OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America B

Journal of the Optical Society of America B


  • Editor: Grover Swartzlander
  • Vol. 30, Iss. 8 — Aug. 1, 2013
  • pp: 2148–2156

Full-wave finite-difference time-domain analysis of the invisibility cloak mapped to a line segment with isotropic complementary media

Y. Y. Lee and Doyeol Ahn  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA B, Vol. 30, Issue 8, pp. 2148-2156 (2013)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (2016 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A dispersive full-wave finite-difference time-domain model is used to study the performance of point mapped and line-segment mapped complementary invisibility cloaking devices. We have used the permittivity and the permeability tensors for conventional elliptic and bipolar cylindrical invisibility cloaks obtained from an effective medium approach in general relativity. In the case of a line-segment mapped cloak we also employ the mapping of the σ-axis in bipolar cylindrical coordinates. In these cloaks, we employ the complementary media both horizontally and vertically. Cloaks with horizontally or vertically arranged complementary media mapped to a point show good performance of cloaking in any case. On the other hand, cloaks with horizontally arranged complementary media mapped to a line-segment, do not show cloaking performance. However, for cloaks with vertically arranged complementary media mapped to a line-segment, cloaking works very well in any cases. These results show improved cloaking performance over the conventional cloaks with perfect electrical conductor mapped to a line-segment. On the other hand, realistic cloaking materials with loss still show cloaking but attenuated backscattering waves exist.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(350.5720) Other areas of optics : Relativity
(160.3918) Materials : Metamaterials
(230.3205) Optical devices : Invisibility cloaks

ToC Category:
Optical Devices

Original Manuscript: February 15, 2013
Revised Manuscript: May 31, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: June 19, 2013
Published: July 17, 2013

Y. Y. Lee and Doyeol Ahn, "Full-wave finite-difference time-domain analysis of the invisibility cloak mapped to a line segment with isotropic complementary media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 2148-2156 (2013)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312, 1780–1782 (2006). [CrossRef]
  2. W. Wang, L. Lin, J. Ma, C. Wang, J. Cui, C. Du, and X. Luo, “Electromagnetic concentrators with reduced material parameters based on coordinate transformation,” Opt. Express 16, 11431–11437 (2008). [CrossRef]
  3. L. Lin, W. Wang, J. Cui, C. Du, and X. Luo, “Design of electromagnetic refractor and phase transformer using coordinate transformation theory,” Opt. Express 16, 6815–6821 (2008). [CrossRef]
  4. P. H. Tichit, S. N. Burokur, and A. De Lustrac, “Waveguide taper engineering using coordinate transformation technology,” Opt. Express 18, 767–772 (2010). [CrossRef]
  5. K. Zhang, Q. Wu, F. Y. Meng, and L. W. Li, “Arbitrary waveguide connector based on embedded optical transformation,” Opt. Express 18, 17273–17279 (2010). [CrossRef]
  6. U. Leonhardt, “Optical conformal mapping,” Science 312, 1777–1780 (2006). [CrossRef]
  7. S. A. Cummer, B. I. Popa, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and J. Pendry, “Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 036621 (2006). [CrossRef]
  8. D. Schurig, J. Mock, B. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. Pendry, A. Starr, and D. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006). [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Huang, Y. Feng, and T. Jiang, “Electromagnetic cloaking by layered structure of homogeneous isotropic materials,” Opt. Express 15, 11133–11141 (2007). [CrossRef]
  10. B. Zhang, H. Chen, and B. I. Wu, “Limitations of high-order transformation and incident angle on simplified invisibility cloaks,” Opt. Express 16, 14655–14660 (2008). [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Luo, J. Zhang, H. Chen, S. Xi, and B. I. Wu, “Cylindrical cloak with axial permittivity/permeability spatially invariant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 033504 (2008). [CrossRef]
  12. Q. Wu, K. Zhang, F. Y. Meng, and L. W. Li, “Investigation of the far/near-field properties of the inhomogeneous and anisotropic invisible cloak covered PEC cylinder illuminated by the parallel electric-line-source,” Appl. Phys. A 95, 335–341 (2009). [CrossRef]
  13. U. Leonhardt and T. G. Philbin, “General relativity in electrical engineering,” New J. Phys. 8, 247 (2006). [CrossRef]
  14. D. Ahn, “Calculation of permittivity tensors for invisibility devices by effective medium approach in general relativity,” J. Mod. Opt. 58, 700–710 (2011). [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Lee and D. Ahn, “Dispersive finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) analysis of the elliptic cylindrical cloak,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 60, 1349–1360 (2012). [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Y. Lee and D. Ahn, “Dispersive full-wave finite-difference time-domain analysis of the bipolar cylindrical cloak based on the effective medium approach,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 140–148 (2013). [CrossRef]
  17. I. Tamm, “Electrodynamics of an anisotropic medium in the special theory of relativity,” J. Russ. Phys. Chem. Soc 56, 248 (1924).
  18. J. Plebanski, “Electromagnetic waves in gravitational fields,” Phys. Rev. 118, 1396–1408 (1960). [CrossRef]
  19. A. Lakhtakia and T. G. Mackay, “Towards gravitationally assisted negative refraction of light by vacuum,” J. Phys. A 37, L505–L510 (2004). [CrossRef]
  20. T. G. Mackay, A. Lakhtakia, and S. Setiawan, “Gravitation and electromagnetic wave propagation with negative phase velocity,” New J. Phys. 7, 75 (2005). [CrossRef]
  21. T. G. Mackay and A. Lakhtakia, “Negative refraction, negative phase velocity, and counterposition in bianisotropic materials and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 235121 (2009). [CrossRef]
  22. M. W. McCall, “On negative refraction in classical vacuum,” J. Mod. Opt. 54, 119–128 (2007). [CrossRef]
  23. M. W. McCall, “Classical gravity does not refract negatively,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 91102 (2007). [CrossRef]
  24. Y. Lai, H. Chen, Z. Q. Zhang, and C. Chan, “Complementary media invisibility cloak that cloaks objects at a distance outside the cloaking shell,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 93901 (2009). [CrossRef]
  25. J. Yang, M. Huang, C. Yang, and J. Yu, “Reciprocal invisibility cloak based on complementary media,” Eur. Phys. J. D 61, 731–736 (2011). [CrossRef]
  26. J. S. Mei, Q. Wu, and K. Zhang, “Complementary cloak based on conventional cloak with axial symmetrical cloaked region,” Appl. Phys. A 108, 1001–1005 (2012). [CrossRef]
  27. B. Kanté, D. Germain, and A. De Lustrac, “Experimental demonstration of a nonmagnetic metamaterial cloak at microwave frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B 80, 201104 (2009). [CrossRef]
  28. R. Liu, C. Ji, J. Mock, J. Chin, T. Cui, and D. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323, 366–369 (2009). [CrossRef]
  29. J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8, 568–571 (2009). [CrossRef]
  30. C. Argyropoulos, Y. Zhao, and Y. Hao, “A radially-dependent dispersive finite-difference time-domain method for the evaluation of electromagnetic cloaks,” IEEE Trans. Antenna Propag. 57, 1432–1441 (2009).
  31. A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics (Artech House, 1995).
  32. D. M. Sullivan, Electromagnetic Simulation Using the FDTD Method (IEEE, 2000).
  33. D. M. Sullivan, “A simplified PML for use with the FDTD method,” IEEE Microw. Guided Wave Lett. 6, 97 (1996). [CrossRef]
  34. Y. Hao and R. Mittra, FDTD Modeling of Metamaterials: Theory and Applications (Artech House, 2009).
  35. K. Yee, “Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell’s equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Trans. Antenna Propag. 14, 302–307 (1966).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited