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Crossover from electromagnetically induced transparency to Autler–Townes splitting in open ladder systems with Doppler broadeningChaohua Tan and Guoxiang Huang »View Author Affiliations
Chaohua Tan
and Guoxiang Huang^{*}
^{}State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy and Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China ^{*}Corresponding author: gxhuang@phy.ecnu.edu.cn |
JOSA B, Vol. 31, Issue 4, pp. 704-715 (2014)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAB.31.000704
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Abstract
We propose a general theoretical scheme to investigate the crossover from electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) to Autler–Townes splitting (ATS) in open ladder-type atomic and molecular systems with Doppler broadening. We show that when the wavenumber ratio
© 2014 Optical Society of America
OCIS Codes
(020.1670) Atomic and molecular physics : Coherent optical effects
(020.3690) Atomic and molecular physics : Line shapes and shifts
ToC Category:
Atomic and Molecular Physics
History
Original Manuscript: November 18, 2013
Revised Manuscript: January 19, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: January 27, 2014
Published: March 5, 2014
Citation
Chaohua Tan and Guoxiang Huang, "Crossover from electromagnetically induced transparency to Autler–Townes splitting in open ladder systems with Doppler broadening," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31, 704-715 (2014)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josab/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-31-4-704
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References
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- Note that the wavenumber ratio defined in our paper is the reciprocal of that defined in [20].
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- H. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Chen, S. Bao, L. Zhang, J. Zhao, and S. Jia, “Autler–Townes splitting of a cascade system in ultracold cesium Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 033835 (2013). [CrossRef]
- K. J. Weatherill, J. D. Pritchard, R. P. Abel, M. G. Bason, A. K. Mohapatra, and C. S. Adams, “Electromagnetically induced transparency of an interacting cold Rydberg ensemble,” J. Phys. B 41, 201002 (2008). [CrossRef]
- T. Y. Abi-Salloum, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and Autler–Townes splitting: two similar but distinct phenomena in two categories of three-level atomic systems,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 053836 (2010). [CrossRef]
- S. Sevinçli, C. Ates, T. Pohl, H. Schempp, C. S. Hofmann, G. Günter, T. Amthor, M. Weidemüller, J. D. Pritchard, D. Maxwell, A. Gauguet, K. J. Weatherill, M. P. A. Jones, and C. S. Adams, “Quantum interference in interacting three-level Rydberg gases: coherent population trapping and electromagnetically induced transparency,” J. Phys. B 44, 184018 (2011). [CrossRef]
- J. D. Pritchard, D. Maxwell, A. Gauguet, K. J. Weatherill, M. P. A. Jones, and C. S. Adams, “Cooperative atom-light interaction in a blockaded Rydberg ensemble,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 193603 (2010). [CrossRef]
- K. J. Weatherill, J. D. Pritchard, R. P. Abel, M. G. Bason, A. K. Mohapatra, and C. S. Adams, “Electromagnetically induced transparency of an interacting cold Rydberg ensemble,” J. Phys. B 41, 201002 (2008). [CrossRef]
- A. K. Mohapatra, M. G. Bason, B. Butscher, K. J. Weatherill, and C. S. Adams, “A giant electro-optic effect using polarizable dark states,” Nat. Phys. 4, 890–894 (2008). [CrossRef]
- A. K. Mohapatra, T. R. Jackson, and C. S. Adams, “Coherent optical detection of highly excited Rydberg states using electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 113003 (2007). [CrossRef]
- J. D. Pritchard, K. J. Weatherill, and C. S. Adams, “Non-linear optics using cold Rydberg atoms,” in Annual Review of Cold Atoms and Molecules, K. W. Madison, Y. Wang, A. M. Rey, and K. Bongs, eds. (World Scientific, 2013), Vol. 1, pp. 301–350.
