OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America B

Journal of the Optical Society of America B


  • Editor: Grover Swartzlander
  • Vol. 30, Iss. 12 — Dec. 1, 2013
  • pp: 3151–3160

Detection of terahertz frequency radiation via the photothermoelastic response of zincblende crystals

Paul Dean, Aziati H. Awang, Iman Kundu, Raed Alhathlool, Suraj P. Khanna, Lianhe H. Li, Andrew Burnett, Edmund H. Linfield, and A. Giles Davies  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA B, Vol. 30, Issue 12, pp. 3151-3160 (2013)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (685 KB) | SpotlightSpotlight on Optics Open Access

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We present experimental evidence for a photothermoelastic response in zincblende crystals illuminated by quantum cascade laser sources in the frequency range 2.2–2.9 THz. Results obtained using an optically balanced sampling arrangement indicate a mechanism whereby the stress distribution established through localized heating of the crystal induces a change in optical birefringence via the photoelastic response of the crystal. A full mathematic model of this photothermoelastic mechanism in (110)-orientated crystals is presented, and shown to agree well with experimental measurements of the magnitude, and the orientational and spatial dependencies of the sampled signal in ZnTe and GaP crystals.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(160.1190) Materials : Anisotropic optical materials
(350.5340) Other areas of optics : Photothermal effects
(040.2235) Detectors : Far infrared or terahertz
(140.5965) Lasers and laser optics : Semiconductor lasers, quantum cascade

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: August 23, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: October 14, 2013
Published: November 7, 2013

Virtual Issues
February 10, 2014 Spotlight on Optics

Paul Dean, Aziati H. Awang, Iman Kundu, Raed Alhathlool, Suraj P. Khanna, Lianhe H. Li, Andrew Burnett, Edmund H. Linfield, and A. Giles Davies, "Detection of terahertz frequency radiation via the photothermoelastic response of zincblende crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 3151-3160 (2013)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. M. C. Nuss and J. Orenstein, Millimeter and Submillimeter Wave Spectroscopy of Solids (Springer, 1998).
  2. M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Terahertz spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 7146–7159 (2002). [CrossRef]
  3. C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Exploring dynamics in the far-infrared with terahertz spectroscopy,” Chem. Rev. 104, 1759–1780 (2004). [CrossRef]
  4. A. G. Davies, A. D. Burnett, W. Fan, E. H. Linfield, and J. E. Cunningham, “Terahertz spectroscopy of explosives and drugs,” Mater. Today 11(3), 18–26 (2008). [CrossRef]
  5. P. Y. Han and X.-C. Zhang, “Free-space coherent broadband terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1747–1756 (2001). [CrossRef]
  6. Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523–3525 (1995). [CrossRef]
  7. Q. Wu and X. C. Zhang, “Ultrafast electro-optic field sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1604–1606 (1996). [CrossRef]
  8. Q. Chen, M. Tani, Z. Jiang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Electro-optic transceivers for terahertz-wave applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 823–831 (2001). [CrossRef]
  9. N. C. J. van der Valk, T. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, “Full mathematical description of electro-optic detection in optically isotropic crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 622–631 (2004). [CrossRef]
  10. Z. Jiang and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz imaging via electro-optic effect,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47, 2644–2650 (1999). [CrossRef]
  11. Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X. C. Zhang, “Two-dimensional electro-optic imaging of THz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026–1028 (1996). [CrossRef]
  12. M. Usami, M. Yamashita, K. Fukushima, C. Otani, and K. Kawase, “Terahertz wideband spectroscopic imaging based on two-dimensional electro-optic sampling technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 141109 (2005). [CrossRef]
  13. R. Rungsawang, O. Marshall, J. R. Freeman, H. E. Beere, S. Malik, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, and D. A. Ritchie, “Intensity detection of terahertz quantum cascade laser radiation using electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 191111 (2008). [CrossRef]
  14. J. Darmo, M. Martl, and K. Unterrainer, “Quasi phase-matched terahertz detector,” Electron. Lett. 46, 788–790 (2010). [CrossRef]
  15. D. Oustinov, N. Jukam, R. Rungsawang, J. Madéo, S. Barbieri, P. Filloux, C. Sirtori, X. Marcadet, J. Tignon, and S. Dhillon, “Phase seeding of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Commun. 1, 1–6 (2010). [CrossRef]
  16. J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, M. S. M. Ibrahim, K. Maussang, J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, D. P. Steenson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, J. Tignon, and S. S. Dhillon, “Integrated injection seeded terahertz source and amplifier for time-domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 37, 731–733 (2012). [CrossRef]
  17. S. Barbieri, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, L. Ding, W. Maineult, C. Sirtori, R. Colombelli, H. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Phase-locking of a 2.7-THz quantum cascade laser to a mode-locked erbium-doped fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4, 636–640 (2010). [CrossRef]
  18. S. Barbieri, M. Ravaro, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Coherent sampling of active mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers and frequency synthesis,” Nat. Photonics 5, 306–313 (2011). [CrossRef]
  19. J. Maysonnave, N. Jukam, M. S. M. Ibrahim, R. Rungsawang, K. Maussang, J. Madéo, P. Cavalié, P. Dean, S. P. Khanna, D. P. Steenson, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, S. S. Dhillon, and J. Tignon, “Measuring the sampling coherence of a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 20, 16662–16670 (2012). [CrossRef]
  20. A. van Kolck, M. Amanti, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, and J. Lloyd-Hughes, “Thermo-optic detection of terahertz radiation from a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 251103 (2010). [CrossRef]
  21. S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, “2.9 THz quantum cascade lasers operating up to 70 K in continuous wave,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1674–1676 (2004). [CrossRef]
  22. M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, A. Rudra, P. Gallo, and E. Kapon, “Bound-to-continuum terahertz quantum cascade laser with a single-quantum-well phonon extraction/injection stage,” New J. Phys. 11, 125022 (2009). [CrossRef]
  23. Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X. C. Zhang, “Electro-optic sampling near zero optical transmission point,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1191–1193 (1999). [CrossRef]
  24. P. C. M. Planken, H.-K. Nienhuys, H. J. Bakker, and T. Wenckebach, “Measurement and calculation of the orientation dependence of terahertz pulse detection in ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 313–317 (2001). [CrossRef]
  25. R. A. Smith, F. E. Jones, and R. P. Chasmar, The Detection and Measurement of Infrared Radiation, 2nd ed. (Oxford University, 1968).
  26. V. S. Cherkassky, B. A. Knyazev, V. V. Kubarev, G. N. Kulipanov, G. L. Kuryshev, A. N. Matveenko, A. K. Petrov, V. M. Popik, M. A. Scheglov, O. A. Shevchenko, and N. A. Vinokurov, “Imaging techniques for a high-power THz free electron laser,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 543, 102–109 (2005). [CrossRef]
  27. S. Adachi, Handbook on Physical Properties of Semiconductors (Kluwer Academic, 2004), Vol. 3.
  28. G. Ghosh, “Temperature dispersion of refractive indices in semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 9388–9389 (1996). [CrossRef]
  29. M. Bass, Handbook of Optics, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2009), Vol. 4.
  30. B. A. Boley and J. H. Weiner, Theory of Thermal Stresses (Wiley, 1960).
  31. J. F. Nye, Physical Properties of Crystals (Clarendon, 1957).
  32. B. A. Auld, Acoustic Fields and Waves in Solids, 2nd ed. (Krieger, 1990), Vol. 1.
  33. M. Yamada, K. Yamamoto, and K. Abe, “Elastic and photoelastic constants of ZnTe measured by Brillouin scattering,” J. Phys. D 10, 1309–1313 (1977). [CrossRef]
  34. M. E. Levinštejn, S. Rumyantsev, and M. Shur, Handbook Series on Semiconductor Parameters (World Scientific, 1999), Vol. 2.
  35. M. Yamada, K. Wasa, and C. Hamaguchi, “Brillouin scattering in GaP,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 15, 1107–1111 (1976). [CrossRef]
  36. W. L. Bond, “Measurement of the refractive indices of several crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 36, 1674–1677 (1965). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited