OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America B

Journal of the Optical Society of America B


  • Vol. 6, Iss. 4 — Apr. 1, 1989
  • pp: 622–633

Potassium titanyl phosphate: properties and new applications

John D. Bierlein and Herman Vanherzeele  »View Author Affiliations

JOSA B, Vol. 6, Issue 4, pp. 622-633 (1989)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (2786 KB) Open Access

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) is a unique nonlinear-optical material that is being widely used for second-harmonic generation of Nd lasers emitting near 1 μm. KTP is also attractive for various sum- and difference-frequency and optical parametric applications over its entire transparency range from 0.35 to 4.5 μm. Its combination of large electro-optic coefficients and low dielectric constants makes KTP potentially useful for various electro-optic applications, and, in particular, it has a figure of merit for an optical waveguide modulator that is nearly a factor of 2 larger than that for any other inorganic material. Low-loss optical waveguides can be formed in KTP, and several electro-optic and nonlinear-optic devices have been fabricated that confirm that KTP is also a superior material for many optical waveguide applications.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: October 3, 1988
Manuscript Accepted: December 16, 1988
Published: April 1, 1989

John D. Bierlein and Herman Vanherzeele, "Potassium titanyl phosphate: properties and new applications," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 622-633 (1989)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. D. Bierlein, T. D. Gier, U.S. Patent3,949,323 (April6, 1976).
  2. F. C. Zumsteg, J. D. Bierlein, T. E. Gier, “Kx Rb1−x TiOPO4: a new nonlinear optical material,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4980 (1976). [CrossRef]
  3. J. D. Bierlein, C. B. Arweiler, “Electro-optic and dielectric properties of KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 917 (1986). [CrossRef]
  4. J. D. Bierlein, A. Ferretti, L. H. Brixner, W. Y. Hsu, “Fabrication and characterization of optical waveguides in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1216 (1987). [CrossRef]
  5. I. Tordjman, R. Masse, J. C. Guitel, “Structure cristalline du monophosphate KTiPO5,” Z. Kristallogr. 139, 103 (1974). [CrossRef]
  6. G. Gashurov, R. F. Belt, “Growth of KTP,” in Tunable Solid State Lasers for Remote Sensing, R. L. Byer, E. K. Gustafson, R. Frebino, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1985), p. 119. [CrossRef]
  7. R. A. Laudise, R. J. Cava, A. J. Caporaso, “Phase relations, solubility and growth of potassium titanyl phosphate, KTP,” J. Crystal Growth 74, 275 (1986). [CrossRef]
  8. D. F. Cai, Z. T. Yang, “Investigation on some properties of KTiOPO4crystals,” J. Crystal Growth 79, 974 (1986). [CrossRef]
  9. D. Z. Shen, C. E. Huang, “A new nonlinear optical crystal KTP,” Prog. Crystal Growth Characterization 11, 269 (1985). [CrossRef]
  10. J. C. Jacco, G. M. Loiacono, M. Jaso, G. Mizell, B. Greenberg, “Flux growth and properties of KTiOPO4,” J. Crystal Growth 70, 484 (1984). [CrossRef]
  11. Y. G. Liui, B. Xu, J. R. Han, X. Y. Liu, M. H. Jiang, “Growth of KTiOPO4crystal for high efficiency SHG devices and its main properties,” Chin. J. Lasers 13, 438 (1986).
  12. A. A. Ballman, H. Brown, D. H. Olson, C. E. Rice, “Growth of potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) from molten tungstate melts,” J. Crystal Growth 75, 390 (1986). [CrossRef]
  13. P. F. Bordui, J. C. Jacco, G. M. Loiacono, R. A. Stolzenberger, J. J. Zola, “Growth of large single crystals of KTiOPO4(KTP) from high-temperature solution using heat pipe based furnace system,” J. Crystal Growth 84, 403 (1987). [CrossRef]
  14. J. D. Bierlein, F. Ahmed, “Observation and poling of ferroelectric domains in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1322 (1987). [CrossRef]
  15. G. M. Loiacono, R. A. Stolzenberger, “Observations of complex domain walls in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1498 (1988); V. I. Voronkova, R. S. Gvozdover, V. K. Vanovskii, “Ferroelectric domains in KTiOPO4and RbTiOPO4crystals,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 13, 390 (1987). [CrossRef]
  16. R. F. Belt, G. Gashurov, Y. S. Liu, “KTP as a harmonic generator for Nd:YAG lasers,” Laser Focus 21, 110 (1985).
  17. F. C. Zumsteg, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Wilmington, Delaware 19880 (personal communicaton).
  18. T. E. Gier, F. C. Zumsteg, “KTP crystals for second harmonic generation,” written for contract F33615-77-C-1131 (E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Wilmington, Del., November1978).
  19. J. Q. Yao, T. S. Fahlen, “Calculations of optimum phase match parameters for the biaxial crystal KTiOPO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 55, 65 (1984). [CrossRef]
  20. Y. S. Liu, L. Drafall, D. Dentz, R. Belt, “Nonlinear optical phase-matching properties of KTiOPO4,” (General Electric, Schenectady, N.Y., 1982).
  21. D. T. Hon, “High average power, efficient second harmonic generation,” in Laser Handbook, M. L. Stitch, ed. (North-Holland, New York, 1979), Vol. 3, p. 421.
  22. Y. S. Liu, D. Dentz, R. Belt, “High-average-power intracavity second-harmonic generation using KTiOPO4in an acousto-optically Q-switched Nd:YAG laser oscillator at 5 kHz,” Opt. Lett. 9, 76 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. P. E. Perkins, T. S. Fahlen, “20-W average-power KTP intracavity-doubled Nd:YAG laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1066 (1987). [CrossRef]
  24. T. A. Driscoll, H. J. Hoffman, R. E. Stone, P. E. Perkins, “Efficient second-harmonic generation in KTP crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 683 (1986). [CrossRef]
  25. H. Vanherzeele, “Optimization of a cw mode-locked and frequency-doubled Nd:YLF laser,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3608 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. G. Huth, D. Kuizenga, “Green light from doubled Nd:YAG lasers,” Lasers Optron. 6, 59 (1987).
  27. See, e.g., D. A. Auston, K. B. Eisenthal eds., Proceedings of the Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena IV, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984); G. R. Fleming, A. E. Siegman, eds., Proceedings of the Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena V (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986). [CrossRef]
  28. H. Vanherzeele, L. De Vos, P. Muys, “Tunable dye laser pumped by a frequency-doubled high power cw Nd:YAG laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3(13), P65 (1986).
  29. P. E. Perkins, T. S. Fahlen, “Half watt average power at 25 kHz from fourth harmonic of Nd:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1636 (1985). [CrossRef]
  30. P. E. Perkins, T. A. Driscoll, “Efficient intracavity doubling in flash-lamp pumped Nd:YLF,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1281 (1987). [CrossRef]
  31. S. E. Moody, J. M. Eggleston, J. F. Seamans, “Long-pulse second harmonic generation in KTP,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 335 (1987). [CrossRef]
  32. T. Baer, “Frequency-doubled, diode pumped Nd:YAG lasers,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 610, 45 (1986).
  33. P. Kortz, Adlas GmbH, Lubeck, Federal Republic of Germany (personal communication).
  34. A. L. Aleksandrovskii, S. A. Akhmanov, V. A. D’yakov, N. I. Zheludev, V. I. Pryalkin, “Efficient nonlinear optical converters made of potassium titanyl phosphate crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15, 885 (1985). [CrossRef]
  35. S. Reynaud, C. Fabre, E. Giacobino, “Quantum fluctuations in a two-mode parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1520 (1987). [CrossRef]
  36. A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, “Observation of quantum noise reduction of twin laser beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, A. LaPorta, “Squeezed light-enhanced polarization interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. R. E. Slusher, P. Grangier, A. LaPorta, B. Yurke, M. J. Potasek, “Pulsed squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2566 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. K. H. Hellwege, ed., Landolt–Bornstein Tables, Nonlinear Dielectric Susceptibilities (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979), Vol. 2, Group 3, Sec. 6.; Sellmeier equations in this reference are constructed from only a limited refractive-index data set from Ref. 2 for hydrothermally grown KTP.
  40. T. Y. Fan, C. E. Huang, B. Q. Hu, R. C. Eckardt, Y. X. Fan, R. L. Byer, R. S. Feigelson, “Second harmonic generation and accurate index of refraction measurements in flux-grown KTiOPO4,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2390 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. K. Kato, “Second harmonic and sum-frequency generation to 4950 and 4589 Å in KTP,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 3 (1988). [CrossRef]
  42. D. W. Anthon, C. D. Crowder, “Wavelength dependent phase matching in KTP,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2650 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. H. Vanherzeele, J. D. Bierlein, F. C. Zumsteg, “Index of refraction measurements and parametric generation in hydrothermally-grown KTiOPO4,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3314 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. H. Vanherzeele, “Optical parametric conversion of picosecond pulses in KTiOPO4,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5(13), P87 (1988).
  45. I. Ledoux, J. Badan, J. Zyss, “Generation of high-peak power tunable infrared femtosecond pulses in an organic crystal: application to time resolution of weak infrared signals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 987 (1987). [CrossRef]
  46. J.-C. Baumert, F. M. Schellenberg, W. Lenth, W. P. Risk, G. C. Bjorklund, “Generation of blue cw coherent radiation by sum frequency mixing in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2192 (1987). [CrossRef]
  47. W. P. Risk, J.-C. Baumert, G. C. Bjorklund, F. M. Schellenberg, W. Lenth, “Generation of blue light by intracavity frequency mixing of the laser and pump radiation of a miniature neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 85 (1988). [CrossRef]
  48. A. Seilmeier, W. Kaiser, “Generation of tunable picosecond light pulses covering the frequency range between 2,700 and 32,000 cm−1,” Appl. Phys. 23, 113 (1980). [CrossRef]
  49. D. W. Anthon, H. Nathel, D. M. Guthals, J. H. Clark, “Scanning picosecond optical parametric source using potassium dihydrogen phosphate in the visible and near infrared,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 2054 (1987). [CrossRef]
  50. L. L. Chase, R. Adair, S. A. Payne, “Influence of structure and composition of the third-order susceptibility of inorganic optical materials,” Mat. Res. Soc. EA-12, 13 (1987).
  51. G. A. Massey, T. M. Loehr, L. J. Willis, J. C. Johnson, “Raman and electrooptic properties of potassium titanate phosphate,” Appl. Opt. 19, 4136 (1980). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  52. R. F. Belt, G. Gashurov, R. A. Laudise, “Low temperature hydrothermal growth of KTiOPO4(KTP),” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 968, 100 (1988).
  53. V. K. Yanovskii, V. I. Voronkova, “Ferroelectric phase transitions and properties of crystals of the KTiOPO4family,” Phys. Status Solidi A 93, 665 (1986). [CrossRef]
  54. J. D. Bierlein, A. Ferretti, M. Roelofs, “KTiOPO4(KTP): a new material for optical waveguide applications,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 994, 160 (1989).
  55. D. B. Laubacher, V. L. Guerra, M. P. Chouinard, J.-Y. Liou, P. H. Wyat, “Fabrication and performance of KTP optoelectronic modulators,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 993, 80 (1988).
  56. J. D. Bierlein, “Nonlinear wavelength conversion in KTiOPO4waveguides,” in Proceedings of the International Meeting on Advanced Materials (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1989).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited