumyantsev, R. Takayama, N. H. Kwong, R. Binder, and D. G. Steel, “Differential measurements of Raman coherence and two-exciton correlations in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 035313 (2003). [CrossRef]
- D. Jonas, “Two-dimensional femtosecond spectroscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 54, 425–463 (2003). [CrossRef]
- J. M. Shacklette and S. T. Cundiff, “Role of excitation-induced shift in the coherent optical response of semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 045309 (2002). [CrossRef]
- J. Guest, T. Stievater, X. Li, J. Cheng, D. Steel, D. Gammon, D. Katzer, D. Park, C. Ell, A. Thranhardt, G. Khitrova, and H. Gibbs, “Measurement of optical absorption by a single quantum dot exciton,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 241310 (2002). [CrossRef]
- D. S. Chemla and J. Shah, “Many-body and correlation effects in semiconductors,” Nature 411, 549–557 (2001). [CrossRef]
- J. Hybl, A. Ferro, and D. Jonas, “Two-dimensional Fourier transform electronic spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 115, 6606–6622 (2001). [CrossRef]
- S. Weiser, T. Meier, J. Mobius, A. Euteneuer, E. J. Mayer, W. Stolz, M. Hofmann, W. W. Ruhle, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, “Disorder-induced dephasing in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 13088–13098 (2000). [CrossRef]
- S. Mukamel, “Multidimensional femtosecond correlation spectroscopies of electronic and vibrational excitations,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 51, 691–729 (2000). [CrossRef]
- L. Andreani, G. Panzarini, and J.-M. Gérard, “Vacuum—field rabi splitting for quantum boxes in pillar microcavities?,” Phys. Stat. Sol. A 178, 145–148 (2000). [CrossRef]
- T. Takagahara, “Theory of exciton dephasing in semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 2638–2652 (1999). [CrossRef]
- M. Phillips and H. Wang, “Coherent oscillation in four-wave mixing of interacting excitons,” Solid State Commun. 111, 317–321 (1999). [CrossRef]
- A. L. Smirl, M. J. Stevens, X. Chen, and O. Buccafusca, “Heavy-hole and light-hole oscillations in the coherent emission from quantum wells: evidence for exciton-exciton correlations,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 8267–8275 (1999). [CrossRef]
- P. Kner, W. Schäfer, R. Lövenich, and D. S. Chemla, “Coherence of four-particle correlations in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5386–5389 (1998). [CrossRef]
- K. B. Ferrio and D. G. Steel, “Raman quantum beats of interacting excitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 786–789 (1998). [CrossRef]
- X. Chen, W. J. Walecki, O. Buccafusca, D. N. Fittinghoff, and A. L. Smirl, “Temporally and spectrally resolved amplitude and phase of coherent four-wave-mixing emission from GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 9738–9743 (1997). [CrossRef]
- D. Gammon, E. Snow, B. Shanabrook, D. Katzer, and D. Park, “Homogeneous linewidths in the optical spectrum of a single gallium arsenide quantum dot,” Science 273, 87–90 (1996). [CrossRef]
- D. Birkedal, V. G. Lyssenko, J. M. Hvam, and K. E. Sayed, “Continuum contribution to excitonic four-wave mixing due to interaction-induced nonlinearities,” Phys. Rev. B 54, R14250–R14253 (1996). [CrossRef]
- S. T. Cundiff, M. Koch, W. H. Knox, J. Shah, and W. Stolz, “Optical coherence in semiconductors: strong emission mediated by nondegenerate interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1107–1110 (1996). [CrossRef]
- M. U. Wehner, D. Steinbach, and M. Wegener, “Ultrafast coherent transients due to exciton-continuum scattering in bulk GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 54, R5211–R5214 (1996). [CrossRef]
- K. B. Ferrio and D. G. Steel, “Observation of the ultrafast two-photon coherent biexciton oscillation in a GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs multiple quantum well,” Phys. Rev. B 54, R5231–R5234(1996). [CrossRef]
- V. M. Axt and A. Stahl, “A dynamics-controlled truncation scheme for the hierarchy of density-matrices in semiconductor optics,” Z. Phys. B 93, 195–204 (1994). [CrossRef]
- M. Lindberg, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “χ(3) formalism in optically-excited semiconductors and its applications in 4-wave-mixing spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 18060–18072 (1994). [CrossRef]
- Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, S. W. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, H. Wang, and D. G. Steel, “Excitation and polarization effects in semiconductor 4-wave-mixing spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 14382–14386 (1994). [CrossRef]
- E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heuckeroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, D. Bennhardt, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Evidence of biexcitonic contributions to 4-wave-mixing in GaAs quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14730–14733 (1994). [CrossRef]
- V. M. Axt and A. Stahl, “The role of the biexciton in a dynamic density-matrix theory of the semiconductor band-edge,” Z. Phys. B 93, 205–211 (1994). [CrossRef]
