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Journal of the Optical Society of America B

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March


The Hong-Ou-Mandel interference between independent sources of heralded ultra-fast single photons: Influence of chirp

  • Liang Cui, xiaoxin ma, and Xiaoying Li
  • received 07/01/2014; accepted 03/25/2015; posted 03/25/2015; Doc. ID 215080
  • [full text: PDF (1162) KB)]
  • Abstract: For the quantum interference between two truly independent heralded single photon sources (HSPSs), which are generated from the spontaneous parametric processes pumping with ultra-fast laser pulses, the visibility of Hong-Ou-Mandel interference will be degraded by the mode mismatch. The influence of the purity of HSPSs has been extensively investigated, here we show that the chirp of HSPSs will change the pulse duration of ultra-fast single photons and introduce additional mode mismatch. To obtain the high visibility interference, in addition to improving the purity, the chirp of HSPSs which may originated form the pulsed pump fields and the propagation media of HSPSs should be properly managed. Our theoretical analysis shows the methods for minimizing the chirp induced mode mismatch depend on the bandwidth and phase matching condition of the HSPSs. Our study is useful for designing the Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometers in quantum information processing.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (270.5290) Quantum optics : Photon statistics
  • (270.5530) Quantum optics : Pulse propagation and temporal solitons
  • (190.4975) Nonlinear optics : Parametric processes
  • (270.5585) Quantum optics : Quantum information and processing

Time-average forces over dielectric and negative-index Rayleigh particles by superposition of equal-frequency Bessel beams

  • Leonardo Ambrosio and Mariana Ferreira
  • received 01/07/2015; accepted 03/24/2015; posted 03/25/2015; Doc. ID 232006
  • [full text: PDF (1303) KB)]
  • Abstract: In this paper, optical forces exerted by suitable superposition of equal-frequency Bessel beams - Frozen Waves (FWs) - over dielectric, metallic or negative-index particles are investigated for the Rayleigh regime. FWs are capable of providing virtually any desired longitudinal intensity pattern by adequately superposing 2N + 1 (N integer) Bessel beams of the same but otherwise arbitrary order, thus serving as potential beams in optical trapping, atom guiding, optical bistouries and so on. Analytical expressions for gradient and scattering forces are deduced from Lorentz force law, and numerical examples are provided based on three specific longitudinal intensity patterns, revealing that these types of beams could, in principle, provide effective 3D traps in multiple transverse planes.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (050.1940) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction
  • (140.3460) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers
  • (170.4520) Medical optics and biotechnology : Optical confinement and manipulation
  • (290.5870) Scattering : Scattering, Rayleigh

Modeling the nonlinear photoabsorptive behavior during self-written waveguide formation in a photopolymer

  • John Sheridan, Haoyu Li, Yue Qi, and raed Malallah
  • received 01/14/2015; accepted 03/22/2015; posted 03/25/2015; Doc. ID 232595
  • [full text: PDF (981) KB)]
  • Abstract: Photopolymer materials can be used as recording media for self-written waveguides (SWWs) as they can exhibit large refractive index change and high photo-sensitivity. In free radical photo-polymerization systems, the dyes, functioning as the photosensitizer, strongly influence the material properties. During photo-illumination the spatial and temporal evolution of the dye concentration is an important factor leading to nonlinear absorption. In this paper, based on an investigation of the photochemical mechanisms, we analyze the nonlinear photo-absorptive effect during the photo-initiation processes. The time varying exposing light distribution is calculated and used to iteratively estimate the evolving cross sectional refractive index and loss coefficient values. The model enables a more accurate and physical description of the optically induced growth of SWWs in such systems. Then SWWs formed in dry acrylamide/polyvinyl alcohol (AA/PVA) based photopolymer samples, containing different initial dye concentrations, are experimentally examined. The nonlinear absorptive behavior is quantified by comparing the model predictions and the experimental results.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (130.4310) Integrated optics : Nonlinear
  • (160.5470) Materials : Polymers
  • (250.5460) Optoelectronics : Polymer waveguides
  • (260.5950) Physical optics : Self-focusing
  • (160.5335) Materials : Photosensitive materials

Surface plasmon resonance mediated fringe modulation using a birefringent lens creating radial shearing environment

  • Mahua Bera, Mina Ray, and Jayeta Banerjee
  • received 10/22/2014; accepted 03/21/2015; posted 03/25/2015; Doc. ID 225387
  • [full text: PDF (2927) KB)]
  • Abstract: A cost-effective simple technique to observe and analyze the surface plasmon resonance modulated radially sheared interference images using a birefringent lens is reported. Theoretical and experimental investigations have been presented for metallic thickness optimization, angle selection depending on the numerical aperture of birefringent lens together with real and complex plane analysis of resonance parameters for better understanding of experimental results. Simultaneous observation of p- and s- polarizations using Wollaston prism also supports the modulation due to coupling of surface plasmons with p-polarization whereas the unperturbed s-polarization can be used as reference. Moreover, we have also utilized this technique as the refractive index sensor for the analyte in contact with the plasmon generating metallic film.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
  • (260.1440) Physical optics : Birefringence
  • (260.3160) Physical optics : Interference
  • (250.5403) Optoelectronics : Plasmonics

Phase retrieval via regularization in self-diffraction based spectral interferometry

  • Simon Birkholz, Gunter Steinmeyer, Bernd Hofmann, Daniel Gerth, Steven Bürger, and Sebastian Koke
  • received 12/10/2014; accepted 03/18/2015; posted 03/25/2015; Doc. ID 229469
  • [full text: PDF (947) KB)]
  • Abstract: A novel variant of spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction (SPIDER) is introduced and experimentally demonstrated. Other than most previously demonstrated variants of SPIDER, our method is based on a third-order nonlinear optical effect, namely self-diffraction, rather than the second-order effect of sum-frequency generation. On one hand, self-diffraction (SD) substantially simplifies phase-matching capabilities for multi-octave spectra that cannot be hosted by second-order processes, given manufacturing limitations of crystal lengths in the few-micrometer range. On the other hand, however, SD SPIDER imposes an additional constraint as it effectively measures the spectral phase of a self-convolved spectrum rather than immediately measuring the fundamental phase. Reconstruction of the latter from the measured phase and the spectral amplitude of the fundamental turns out to be an ill-posed problem, which we address by a regularization approach. We discuss the numerical implementation in detail and apply it to measured data from a Ti:sapphire amplifier system. Our experimental demonstration used 40-fs pulses and a 500 µm thick BaF2 crystal to show that the SD SPIDER signal is sufficiently strong to be separable from stray light. Extrapolating these measurements to the thinnest conceivable nonlinear media, we predict that bandwidths well above two optical octaves can be measured by a suitably adapted SD SPIDER apparatus, enabling the direct characterization of pulses down to single-femtosecond pulse durations. Such characteristics appear out of range for any currently established pulse measurement technique.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (000.3860) General : Mathematical methods in physics
  • (120.5050) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Phase measurement
  • (190.4380) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, four-wave mixing
  • (320.7110) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast nonlinear optics

(EPR2014) Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen quantum simulations in nonclassical phase-space

  • Peter Drummond, Simon Kiesewetter, Kaled Dechoum, bogdan opanchuk, Laura Rosales-Zárate, and Margaret Reid
  • received 12/10/2014; accepted 03/17/2015; posted 03/17/2015; Doc. ID 229278
  • [full text: PDF (710) KB)]
  • Abstract: We give a brief history of probabilistic quantum simulations of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradoxes. This treats the early origins of the modern proposals using continuous variables, simulation methods using the positive-P representation, and current developments. Recent simulations treated include the behaviour of parametric downconversion near the critical point, the simulation of parametric Bell violations, quantum entanglement and correlations in optomechanics, as well as extensions to quantum field systems with planar interferometers.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (270.1670) Quantum optics : Coherent optical effects
  • (270.6570) Quantum optics : Squeezed states

Even- and odd-order dispersion cancellation effects in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer

  • Jing Qiu, Jian-Song Pan, Guoyong Xiang, Yong-Sheng Zhang, Shensheng Han, and You-Zhen Gui
  • received 01/20/2015; accepted 03/16/2015; posted 03/25/2015; Doc. ID 232909
  • [full text: PDF (1349) KB)]
  • Abstract: Dispersion cancellation effects have attracted much attention in both classical and quantum worlds. In this paper, we show that by implementing a delicate design in a Mach-Zehnder (MZ) interferometer, we can observe the cancellation of even- and odd-order dispersion by twisting the polarizers placed in front of two single-photon detectors. This polarization post-selection scheme demonstrates that the classical and quantum interferogram can be obtained in different cases in a single MZ interferometer.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (270.1670) Quantum optics : Coherent optical effects
  • (270.5290) Quantum optics : Photon statistics
  • (270.5570) Quantum optics : Quantum detectors

Nanofocusing in the graphene-coated tapered nanowire infrared probe

  • Bofeng Zhu, Guobin Ren, Yixiao Gao, Yang Yang, Beilei Wu, Yudong Lian, and Shuisheng Jian
  • received 10/29/2014; accepted 03/13/2015; posted 03/25/2015; Doc. ID 225950
  • [full text: PDF (757) KB)]
  • Abstract: We conduct analytical and numerical investigations of graphene-coated tapered nanowire probe and to determine the optimal conditions and structural parameters for achieving maximal possible local field enhancement at the probe tip. Based on the adiabatic approximation, analytic methods are adopted in the investigation of modal performances and field enhancement of the probe, showing well consistence with the rigorous numerical simulations up to the taper angle near 24°. Both the adiabatic theory and numerical simulation have shown that the existence of optimal conditions and structural parameters. The dependencies of tip field enhancement as well as the optimal structure parameters on geometric parameters, chemical potential, nanowire permittivity and tip radius have been intensively investigated with the electric field amplitude can be enhanced as high as 24 times. The proposed probe and the corresponding discussion may have promising applications for single molecule detection, measurement and nano-manipulation technique.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
  • (180.4243) Microscopy : Near-field microscopy
  • (310.6628) Thin films : Subwavelength structures, nanostructures

(EPR2014) Analogue of the CHSH inequality for steering

  • Eric Cavalcanti, Howard Wiseman, Christopher Foster, and Maria Fuwa
  • received 12/18/2014; accepted 03/13/2015; posted 03/13/2015; Doc. ID 229009
  • [full text: PDF (475) KB)]
  • Abstract: The Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality (and its permutations), are necessary and sufficient criteria for Bell nonlocality in the simplest Bell-nonlocality scenario: 2 parties, 2 measurements per party and 2 outcomes per measurement. Here we derive an inequality for EPR-steering that is an analogue of the CHSH, in that it is necessary and sufficient in this same scenario. However, since in the case of steering the device at Bob's site must be specified (as opposed to the Bell case in which it is a black box), the scenario we consider is that where Alice performs two (black-box) dichotomic measurements, and Bob performs two mutually unbiased qubit measurements. We show that this inequality is strictly weaker than the CHSH, as expected, and use it to decide whether a recent experiment involving a single-photon split between two parties has demonstrated EPR-steering.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (270.0270) Quantum optics : Quantum optics
  • (270.5585) Quantum optics : Quantum information and processing

(EPR2015) Verifying the quantumness of a channel with an untrusted device

  • Matthew Pusey
  • received 02/11/2015; accepted 03/13/2015; posted 03/13/2015; Doc. ID 234557
  • [full text: PDF (598) KB)]
  • Abstract: Suppose one wants to certify that a quantum channel is not entanglement-breaking. I consider all four combinations of trusted and untrusted devices at the input and output of the channel, finding that the most interesting is a trusted preparation device at the input and an untrusted measurement device at the output. This provides a time-like analogue of EPR-steering, which turns out to reduce to the problem of joint measureability, connecting these concepts in a different way to other recent work. I suggest a few applications of this connection, such as a resource theory of incompatibility. This perspective also sheds light on why the BB84 key distribution protocol can be secure even with an untrusted measuring device, leading to an uncertainty relation for arbitrary pairs of ensembles.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (270.5565) Quantum optics : Quantum communications
  • (270.5568) Quantum optics : Quantum cryptography
  • (270.5585) Quantum optics : Quantum information and processing

