The first ionization potential of hafnium, Hf I, has been determined as 55047.9(3) cm−1 by double-resonance, field-ionization spectroscopy performed on an atomic beam produced by laser vaporization of a hafnium target.
© 1988 Optical Society of America
C. L. Callender, P. A. Hackett, and D. M. Rayner, "First ionization potential of hafnium by double-resonance field-ionization spectroscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1341-1342 (1988)