- S. T. Cundiff, “Effects of correlation between inhomogeneously broadened transitions on quantum beats in transient 4-wave-mixing,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 3114–3118 (1994). [CrossRef]
- M. Koch, J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, S. T. Cundiff, E. O. Göbel, P. Thomas, and K. Köhler, “Koch et al. reply,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 210 (1994). [CrossRef]
- X. Zhu, M. S. Hybertsen, and P. B. Littlewood, “Quantum beats in photon echo from four-waving mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 209 (1994). [CrossRef]
- H. Wang, J. Shah, T. Damen, and L. Pfeiffer, “Polarization-dependent coherent nonlinear optical response in GaAs quantum wells: dominant effects of two-photon coherence between ground and biexciton states,” Solid State Commun. 91, 869–874 (1994). [CrossRef]
- H. Wang, K. B. Ferrio, D. G. Steel, P. R. Berman, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Transient 4-wave-mixing line-shapes—effects of excitation-induced dephasing,” Phys. Rev. A 49, R1551–R1554 (1994). [CrossRef]
- R. Eccleston, J. Kuhl, D. Bennhardt, and P. Thomas, “Intensity dependent four-wave-mixing polarization rules in quantum wells,” Solid State Commun. 86, 93–97 (1993). [CrossRef]
- V. G. Lyssenko, J. Erland, I. Balslev, K. H. Pantke, B. S. Razbirin, and J. M. Hvam, “Nature of nonlinear 4-wave-mixing beats in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 5720–5723 (1993). [CrossRef]
- K. Bott, O. Heller, D. Bennhardt, S. T. Cundiff, P. Thomas, E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, R. Eccleston, J. Kuhl, and K. Ploog, “Influence of exciton-exciton interactions on the coherent optical-response in GaAs quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 17418–17426(1993). [CrossRef]
- H. L. Wang, K. Ferrio, D. G. Steel, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Transient nonlinear-optical response from excitation induced dephasing in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1261–1264 (1993). [CrossRef]
- W. Schäfer, F. Jahnke, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Many-particle effects on transient 4-wave-mixing signals in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 1217–1220 (1993). [CrossRef]
- D. Bennhardt, P. Thomas, R. Eccleston, E. J. Mayer, and J. Kuhl, “Polarization dependence of four-wave-mixing signals in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 13485–13490 (1993). [CrossRef]
- S. T. Cundiff and D. G. Steel, “Coherent transient spectroscopy of excitons in GaAs-AlGaAs quantum-wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2423–2433 (1992). [CrossRef]
- S. T. Cundiff, H. Wang, and D. G. Steel, “Polarization-dependent picosecond excitonic nonlinearities and the complexities of disorder,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 7248–7251 (1992). [CrossRef]
- D. S. Kim, J. Shah, J. E. Cunningham, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, M. Hartmann, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Giant excitonic resonance in time-resolved 4-wave-mixing in quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1006–1009 (1992). [CrossRef]
- D. S. Kim, J. Shah, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, F. Jahnke, S. Schmitt-Rink, and K. Köhler, “Unusually slow temporal evolution of femtosecond 4-wave-mixing signals in intrinsic GaAs quantum-wells—direct evidence for the dominance of interaction effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2725–2728 (1992). [CrossRef]
- S. Weiss, M. A. Mycek, J. Y. Bigot, S. Schmitt-Rink, and D. S. Chemla, “Collective effects in excitonic free induction decay—do semiconductors and atoms emit coherent-light in different ways,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2685–2688 (1992). [CrossRef]
- M. Lindberg, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Theory of the semiconductor photon-echo,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 1865–1875 (1992). [CrossRef]
- D. J. Lovering, R. T. Phillips, G. J. Denton, and G. W. Smith, “Resonant generation of biexcitons in a GaAs quantum-well,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1880–1883 (1992). [CrossRef]
- M. Koch, J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, E. O. Göbel, P. Thomas, and K. Kohler, “Quantum beats versus polarization interference—an experimental distinction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3631–3634 (1992). [CrossRef]
- M. D. Webb, S. T. Cundiff, and D. G. Steel, “Observation of time-resolved picosecond stimulated photon-echoes and free polarization decay in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 934–937 (1991). [CrossRef]
- B. F. Feuerbacher, J. Kuhl, and K. Ploog, “Biexcitonic contribution to the degenerate-4-wave-mixing signal from a GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs quantum-well,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 2439–2441(1991). [CrossRef]
- M. D. Webb, S. T. Cundiff, and D. G. Steel, “Stimulated-picosecond-photon-echo studies of localized exciton relaxation and dephasing in GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs multiple quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 12658–12661 (1991). [CrossRef]
- G. Noll, U. Siegner, S. G. Shevel, and E. O. Göbel, “Picosecond stimulated photon-echo due to intrinsic excitations in semiconductor mixed-crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 792–795 (1990). [CrossRef]
- K. Leo, M. Wegener, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, E. O. Göbel, T. C. Damen, S. Schmitt-Rink, and W. Schäfer, “Effects of coherent polarization interactions on time-resolved degenerate 4-wave-mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1340–1343 (1990). [CrossRef]
- M. Wegener, D. S. Chemla, S. Schmitt-Rink, and W. Schäfer, “Line-shape of time-resolved 4-wave-mixing,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 5675–5683 (1990). [CrossRef]
- B. Feuerbacher, J. Kuhl, R. Eccleston, and K. Ploog, “Quantum beats between the light and heavy hole excitons in a quantum well,” Solid State Commun. 74, 1279–1283 (1990). [CrossRef]
- K. Leo, T. C. Damen, J. Shah, E. O. Göbel, and K. Kohler, “Quantum beats of light hole and heavy hole excitons in quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 19–21 (1990). [CrossRef]
- E. O. Göbel, K. Leo, T. C. Damen, J. Shah, S. Schmitt-Rink, W. Schäfer, J. F. Muller, and K. Köhler, “Quantum beats of excitons in quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1801–1804 (1990). [CrossRef]
- P. C. Becker, H. L. Fragnito, C. H. B. Cruz, R. L. Fork, J. E. Cunningham, J. E. Henry, and C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond photon-echoes from band-to-band transitions in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1647–1649 (1988). [CrossRef]
- L. Schultheis, J. Kuhl, A. Honold, and C. W. Tu, “Picosecond phase coherence and orientational relaxation of excitons in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1797–1800 (1986). [CrossRef]
- L. Schultheis, A. Honold, J. Kuhl, K. Köhler, and C. W. Tu, “Optical dephasing of homogeneously broadened two-dimensional exciton-transitions in GaAs quantum-wells,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 9027–9030 (1986). [CrossRef]
- L. Schultheis, J. Kuhl, A. Honold, and C. W. Tu, “Ultrafast phase relaxation of excitons via exciton-exciton and exciton-electron collisions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1635–1638 (1986). [CrossRef]
- L. Schultheis, M. D. Sturge, and J. Hegarty, “Photon-echoes from two-dimensional excitons in GaAs-AlGaAs quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 995–997 (1985). [CrossRef]
- T. Takagahara, “Localization and homogeneous dephasing relaxation of quasi-2-dimensional excitons in quantum-well heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 32, 7013–7015 (1985). [CrossRef]
- T. Takagahara, “Localization and energy-transfer of quasi-2-dimensional excitons in GaAs-AlAs quantum-well heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 31, 6552–6573 (1985). [CrossRef]
- D. A. Kleinman, “Binding energy of biexcitons and bound excitons in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 28, 871–879 (1983). [CrossRef]
- J. Hegarty, M. D. Sturge, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Resonant degenerate 4-wave mixing in GaAs multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 132–134 (1982). [CrossRef]
- T. Yajima and Y. Taira, “Spatial optical parametric coupling of picosecond light-pulses and transverse relaxation effect in resonant media,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 47, 1620–1626 (1979). [CrossRef]
- I. Abella, N. Kurnit, and S. Hartmann, “Photon echoes,” Phys. Rev. 141, 391–406 (1966). [CrossRef]
- N. Kurnit, S. Hartmann, and I. Abella, “Observation of photon echo,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 567–568 (1964). [CrossRef]
- R. J. Elliott, “Intensity of optical absorption by excitons,” Phys. Rev. 108, 1384–1389 (1957). [CrossRef]
- E. Hahn, “Spin echoes,” Phys. Rev. 80, 580–594 (1950). [CrossRef]
Cited By |
Alert me when this paper is cited |
OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.
Related Journal Articles
- Determination of the piezo-optical properties of semiconductors above the fundamental gap by means of reflectance difference spectroscopy (JOSAA)
- Optical gain in (Zn, Cd)Se–Zn(S, Se) quantum wells (JOSAB)
- Optical emission from bound states of semiconductor deep-centers (OE)
- Multipolar interband absorption in a semiconductor quantum dot. I. Electric quadrupole enhancement (JOSAB)
- Modification of spontaneous emission from CdSe/CdS quantum dots in the presence of a semiconductor interface (OL)
Related Conference Papers
- Semiconductor quantum computer design with 100 nm separation of nuclear-spin qubits
- Semiconductor quantum computer design with 100 nm separation of nuclear-spin qubits
- Internal and External Polarization Memory Loss in Single Quantum Dots
- Enhanced Phonon-Assisted Absorption of InGaAs Quantum Dots Confined in a Planar Microcavity
- Theory of 2D photon echo spectroscopy on quantum well intersubband dynamics
- Theory of 2D photon echo spectroscopy on quantum well intersubband dynamics
« Previous Article | Next Article »
OSA is a member of CrossRef.
- Firefox 11+
- Google Chrome 17+
- Internet Explorer 9+
- Safari 5+