Anomalous optical bistability and robust entanglement of mechanical oscillators using two-photon coherence

  • Eyob Sete and Hichem Eleuch
  • received 01/14/2015; accepted 03/12/2015; posted 03/25/2015; Doc. ID 232449
  • [full text: PDF (2641) KB)]
  • Abstract: We analyze the optical bistability and the entanglement of two movable mirrors coupled to a two-mode laser in a doubly-resonant cavity. We show that in stark contrast to the usual red-detuned condition to observe bistability in single-mode optomechanics, the optical intensities exhibit bistability for all values of cavity-laser detuning due to intermode coupling induced by the two-photon atomic coherence. Interestingly, an unconventional bistability with ``ribbon-shaped' hysteresis can be observed for certain range of cavity-laser detuning. We also demonstrate that the atomic coherence leads to a strong entanglement between the movable mirrors in the adiabatic regime. Surprisingly, the mirror-mirror entanglement is shown to persist for environment temperatures of the phonon bath up to $12~\text{K}$ using experimental parameters.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (200.4880) Optics in computing : Optomechanics
  • (270.0270) Quantum optics : Quantum optics
  • (270.1670) Quantum optics : Coherent optical effects
  • (270.3100) Quantum optics : Instabilities and chaos
  • (270.3430) Quantum optics : Laser theory

Radiation pressure cross-sections from paraxial frozen waves using the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory and integral localized approximation

  • Leonardo Ambrosio and Michel Zamboni-Rached
  • received 01/07/2015; accepted 03/11/2015; posted 03/12/2015; Doc. ID 232004
  • [full text: PDF (910) KB)]
  • Abstract: Radiation pressure cross-sections over spherical scatterers are evaluated considering, as wave fields, recently developed frozen waves - suitable superposition of equal-frequency Bessel beams - of arbitrary order, in the context of the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory and with the aid of integral localized approximation to compute the so-called beam-shape coefficients. It is numerically shown that, under the paraxial regime, frozen waves could be designed to efficiently trap biological cells, viruses, bacteria and so on, along multiple radial planes and at specific axial locations. Our results, in addition to nondiffracting and self-reconstruction properties and their ability to provide almost any desired longitudinal intensity pattern, reinforce frozen waves as potential laser beams in optical trapping and manipulation.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (050.1940) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction
  • (140.3460) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers
  • (170.4520) Medical optics and biotechnology : Optical confinement and manipulation
  • (290.4020) Scattering : Mie theory

On the influence of the pump shape on the modulation instability process induced in a dispersion oscillating fiber.

  • Christophe Finot and Stefan Wabnitz
  • received 01/19/2015; accepted 03/09/2015; posted 03/12/2015; Doc. ID 232822
  • [full text: PDF (1624) KB)]
  • Abstract: We show that taking into account the temporal intensity profile of a pulsed pump beam may lead to significant deviations from the predictions based on a continuous wave analysis of the modulation instability process occurring in a dispersion oscillating fiber operating under the conditions that lead to gain sideband splitting. Potential application to a pulse doubling scheme with tunable delay is discussed.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (190.4370) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, fibers
  • (190.4380) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, four-wave mixing
  • (190.4410) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, parametric processes

A compact high flux cold Cesium beam source based on a modified two-dimensional Magneto-optical trap

  • Lu Qi, jian fang, wei quan, Zhaohui Hu, Hairong Li, Yuchi Zhang, and Tongyu Wang
  • received 01/07/2015; accepted 03/09/2015; posted 03/12/2015; Doc. ID 231368
  • [full text: PDF (1067) KB)]
  • Abstract: We present a realization of a compact cold Cesium beam source based on a two-dimensional plus magneto-optical trap with a hollow retarding light. Loss of atom beam at the entrance of the pumping hole of the differential tube, which was neglected in previous similar configurations, is minimized in our configuration due to the modification, resulting in a higher pass efficiency for cold atoms. An atom beam flux up to atoms/s is observed with shorter transverse cooling length, which agrees with the numerical simulation qualitatively. The compact volume and high laser efficiency makes it an ideal beam source for practical use.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (020.0020) Atomic and molecular physics : Atomic and molecular physics
  • (120.0120) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology
  • (020.3320) Atomic and molecular physics : Laser cooling

A burst-mode Yb-doped fiber amplifier system optimized for low-repetition-rate operation

  • Hamit Kalaycioglu, F Omer Ilday, SEYDI YAVAS, Onder Akcaalan, and burak eldeniz
  • received 01/28/2015; accepted 03/08/2015; posted 03/12/2015; Doc. ID 233356
  • [full text: PDF (731) KB)]
  • Abstract: We report on burst-mode operation of a polarization-maintaining Yb-doped multi-stage all-fiber amplifier capable of generating 10-pulse 100 ns-long bursts of 400 µJ total energy. The corresponding average energy per pulse is 40 µJ, with a standard deviation of 16%. The 40 µJ pulses are compressible to a full width half maximum of 500 fs. The burst repetition rate is set to 1 kHz and the amplifier is synchronously pulse-pumped to minimize amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) between the bursts. Special amplifier design has been developed to suppress ASE further at the cost of lower power efficiency. A detailed investigation of gain and ASE suppression performance of the amplifier in relation to pulsed pumping is presented.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.3280) Lasers and laser optics : Laser amplifiers
  • (320.7090) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast lasers
  • (140.3615) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, ytterbium
  • (060.3510) Fiber optics and optical communications : Lasers, fiber

(OCT) Coherent pumping for fast laser cooling of doped crystals

  • Andrei Ivanov, Yuri Rozhdestvensky, and Evgenii Perlin
  • received 12/22/2014; accepted 03/06/2015; posted 03/12/2015; Doc. ID 231184
  • [full text: PDF (1340) KB)]
  • Abstract: A mechanism of laser cooling of crystals doped with rare-earth ions is proposed. The mechanism involves two-photon Raman scattering through the dipole-allowed 5d ion level, electron-phonon transitions between the Stark-split sublevels, and fluorescence from the excited ion level. It is shown that, under the conditions of coherent pumping, the total population of the ground level is transferred to the excited level of the rare-earth ion, thus increasing the cooling power and accelerating the cooling process. The involvement of dipole-allowed transitions yields an increase in the cooling efficiency by 14% compared to the efficiency on direct pumping at transitions between the 4f levels. Estimations show that the temperature of the sample cooled by the proposed mechanism can reach 82.9 K for current materials with the background absorption coefficient 4.0 × 10-4 cm-1.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.3320) Lasers and laser optics : Laser cooling
  • (160.5690) Materials : Rare-earth-doped materials
  • (290.5910) Scattering : Scattering, stimulated Raman

Rotational cavity optomechanics

  • Mishkatul Bhattacharya
  • received 01/05/2015; accepted 03/05/2015; posted 03/06/2015; Doc. ID 231753
  • [full text: PDF (354) KB)]
  • Abstract: We theoretically examine the optomechanical interaction between a rotating nanoparticle and an orbital angular momentum-carrying optical cavity mode. Specifically, we consider a dielectric nanosphere rotating uniformly in a ring-shaped optical potential inside a Fabry-Perot resonator. The motion of the particle is probed by a weak angular lattice, created by introducing two additional degenerate Laguerre-Gaussian cavity modes carrying equal and opposite orbital angular momenta. We demonstrate that the rotation frequency of the nanoparticle is imprinted on the probe optical mode, via the Doppler shift, and thus may be sensed experimentally using homodyne detection. We show analytically that the effect of the optical probe on the particle rotation vanishes in the regime of linear response, resulting in an accurate frequency measurement. We also numerically characterize the degradation of the measurement accuracy when the system is driven in the nonlinear regime. Our results should be relevant to studies of rotational Doppler velocimetry and rotational Brownian motion in a periodic lattice.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (280.3340) Remote sensing and sensors : Laser Doppler velocimetry
  • (260.6042) Physical optics : Singular optics
  • (120.4880) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Optomechanics

Lasing action in periodic arrays of nanoparticles

  • Montacer dridi and George Schatz
  • received 12/22/2014; accepted 03/03/2015; posted 03/04/2015; Doc. ID 231173
  • [full text: PDF (745) KB)]
  • Abstract: We study the effect of nanoparticle array spacing on plasmon-enhanced lasing using a computational model that combines classical electrodynamics for arrays of gold nanoparticles interacting with a four level model of the laser dye photophysics. Parameters of the model are related to a laser system that was recently demonstrated experimentally, but in this work we consider arrays that tune away from the lattice plasmon resonance condition. We show that approximate matching of the lattice plasmon with the red branch of the dye emission spectrum leads to lower laser thresholds and higher intensities than can be achieved with plasmon excitation that does not satisfy the Bragg condition, even for anisotropic nanoparticles. Surprisingly, there is a range of lattice spacings where both purely photonic enhancement of the bulk dye simulated emission, and mixed photonic/plasmonic enhancement of emission by dye molecules within 50 nm of the nanoparticles have comparable laser thresholds and intensities above threshold. We also show there is a tradeoff between sharpness of the lattice plasmon and overlap of the lattice mode with the dye emission maximum such that the highest intensity modes are not necessarily those with the highest plasmon enhancement.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.3290) Lasers and laser optics : Laser arrays
  • (190.4400) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, materials
  • (240.5420) Optics at surfaces : Polaritons
  • (320.7110) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast nonlinear optics
  • (160.4236) Materials : Nanomaterials
  • (250.5403) Optoelectronics : Plasmonics

Generating quantum discord between two distant Bose-Einstein condensates with Bell-like detection

  • shabir barzanjeh, M Eghbali-Arani, H Yavari, Vittorio Giovannetti, and M. A. Shahzamanian
  • received 12/10/2014; accepted 03/03/2015; posted 03/04/2015; Doc. ID 228998
  • [full text: PDF (1120) KB)]
  • Abstract: We propose a technique that enables the creation of quantum discord between two distant nodes, each containing a cavity consist of the Bose-Einstein condensate, by applying a non-ideal Bell-like detection on the output modes of optical cavities. We find the covariance matrix of the system after the non-ideal Bell-like detection, showing explicitly that one enables manipulation of the quantum correlations, and particularly quantum discord, between remote Bose-Einstein condensates. We also find that the non-ideal Bell-like detection can create entanglement between distant Bose-Einstein condensates at the two remote sites.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (270.0270) Quantum optics : Quantum optics
  • (020.1475) Atomic and molecular physics : Bose-Einstein condensates
  • (270.5585) Quantum optics : Quantum information and processing

Efficient excitation and control of arbitrary surface plasmon polariton beams using one-dimensional metallic gratings

  • Jacob Scheuer, Ady Arie, Doron Bar-Lev, and Itai Epstein
  • received 12/04/2014; accepted 03/03/2015; posted 03/12/2015; Doc. ID 228827
  • [full text: PDF (1077) KB)]
  • Abstract: We develop a general approach for efficient excitation and control of arbitrarily shaped surface plasmon polariton waves using one-dimensional metallic grating by proper manipulation of the exciting free-space beam. We present a complete and rigorous theory that relates the electromagnetic fields of the free-space beam impinging upon the grating to the resulting surface plasmon. Following, we deduce an optimal grating and efficient polarization schemes which facilitates the excitation of surface plasmons propagating at angles up to almost 90 degrees with respect to the grating’s axis with negligible polarization losses. The theoretical predictions are verified both numerically and experimentally by exciting two-dimensional surface plasmons through one dimensional metallic gratings. We show that this method can be readily applied for generating arbitrary plasmonic wave-fronts and the general design formalism is given. Finally, we show how the developed design rules can be applied for the excitation of optically controlled surface plasmon hotspots.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (060.5060) Fiber optics and optical communications : Phase modulation
  • (230.1950) Optical devices : Diffraction gratings
  • (240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
  • (070.6120) Fourier optics and signal processing : Spatial light modulators

Articles 1 to 20 of 43 Next Page >>





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