- G. S. Agarwal, “Nature of the quantum interference in electromagnetic-field-induced control of absorption,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 2467–2470 (1997). [CrossRef]
- E. Ahmed and A. M. Lyyra, “Effect of Doppler broadening on Autler–Townes splitting in the molecular cascade excitation scheme,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 053407 (2007). [CrossRef]
- E. Ahmed, A. Hansson, P. Qi, T. Kirova, A. Lazoudis, S. Kotochigova, A. M. Lyyra, L. Li, J. Qi, and S. Magnier, “Measurement of the electronic transition dipole moment by Autler–Townes splitting: comparison of three- and four-level excitation schemes for the Na2A1∑u+−X1∑g+ system,” J. Chem. Phys. 124, 084308 (2006). [CrossRef]
- A. Lazoudis, E. H. Ahmed, L. Li, T. Kirova, P. Qi, A. Hansson, J. Magnes, and A. M. Lyyra, “Experimental observation of the dependence of Autler–Townes splitting on the probe and coupling laser wave-number ratio in Doppler-broadened open molecular cascade systems,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 043405 (2008). [CrossRef]
- S. Sevinçli, C. Ates, T. Pohl, H. Schempp, C. S. Hofmann, G. Günter, T. Amthor, M. Weidemüller, J. D. Pritchard, D. Maxwell, A. Gauguet, K. J. Weatherill, M. P. A. Jones, and C. S. Adams, “Quantum interference in interacting three-level Rydberg gases: coherent population trapping and electromagnetically induced transparency,” J. Phys. B 44, 184018 (2011). [CrossRef]
- H. Schempp, G. Günter, C. S. Hofmann, C. Giese, S. D. Saliba, B. D. DePaola, T. Amthor, M. Weidemüller, S. Sevinçli, and T. Pohl, “Coherent population trapping with controlled interparticle interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 173602 (2010). [CrossRef]
- P. Anisimov and O. Kocharovskaya, “Decaying-dressed-state analysis of a coherently driven three-level Λ system,” J. Mod. Opt. 55, 3159–3171 (2008). [CrossRef]
- P. M. Anisimov, J. P. Dowling, and B. C. Sanders, “Objectively discerning Autler–Townes splitting from electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett 107, 163604 (2011). [CrossRef]
- C. Ates, S. Sevincli, and T. Pohl, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in strongly interacting Rydberg gases,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 041802(R) (2011). [CrossRef]
- S. Sevinçli, C. Ates, T. Pohl, H. Schempp, C. S. Hofmann, G. Günter, T. Amthor, M. Weidemüller, J. D. Pritchard, D. Maxwell, A. Gauguet, K. J. Weatherill, M. P. A. Jones, and C. S. Adams, “Quantum interference in interacting three-level Rydberg gases: coherent population trapping and electromagnetically induced transparency,” J. Phys. B 44, 184018 (2011). [CrossRef]
- S. H. Autler and C. H. Townes, “Stark effect in rapidly varying fields,” Phys. Rev. 100, 703–722 (1955). [CrossRef]
- Y. Zhao, C. Wu, B.-S. Ham, M. K. Kim, and E. Awad, “Microwave induced transparency in ruby,” Phys. Rev. Lett 79, 641–644 (1997). [CrossRef]
- B. Huber, T. Baluktsian, M. Schlagmüller, A. Kölle, H. Kübler, R. Löw, and T. Pfau, “GHz Rabi flopping to Rydberg states in hot atomic vapor cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett 107, 243001 (2011). [CrossRef]
- H. Kübler, J. P. Shaffer, T. Baluktsian, R. Löw, and T. Pfau, “Coherent excitation of Rydberg atoms in micrometre-sized atomic vapour cells,” Nat. Photonics 4, 112–116 (2010). [CrossRef]
- H. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Chen, S. Bao, L. Zhang, J. Zhao, and S. Jia, “Autler–Townes splitting of a cascade system in ultracold cesium Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 033835 (2013). [CrossRef]
- F. Bariani, Y. O. Dudin, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, “Dephasing of multiparticle Rydberg excitations for fast entanglement generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett 108, 030501 (2012). [CrossRef]
- Y. O. Dudin, L. Li, F. Bariani, and A. Kuzmich, “Observation of coherent many-body Rabi oscillations,” Nat. Phys. 8, 790–794 (2012). [CrossRef]
- K. J. Weatherill, J. D. Pritchard, R. P. Abel, M. G. Bason, A. K. Mohapatra, and C. S. Adams, “Electromagnetically induced transparency of an interacting cold Rydberg ensemble,” J. Phys. B 41, 201002 (2008). [CrossRef]
- A. K. Mohapatra, M. G. Bason, B. Butscher, K. J. Weatherill, and C. S. Adams, “A giant electro-optic effect using polarizable dark states,” Nat. Phys. 4, 890–894 (2008). [CrossRef]
- H. Lee, Y. Rostovtsev, C. J. Bednar, and A. Javan, “From laser-induced line narrowing to electromagnetically induced transparency: closed system analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 33–39 (2003). [CrossRef]
- B. K. Teo, D. Feldbaum, T. Cubel, J. R. Guest, P. R. Berman, and G. Raithel, “Autler–Townes spectroscopy of the 5S1/2−5P3/2−44D cascade of cold 85Rb atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 053407 (2003). [CrossRef]
- U. Raitzsch, R. Heidemann, H. Weimer, B. Butscher, P. Kollmann, R. Löw, H. P. Büchler, and T. Pfau, “Investigation of dephasing rates in an interacting Rydberg gas,” New J. Phys. 11, 055014 (2009). [CrossRef]
- L. Giner, L. Veissier, B. Sparkes, A. S. Sheremet, A. Nicolas, O. S. Mishina, M. Scherman, S. Burks, I. Shomroni, D. V. Kupriyanov, P. K. Lam, E. Giacobino, and J. Laurat, “Experimental investigation of the transition between Autler–Townes splitting and electromagnetically-induced-transparency models,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 013823 (2013). [CrossRef]
- U. Raitzsch, R. Heidemann, H. Weimer, B. Butscher, P. Kollmann, R. Löw, H. P. Büchler, and T. Pfau, “Investigation of dephasing rates in an interacting Rydberg gas,” New J. Phys. 11, 055014 (2009). [CrossRef]
- A. K. Mohapatra, M. G. Bason, B. Butscher, K. J. Weatherill, and C. S. Adams, “A giant electro-optic effect using polarizable dark states,” Nat. Phys. 4, 890–894 (2008). [CrossRef]
- R.-Y. Chang, W.-C. Fang, Z.-S. He, B.-C. Ke, P.-N. Chen, and C.-C. Tsai, “Doubly dressed states in a ladder-type system with electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 053420 (2007). [CrossRef]
- J. J. Clarke, W. A. van Wijngaarden, and H. Chen, “Electromagnetically induced transparency using a vapor cell and a laser-cooled sample of cesium atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 023818 (2001). [CrossRef]
- H. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Chen, S. Bao, L. Zhang, J. Zhao, and S. Jia, “Autler–Townes splitting of a cascade system in ultracold cesium Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 033835 (2013). [CrossRef]
- R.-Y. Chang, W.-C. Fang, Z.-S. He, B.-C. Ke, P.-N. Chen, and C.-C. Tsai, “Doubly dressed states in a ladder-type system with electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 053420 (2007). [CrossRef]
- J. J. Clarke, W. A. van Wijngaarden, and H. Chen, “Electromagnetically induced transparency using a vapor cell and a laser-cooled sample of cesium atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 023818 (2001). [CrossRef]
- C. Cohen-Tannoudji, “Amazing light: a volume dedicated to Charles Hard Townes on his 80th birthday,” in The Autler-Townes Effect Revisited,R. Y. Chiao, ed. (Springer, 1996), p. 109.
