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Journal of the Optical Society of America B

Journal of the Optical Society of America B


  • Vol. 3, Iss. 4 — Apr. 1, 1986
  • pp: 514–522

On-axis photon-echo modulation in ruby

A. Szabo  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA B, Vol. 3, Issue 4, pp. 514-522 (1986)

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Theoretical and experimental studies of photon-echo modulation for the four σ transitions of the R1 line in ruby with an on-axis magnetic field are described. Echoes originating from the Cr3+ ground-state 4A2 (−3/2) spin level (−3/2 echo) are studied for the first time. Unlike ±½ echoes, the −3/2-echo modulation is found to be dominated by Cr-Al interactions occurring outside the 13 inner-shell ions. The +½-echo modulation is observed to be in major disagreement with the theory using previously determined superhyperfine parameters. Regression-analysis studies indicate that this cannot be due solely to parameter errors. Finite nuclear linewidths and/or optical pumping effects are shown to be a plausible source of the disagreement.

© 1986 Optical Society of America

A. Szabo, "On-axis photon-echo modulation in ruby," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 514-522 (1986)

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  15. P. F. Liao, P. Hu, R. Leigh, and S. R. Hartmann, "Photon-echo nuclear double resonance and its application in ruby," Phys. Rev. A 9, 332–340 (1974). The frequency scales in Fig. 6 of this paper are incorrectly drawn. 1 MHz should be subtracted from the values shown.
  16. The ground-state point-dipole value for B and the derived value A, for the G Al set, in Ref. 8 are incorrect. The correct values (Ref. 8) are B = 20.411 (10.411) kHz/nm3 and A = 0.693 (0.988) MHz. Also, the coordinates of one of the I atoms should be −0.2753, 0, −0.0564 (0.139, 0, −0.057) nm. These corrections have a negligible effect on the calculations of Ref. 8.
  17. P. E. Jessop and A. Szabo, "Single frequency cw dye laser operation in the 690–700 nm gap," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 812–813 (1980).
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  20. In this paper, we use the term "dephasing" in the context of a stochastic process. In some earlier work [e.g., D. Grischkowsky and S. R. Hartmann, "Echo behavior in ruby," Phys. Rev. Lett. 20, 41–43 (1968)] this term was also used in connection with modulation effects. Current usage implies stochastic processes.
  21. S. Meth, "Photon echo modulation and photon echo relaxation in ruby," Ph.D. dissertation (Columbia University, New York, 1977) (unpublished).
  22. S. Lee and C. M. Brodbeck, "Dynamic nuclear polarization method of investigating the correlated ESR and NMR c-axis variation effect in single crystals," Phys. Rev. B 17, 3484–3491 (1978).
  23. We have experimentally confirmed the results of Ref. 8. Also, our computer code gave identical echo-modulation curves.
  24. R. M. Shelby and R. M. Macfarlane, "Frequency-dependent optical dephasing in the stoichiometric material EuP5O14," Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1098–1101 (1980).
  25. R. G. DeVoe, A. Szabo, S. C. Rand, and R. G. Brewer, "Ultraslow optical dephasing of LaF3:Pr3+," Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1560–1563 (1979).
  26. A. Szabo, "Spin dependence of optical dephasing in ruby: the frozen core," Opt. Lett. 8, 486–487 (1983).
  27. A. Szabo and J. Chrostowski, "Stimulated on-axis photon echo modulation in ruby," in Coherence and Quantum Optics V, L. Mandel and E. Wolf, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1984), pp. 301–308.
  28. A. H. Silver, T. Kushida, and J. Lambe, "Nuclear magnetic dipole coupling in A12O3," Phys. Rev. 125, 1147–1149 (1962).
  29. W. B. Mims, "Amplitudes of superhyperfine frequencies displayed in the electron-spin-echo envelope," Phys. Rev. B 6, 3543–3545 (1972).

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