Bifurcation conditions for primary branches from the trivial solution in the CO2 laser are derived as a function of the pumping and mirror curvature. Crossing of the bifurcation sets for primary branches suggests the occurrence of secondary bifurcations. These secondary bifurcations are located by comparing the laser equations with canonical forms for codimension-two and -three Hopf bifurcations. This comparison permits construction of the bifurcation diagram for modes with and without angular momentum in cases with and without strong resonance.
© 1990 Optical Society of America
Hernán G. Solari and R. Gilmore, "Dynamics in the transverse section of the CO2 laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 828-841 (1990)