- B. K. Teo, D. Feldbaum, T. Cubel, J. R. Guest, P. R. Berman, and G. Raithel, “Autler–Townes spectroscopy of the 5S1/2−5P3/2−44D cascade of cold 85Rb atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 053407 (2003). [CrossRef]
- H. Schempp, G. Günter, C. S. Hofmann, C. Giese, S. D. Saliba, B. D. DePaola, T. Amthor, M. Weidemüller, S. Sevinçli, and T. Pohl, “Coherent population trapping with controlled interparticle interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 173602 (2010). [CrossRef]
- P. M. Anisimov, J. P. Dowling, and B. C. Sanders, “Objectively discerning Autler–Townes splitting from electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett 107, 163604 (2011). [CrossRef]
- F. Bariani, Y. O. Dudin, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, “Dephasing of multiparticle Rydberg excitations for fast entanglement generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett 108, 030501 (2012). [CrossRef]
- Y. O. Dudin, L. Li, F. Bariani, and A. Kuzmich, “Observation of coherent many-body Rabi oscillations,” Nat. Phys. 8, 790–794 (2012). [CrossRef]
- R.-Y. Chang, W.-C. Fang, Z.-S. He, B.-C. Ke, P.-N. Chen, and C.-C. Tsai, “Doubly dressed states in a ladder-type system with electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 053420 (2007). [CrossRef]
- B. K. Teo, D. Feldbaum, T. Cubel, J. R. Guest, P. R. Berman, and G. Raithel, “Autler–Townes spectroscopy of the 5S1/2−5P3/2−44D cascade of cold 85Rb atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 053407 (2003). [CrossRef]
- J. Qi, F. C. Spano, T. Kirova, A. Lazoudis, J. Magnes, L. Li, L. M. Narducci, R. W. Field, and A. M. Lyyra, “Measurement of transition dipole moments in lithium dimers using electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett 88, 173003 (2002). [CrossRef]
- T. Peyronel, O. Firstenberg, Q.-Y. Liang, S. Hofferberth, A. V. Gorshkov, T. Pohl, M. D. Lukin, and V. Vuletić, “Quantum nonlinear optics with single photons enabled by strongly interacting atoms,” Nature 488, 57–60 (2012). [CrossRef]
- D. Petrosyan, J. Otterbach, and M. Fleischhauer, “Electromagnetically induced transparency with Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 213601 (2011). [CrossRef]
- A. V. Gorshkov, J. Otterbach, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pohl, and M. D. Lukin, “Photon–photon interactions via Rydberg blockade,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 133602 (2011). [CrossRef]
- M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633–673 (2005). [CrossRef]
- S. Sevinçli, C. Ates, T. Pohl, H. Schempp, C. S. Hofmann, G. Günter, T. Amthor, M. Weidemüller, J. D. Pritchard, D. Maxwell, A. Gauguet, K. J. Weatherill, M. P. A. Jones, and C. S. Adams, “Quantum interference in interacting three-level Rydberg gases: coherent population trapping and electromagnetically induced transparency,” J. Phys. B 44, 184018 (2011). [CrossRef]
- J. D. Pritchard, D. Maxwell, A. Gauguet, K. J. Weatherill, M. P. A. Jones, and C. S. Adams, “Cooperative atom-light interaction in a blockaded Rydberg ensemble,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 193603 (2010). [CrossRef]
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- L. Giner, L. Veissier, B. Sparkes, A. S. Sheremet, A. Nicolas, O. S. Mishina, M. Scherman, S. Burks, I. Shomroni, D. V. Kupriyanov, P. K. Lam, E. Giacobino, and J. Laurat, “Experimental investigation of the transition between Autler–Townes splitting and electromagnetically-induced-transparency models,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 013823 (2013). [CrossRef]
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Appl. Phys. B
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J. Chem. Phys.
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J. Mod. Opt.
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J. Phys. B
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Nat. Photonics
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Nat. Phys.
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Nature
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New J. Phys.
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Opt. Commun.
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Opt. Express
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Opt. Lett.
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Phys. Rev.
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Phys. Rev. A
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