OSA's Digital Library

Journal of the Optical Society of America B

Journal of the Optical Society of America B

| OPTICAL PHYSICS

  • Vol. 9, Iss. 3 — Mar. 1, 1992
  • pp: 350–359

Measurements on collisionally excited soft-x-ray lasers

E. A. McLean, T. N. Lee, J. A. Stamper, C. K. Manka, and H. R. Griem  »View Author Affiliations


JOSA B, Vol. 9, Issue 3, pp. 350-359 (1992)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAB.9.000350


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1401 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We observed, for the first time to our knowledge, soft-x-ray 3p–3s lasing in neonlike zinc and arsenic in the wavelength interval 212–267 Å, with gain coefficients ranging from 2.0 to 5.4 cm−1. Also, spectral lines were observed in neonlike gallium at the wavelengths predicted for lasing. A single-beam, driving laser (λ = 1.05 μm) at pulse energies of up to 500 J, with rise times of ~0.6 ns and pulse durations of 1–2 ns, was used with slab targets. Time-integrated diagnostics were used. We discuss the refractive bending of the lasing beams, the importance of the rise time of the driving laser pulse, and the interferometric measurement of the electron density gradients and density distributions of the lasant plasma.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

History
Original Manuscript: February 4, 1991
Revised Manuscript: November 4, 1991
Published: March 1, 1992

Citation
E. A. McLean, T. N. Lee, J. A. Stamper, C. K. Manka, and H. R. Griem, "Measurements on collisionally excited soft-x-ray lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 350-359 (1992)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josab/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-9-3-350


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffmann, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. D. Rosen, P. L. Hagelstein, D. L. Matthews, E. M. Campbell, A. U. Hazi, B. L. Whitten, B. MacGowan, R. E. Turner, R. W. Lee, “Exploding-foil technique for achieving a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 106–109 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. N. Lee, E. A. McLean, R. C. Elton, “Soft x-ray lasing in neon-like germanium and copper plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1185–1188 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. N. Lee, E. A. McLean, J. A. Stamper, H. R. Griem, C. K. Manka, “Laser driven soft x-ray laser experiments at NRL,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 33, 1920 (1988).
  5. S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, D. Voorhees, “Amplification of stimulated soft x-ray emission in a confined plasma column,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753–1756 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, A. Carillon, A. Klisnick, A. Surean, H. Guennou, “Soft x-ray amplification by lithiumlike ions in recombining hot plasmas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 563–574 (1987). [CrossRef]
  7. D. Jacoby, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, L. D. Shorrock, G. J. Tallents, “Observation of gain in a possible extreme ultraviolet lasing system,” Opt. Commun. 37, 193–196 (1981). [CrossRef]
  8. C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Corbett, C. J. Hooker, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, J. G. Pert, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, S. Sadaat, R. Smith, T. Tomie, O. Willi, “Laser amplification at 18.2 nm, in recombining plasma from a laser-irradiated carbon fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2161–2164 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y. Kato, M. Yamanaka, H. Daido, T. Tachi, H. Nishimura, H. Shiraga, E. Miura, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, T. Titsuno, M. Takagi, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, “Amplification in Na xi Ha, Mg xii Ha, and AL xiii Ha transitions,” in Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation: Generation and Applications, R. W. Falcone, J. Kirz, eds., Vol. 2 of 1989 OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 47–51.
  10. T. Hara, K. Ando, N. Kusakabe, H. Yashiro, Y. Aoyagi, “Soft x-ray lasing in an Al plasma produced by a 64 laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 1010–1012 (1989). [CrossRef]
  11. B. Yaakobi, T. Boehly, J. Wang, R. Epstein, R. S. Craxton, “Observation of x-ray gain in collisionally excited germanium targets,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 34, 1914 (1989).
  12. Z. Lin, W. Yu, W. Tan, W. Chen, Y. Zheng, M. Gu, H. Zhang, G. Wang, J. Tsui, R. Cheng, X. Deng, “A new target configuration producing on effective population inversion at energy levels of Mg xi 1s 3p and 1s 4p.” Opt. Commun. 65, 445–451 (1988). [CrossRef]
  13. Z. Xu, Z. Zhang, P. Fan, S. Chen, L. Lin, P. Lu, X. Feng, X. Wang, J. Zhou, A. Qian, “Soft x-ray gain measurements in recombining laser-produced plasmas,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 34, 2096 (1989).
  14. J. C. Moreno, H. R. Griem, S. Goldsmith, J. Knauer, “Measurements of gain and line broadening in lithiumlike aluminum,” Phys. Rev. A. 39, 6033–6036 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Grande, M. H. Key, G. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, R. Smith, T. Tomie, O. Willi, “Measurement and detailed analysis of single pass gain at 81 Å in a recombining laser produced fluorine plasma,” Opt. Commun. 74, 309–312 (1990). [CrossRef]
  16. C. J. Keane, N. M. Ceglio, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, D. G. Nilson, J. E. Trebes, D. A. Whelan, “Soft x-ray laser source developments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,” J. Phys. B 22, 3343–3362 (1989). [CrossRef]
  17. M. H. Key, “Laboratory production of x-ray lasers,” Nature (London) 316, 314–319 (1985). [CrossRef]
  18. Further references are given in R. C. Elton, X-Ray Lasers, (Academic, New York, 1990); S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, “Soft x-ray lasers and their applications,” Science 247, 1553–1557 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. A. N. Zherikhin, K. N. Koshelev, V. S. Letokhov, “Gain in the far vacuum ultraviolet region due to transitions in multiply charged ions,” Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 3, 152 (1976) [Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 82 (1976)].
  20. A recent cooperative experiment between the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory and the Naval Research Laboratory produced time-resolved data of soft-x-ray lasing in germanium plasmas. These measurements are reported in an paper by D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. MacPhee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, E. A. McLean, G. J. Pert, “Characterization of soft x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406–412 (1990). [CrossRef]
  21. T. N. Lee, W. A. Molander, J. L. Ford, R. C. Elton, “X-ray spectroscopic diagnostics of a copper plasma produced by a laser line focused onto a thin foil,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 2052–2054 (1986). [CrossRef]
  22. R. C. Elton, T. N. Lee, W. A. Molander, “X-ray laser experiments using laser-vaporized copper-foil plasmas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 4, 539–546 (1987). [CrossRef]
  23. M. H. Key, W. T. Toner, T. J. Goldsack, J. D. Kilkenny, S. A. Veats, P. F. Cunningham, C. L. S. Lewis, “A study of ablation by laser irradiation of plane targets at wavelengths 1.05, 0.53, and 0.35 μ m,” Phys. Fluids 26, 2011 (1983). [CrossRef]
  24. J. A. Stamper, R. H. Lehmberg, A. Schmitt, M. J. Herbst, F. C. Young, J. H. Gardner, S. P. Obenschain, “Evidence in the second-harmonic emission for self-focusing of a laser pulse in a plasma,” Phys. Fluids 28, 2563–2569 (1985). [CrossRef]
  25. O. Willi, P. T. Rumsby, “Filamentation on laser irradiated spherical targets,” Opt. Commun. 37, 45–48 (1981); S. E. Coe, T. Afshar-Rad, O. Willi, “Direct observations of filamentation and self-focusing in a large underdense plasma,” Opt. Commun. 73, 299–303 (1989). [CrossRef]
  26. Z.-Z. Xu, S.-S. Chen, L.-H. Lin, Z.-M. Jian, W.-Q. Zhang, A.-d. Qian, “Characteristics and evolution of plasma-jet-like structures in line-focused laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A. 39, 808–815 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. G. J. Linford, E. R. Peressini, W. R. Sooy, M. L. Spaeth, “Very long lasers,” Appl. Opt. 13, 379–390 (1974). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. J. H. Scofield, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (personal communication, 1986).
  29. J. A. Corgordan, S. Lunell, “Energies of 2p53s 3p and 3d levels of neon-like ions from relativistic MCDF calculations, 20 ≤ Z≤ 54,” Phys. Scr. 33, 406–411 (1986). [CrossRef]
  30. B. L. Whitten, R. A. London, R. S. Walling, “Scaling of neonlike lasers using exploding foil targets,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 2537–2547 (1988). [CrossRef]
  31. U. Feldman, J. F. Seely, A. K. Bhatia, “Scaling of collisonally pumped 3s–3p lasers in the neon isoelectronic sequence,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 2475–2478 (1984). [CrossRef]
  32. R. A. London, M. D. Rosen, M. S. Maxon, D. C. Eder, P. L. Hagelstein, “Theory and design of soft x-ray laser experiments at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,” J. Phys. B 22, 3363–3376 (1989). [CrossRef]
  33. H. Gordon, M. G. Hobby, N. J. Peacock, “Classification of the x-ray spectra of transitions in the Ne, F and Oi isoelectronic sequences of the elements from iron to bromine and in the Nai isoelectronic sequence of gallium to bromine,” J. Phys. B 13, 1985–1999 (1980). [CrossRef]
  34. R. S. Craxton, “Caser—A new code for calculating, the x-ray laser emission from line-focus plasmas,” Lab. Laser Energet. Rev. 38, 88–89, (1989).
  35. B. L. Whitten, A. U. Hazi, C. J. Keane, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, T. W. Phillips, M. D. Rosen, D. A. Whelan, “Interim report of the J= 0 task force,” (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California, August25, 1987).
  36. J. A. Stamper, E. A. Mclean, S. P. Obenschain, B. H. Ripin, “Concepts and illustrations of optical probing diagnostics for laser-produced plasmas,” in Optical Measurements, J. E. Thompson, L. H. Luessen, eds., Vol. II of Fast Electrical and Optical Measurements (Nijhoff, Boston, Mass., 1986), pp. 691–728.
  37. G. J. Tallents, “Interferometry and refraction measurements in plasmas of elliptical cross-section,” J. Phys. D 17, 721–732 (1984). [CrossRef]
  38. F. C. Jahoda, G. A. Sawyer, “Optical refractivity in plasmas,” in Plasma Physics, L. Marton, ed., Vol. 9 of Methods of Experimental Physics (Academic, New York, 1971), Part B, pp. 1–48. [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited