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Journal of the Optical Society of America B

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August


(LIM2014)Pulsed laser modification of transparent dielectrics: What can be foreseen and predicted in numerical experiments?

  • Nadezhda Bulgakova, Vladimir Zhukov, Yuri Meshcheryakov, Laura Gemini, Jan Braier, Danijela Rostohar, and Tomas Mocek
  • received 06/02/2014; accepted 08/20/2014; posted 08/21/2014; Doc. ID 213243
  • [full text: PDF (2733) KB)]
  • Abstract: Numerical simulations based on Maxwell’s equations have been performed for gaining deep insight into the processes governing laser light absorption in transparent dielectrics in the regimes typical for laser direct writing of various optical structures inside bulk glasses such as waveguides, nanoplanes, and voids. Numerical simulations have been performed for fused silica glass irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses at 800 nm wavelength. The geometry of laser energy absorption is compared for two pulse durations and energies from 0.1 to 1 μJ. The effect of numerical aperture of the laser energy deposition is studied. The double pulse irradiation has been modeled to get insight into “exciton-seeded multiphoton ionization” [Phys. Rev. B 81, 212301 (2010)]. Furthermore, several consecutive laser pulses have been modeled to gain a better understanding of a qualitative tendency of memory effects related to defect accumulation. Such features of laser energy coupling into the bulk glass have been revealed as asymmetry of absorption for the cylindrically-symmetric linearly-polarized beam and formation of a defect shield developing in multipulse irradiation regimes.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.3390) Lasers and laser optics : Laser materials processing
  • (140.3440) Lasers and laser optics : Laser-induced breakdown
  • (160.2750) Materials : Glass and other amorphous materials
  • (320.7130) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast processes in condensed matter, including semiconductors

Low-light-level Ladder-type Electromagnetically Induced Transparency and Two-photon Absorption

  • Zong-Syun He, Jing-Yuan Su, Hong-Ren Chen, Wei-Fu Chen, Meng-Huang Sie, Jyun-Yan Ye, and Chin-Chun Tsai
  • received 05/26/2014; accepted 08/18/2014; posted 08/19/2014; Doc. ID 212711
  • [full text: PDF (402) KB)]
  • Abstract: Ladder-type electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and two photon absorption (TPA) under a low-light-level of probe regime (0.2 W/cm² (0.06Γ₂)) and a weak coupling power for cesium atom at room temperature are investigated. Reduction of the fluorescence due to TPA in a three-level system via EIT interference is clearly observed for the first time, while the probe Rabi frequency is reduced to about 0.3 MHz to avoid the affect by the vicinity of hyperfine state. The transparency ratio of EIT derived from the reduction of fluorescence is about 25%. Additionally, the linewidth below Γ (Γ₂+Γ₃) is obtained even thought the coupling Rabi frequency is as large as 1.9Γ (14.36 MHz). By solving the optical Bloch equations for the steady states, the numerical simulation results are in a good agreement with both EIT and TPA. According to the tendency of our investigations, subnatural linewidth is still achievable as Ωc reaching 2.5Γ (18.5 MHz).

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (270.1670) Quantum optics : Coherent optical effects
  • (290.3700) Scattering : Linewidth
  • (300.6420) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, nonlinear

The influence of guided acoustic wave Brillouin scattering on excess noise in fiber-based continuous variable quantum key distribution

  • Yongmin Li, Ning Wang, Xuyang Wang, and Zengliang Bai
  • received 06/23/2014; accepted 08/18/2014; posted 08/19/2014; Doc. ID 214626
  • [full text: PDF (575) KB)]
  • Abstract: We experimentally study the depolarized guided acoustic wave Brillouin scattering in a long-distance telecom single mode fiber (SMF-28e). It is shown that such scattering process can introduce excess noise and further degrade the performance of fiber-based continuous variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) system where a fiber is utilized as the quantum channel. Based on the experimental results we deduce a lower bound for the extinction ratio of the pulsed light in time-multiplexing CVQKD protocol.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (060.4370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Nonlinear optics, fibers
  • (270.5565) Quantum optics : Quantum communications
  • (270.5568) Quantum optics : Quantum cryptography

Modeling the optical Kerr effect in periodic structures by the linear Fourier Modal Method

  • Subhajit Bej, Jani Tervo, Yuri Svirko, and Jari Turunen
  • received 05/13/2014; accepted 08/17/2014; posted 08/18/2014; Doc. ID 211992
  • [full text: PDF (550) KB)]
  • Abstract: We present a numerically feasible method for rigorous modeling of crossed diffraction gratings made of isotropic materials with third-order nonlinearity. The approach is based on an iterative solution of the crossed-grating problem with linear but anisotropic materials. We also discuss how the symmetries of the effective linear permittivity tensor can be exploited to speed up the computation when one considers normal incidence of light. Several numerical experiments are performed to demonstrate the accuracy as well as the versatility of this numerical technique.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (050.1950) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction gratings
  • (050.1970) Diffraction and gratings : Diffractive optics
  • (190.3270) Nonlinear optics : Kerr effect
  • (050.1755) Diffraction and gratings : Computational electromagnetic methods
  • (050.5745) Diffraction and gratings : Resonance domain
  • (050.6624) Diffraction and gratings : Subwavelength structures

Compact Wavelength Demultiplexer via Photonic Crystal Multimode Resonators

  • Zhen Hu and Ya Yan Lu
  • received 05/28/2014; accepted 08/17/2014; posted 08/18/2014; Doc. ID 212996
  • [full text: PDF (1577) KB)]
  • Abstract: Wavelength demultiplexers based on photonic crystal resonators are attractive, since they may be realized in very small sizes. However, existing designs have a limitation on the size, since they all require one resonator for each wavelength and these resonators must be separated. As a possible approach to reduce the size further, we show that a single multimode resonator may be used to separate different wavelengths corresponding to the different resonant frequencies. Specifically, we propose an ultra-compact three-wavelength demultiplexer based on a single multimode resonator in a photonic crystal. The design is obtained by an efficient optimization procedure, and its property is analyzed rigorously by a numerical method, as well as approximately by the temporal coupled mode theory.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (230.5750) Optical devices : Resonators
  • (230.5298) Optical devices : Photonic crystals
  • (130.7408) Integrated optics : Wavelength filtering devices
  • (130.3990) Integrated optics : Micro-optical devices

Efficient Electromagnetically Induced Phase Grating via Quantum Interference in a Four-Level N-Type Atomic System

  • Tayebeh Naseri and Rasoul Sadighi-Bonabi
  • received 07/09/2014; accepted 08/17/2014; posted 08/18/2014; Doc. ID 216553
  • [full text: PDF (561) KB)]
  • Abstract: Electromagnetically induced phase grating controlled by spontaneous generated coherence (SGC) in a four-level N-type atomic system is studied. The results indicate that the diffraction efficiency of phase grating is dramatically enhanced due to the existence of SGC and the diffraction efficiency up to 45% can be obtained. A novel result was considerable improving of the intensity of higher order diffractions via relative phase between applied laser fields. Furthermore, it is found that the frequency detuning of the switching and coupling fields with the corresponding atomic transition and incoherent pumping can improve the efficiency of the phase grating in the present atomic model.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (050.0050) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction and gratings
  • (050.1950) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction gratings
  • (190.0190) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics
  • (190.4360) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, devices

Extraction of displaced number states

  • Sergey Podoshvedov
  • received 07/09/2014; accepted 08/15/2014; posted 08/18/2014; Doc. ID 216720
  • [full text: PDF (529) KB)]
  • Abstract: We focus on implementation and optimization of an irreversible analog of the Hadamard gate. Three optical schemes are considered for the purpose. Two of them are probabilistic. Another is deterministic provided that special auxiliary state is beforehand prepared. One of the optical schemes is based on photon subtraction. Number and displaced number states of the quantum oscillator are connected with each other through unitary transformation matrix. Extraction of displaced photons from initial optical beams enables to improve characteristics of the analog of the Hadamard gate. We also present detailed analysis of one of the studied schemes in realistic scenario. Results stemming from realistic model coincide with those following from simplified model.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (270.0270) Quantum optics : Quantum optics
  • (270.1670) Quantum optics : Coherent optical effects
  • (270.6570) Quantum optics : Squeezed states
  • (270.5565) Quantum optics : Quantum communications
  • (270.5585) Quantum optics : Quantum information and processing

Low-Threshold and Narrow Linewidth Random Lasing in Rhodamine 6G Dye-Doped Polyurethane with Dispersed ZrO₂ Nanoparticles

  • Benjamin Anderson, Ray Gunawidjaja, and Hergen Eilers
  • received 06/27/2014; accepted 08/15/2014; posted 08/18/2014; Doc. ID 214833
  • [full text: PDF (2233) KB)]
  • Abstract: We report on low-threshold and narrow linewidth intensity feedback random lasing in Rhodamine 6G dye-doped polyurethane with dispersed ZrO₂ nanoparticles. Depending on the dye/particle concentration, the lasing threshold is (6.8–15.4) MW/cm² and the linewidth is (4–6) nm. The lasing threshold as a function of nano particle concentration is found to follow a power law with an exponent of −0.496 ± 0.010, which is within uncertainty of Burin et al.’s theoretical prediction.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.2050) Lasers and laser optics : Dye lasers
  • (140.3380) Lasers and laser optics : Laser materials
  • (160.5470) Materials : Polymers
  • (290.4210) Scattering : Multiple scattering
  • (290.5850) Scattering : Scattering, particles

Long-range surface plasmons on gold-coated single-mode fibres

  • Chengkun Chen, Christophe Caucheteur, Valerie Voisin, Jacques Albert, and Pierre Berini
  • received 06/02/2014; accepted 08/15/2014; posted 08/18/2014; Doc. ID 213199
  • [full text: PDF (1516) KB)]
  • Abstract: A standard single-mode optical fibre, coated with a low-index polymer (Cytop), then a thin Au sheath, immersed in fluid, is proposed as a structure for optical (bio)chemical sensing. The highest-order EH1m cladding modes are found to couple strongly to long-range or short-range surface plasmons on the Au sheath, forming coupled modes that are sensitive to the refractive index of the fluid or to a biochemical adlayer formed on the outer surface of the Au sheath. Interrogation of the modes can be achieved with the help of a tilted grating photo-induced into the core of the fibre. We demonstrate experimentally, in this manner, the excitation of these modes, and their use for bulk sensing. Furthermore, a negative bulk sensitivity was observed for some leaky modes beyond cut-off.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (060.2370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics sensors
  • (240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons

Quantum engineering and nonclassical properties of SU(1,1) and SU(2) entangled nonlinear coherent states

  • Amir Karimi and Mohammad Tavassoly
  • received 05/15/2014; accepted 08/15/2014; posted 08/18/2014; Doc. ID 212156
  • [full text: PDF (6351) KB)]
  • Abstract: In this paper, after a brief review on the entangled coherent state a general form of entangled nonlinear co- herent state has been introduced based on the nonlinear coherent states approach. By choosing particular f-deformation functions, theoretical schemes for generation of two distinct classes of such states associated with SU(1,1) and SU(2) groups are presented. The entanglement characteristic of the corresponding entan- gled coherent states has been studied by evaluating the concurrence. In the continuation, other nonclassical behaviors of the produced states have been analyzed by investigating sub-Poissonian photon statistics, oscil- latory photon number distribution, one- and two-mode quadrature squeezing, sum- and dierence-squeezing. Accordingly, in addition to their entanglement property, other nonclassicality features of the introduced states are well-established in detail.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (270.0270) Quantum optics : Quantum optics
  • (270.5290) Quantum optics : Photon statistics
  • (270.6570) Quantum optics : Squeezed states

Dynamics of mode entanglement in a system of cavities coupled with a chiral mirror

  • Ali Ü. C. Hardal
  • received 05/23/2014; accepted 08/15/2014; posted 08/18/2014; Doc. ID 212640
  • [full text: PDF (393) KB)]
  • Abstract: We investigate the Hermitian and the non-Hermitian dynamics of the mode entanglement in two identical optical cavities coupled by a chiral mirror. By employing the non-Hermitian quantum evolution, we calculate the logarithmic negativity measure of entanglement for initially Fock, coherent and squeezed states, separately. We verify the non-conservation of mean spin for the initially coherent and squeezed states when the coupling is non-reciprocal and report the associated spin noise for each case. We examine the effects of non-conserved symmetries on the mode correlations and determine the degree of non-reciprocal coupling to establish robust quantum entanglement.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (270.1670) Quantum optics : Coherent optical effects
  • (270.5580) Quantum optics : Quantum electrodynamics
  • (270.5585) Quantum optics : Quantum information and processing

Dispersion engineering of suspended silicon photonic waveguides for broadband mid-infrared wavelength conversion

  • Xibin Li, Ping Zhou, Sailing He, and Shiming Gao
  • received 04/15/2014; accepted 08/15/2014; posted 08/15/2014; Doc. ID 210041
  • [full text: PDF (750) KB)]
  • Abstract: Silicon photonics has much potential in the mid-infrared (MIR) band due to the broad low-loss window of silicon. The performance of wavelength conversion based on degenerate four-wave mixing (FWM) is theoretically evaluated in suspended silicon waveguides, which are adopted to eliminate the strong absorption of silica in MIR region. A theoretical model is formed for MIR wavelength conversion by taking the nonlinear loss into account, where three-photon absorption (3PA) and related free-carrier absorption (FCA) play dominant roles. The relationship of the dispersion and the waveguide dimensions is analyzed, and the dispersion is manipulated by tuning the cross section of the waveguide. The phase mismatch is effectively reduced and a MIR band conversion bandwidth as broad as 706 nm is obtained with a conversion efficiency of -20.5 dB in an 8-mm-long suspended silicon waveguide pumped by a light intensity as low as 0.1 GW/cm2.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (070.4340) Fourier optics and signal processing : Nonlinear optical signal processing
  • (190.4380) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, four-wave mixing
  • (130.7405) Integrated optics : Wavelength conversion devices

Higher dimensional localized mode families in parity-time symmetric potentials with competing nonlinearities

  • Chao-Qing Dai and Yan Wang
  • received 04/23/2014; accepted 08/15/2014; posted 08/15/2014; Doc. ID 210762
  • [full text: PDF (1322) KB)]
  • Abstract: Both two-dimensional and three-dimensional localized mode families in different parity-time ($\mathcal{PT}$) symmetric potentials with competing nonlinearities are investigated. We show that localized mode families described by a (2+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schr\"{o}dinger equation in the extended complex $\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric Rosen-Morse potential wells are unstable for all parameters due to the residue of gain (loss) in the system from the non-vanishing imaginary part in the extended Rosen-Morse potentials. In the extended hyperbolic Scarf II potentials, spatial localized modes are stable only for the defocusing cubic and focusing quintic nonlinearities. In this case, the gain (loss) should be also enough small for a certain real part of the $\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric potential, otherwise, localized modes eventually lead to instability. These results have been verified by the linear stability analysis from analytical solutions and the direct numerical simulation of the governing equation. The phase switch, power and power-flow density associated with these fundamental localized modes have also been examined. Moreover, the spatial and spatiotemporal localized mode families are presented, and the corresponding stability analysis for these solutions is also carried out.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (190.0190) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics
  • (190.6135) Nonlinear optics : Spatial solitons

Unidirectional light propagation through two-layer nanostructures based on optical near-field interactions

  • Makoto Naruse, Hirokazu Hori, Satoshi Ishii, Aurelien Drezet, Serge Huant, Morihisa Hoga, Yasuyuki Ohyagi, Tsutomu Matsumoto, Naoya Tate, and Motoichi Ohtsu
  • received 05/07/2014; accepted 08/15/2014; posted 08/15/2014; Doc. ID 211608
  • [full text: PDF (3662) KB)]
  • Abstract: We theoretically demonstrate direction-dependent polarization conversion efficiency, yielding unidirectional light transmission, through a two-layer nanostructure by using the angular spectrum representation of optical near-fields. The theory provides results that are consistent with electromagnetic numerical simulations. This study reveals that optical near-field interactions among nanostructured matter can provide unique optical properties, such as the unidirectionality observed here, and offers fundamental guiding principles for understanding and engineering nanostructures for realizing novel functionalities.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (260.5430) Physical optics : Polarization
  • (160.3918) Materials : Metamaterials
  • (310.6628) Thin films : Subwavelength structures, nanostructures

Alignment-free quantum key distribution by postselection

  • Xi-Han Li, Zhi Zeng, and Chun Wang
  • received 04/23/2014; accepted 08/15/2014; posted 08/18/2014; Doc. ID 210654
  • [full text: PDF (283) KB)]
  • Abstract: We propose an alignment-free photonic qubit transmission scheme and apply it in quantum key distribution schemes, in which the authorized parties do not have to calibrate their Cartesian reference frames in advance. The polarization states are labeled by time and the receiver can obtain the original state in his own coordinate by postselecting a determinate time of arrival. The scheme do not resort to decoherence-free subspace based on multiple photon states and it can be implemented with only passive linear optics, which make it efficient and practical with current technology. We demonstrate its application in quantum key distributions and the scheme should find applications in long-distance quantum communication without frame alignment.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (270.5565) Quantum optics : Quantum communications
  • (270.5585) Quantum optics : Quantum information and processing

Giant and tunable Goos-Hanchen shifts for attenuated total reflection structure containing graphen

  • Min Cheng, Ping Fu, Xiyao Chen, Xiahui Zeng, Shangyuan Feng, and Rong Chen
  • received 07/09/2014; accepted 08/13/2014; posted 08/14/2014; Doc. ID 213891
  • [full text: PDF (770) KB)]
  • Abstract: We investigate the effect of a surface plasmon (SP) resonance on Goos-Hanchen (GH) spatial and angular shifts in the reflection of a light beam by considering an attenuated total reflection (ATR) structure containing a graphene layer. In particular, we find giant spatial and angular GH shifts for the p-wave light close to the plasmon resonance. The GH shifts can be controlled by adjusting the voltage applied to graphene via external gate. The giant and tunable GH shifts provide an alternative SP sensing scheme, which improves the sensitivity of SP sensors significantly.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (240.0240) Optics at surfaces : Optics at surfaces
  • (240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
  • (260.2110) Physical optics : Electromagnetic optics

Multi-Dressed Suppression and Enhancement of Spontaneous Parametric Four-Wave Mixing Processes

  • Feng Wen, Huayan Lan, Dan Zhang, Changbiao Li, Haixia Chen, and Yanpeng Zhang
  • received 05/12/2014; accepted 08/11/2014; posted 08/18/2014; Doc. ID 211920
  • [full text: PDF (538) KB)]
  • Abstract: For the first time, dressed spontaneous parametric four-wave mixing (SP-FWM) process and fluorescence (FL) signals in hot alkali atom vapor are demonstrated both in theory and experiment. Firstly, by scanning pumping fields, Autler-Townes (AT) splitting in SP-FWM and two-photon suppression dip in FL are observed. Then, by scanning coupling fields, single-, double-and triple dressed effect on those signals is demonstrated, such as, suppressed and/or enhanced of SP-FWM signal and suppressed two-photon emission peak of FL. The interaction effect between dressing fields on SP-FWM and FL signals is also observed. Such investigations can find potential applications in multi-channel narrowband long-distance quantum communication.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (190.4380) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, four-wave mixing
  • (190.4975) Nonlinear optics : Parametric processes

Interactions of incoherent localized beams in a photorefractive medium

  • Yiqi Zhang, Milivoj Belic, Huaibin Zheng, Haixia Chen, Changbiao Li, Jianeng Xu, and Yanpeng Zhang
  • received 03/06/2014; accepted 08/10/2014; posted 08/11/2014; Doc. ID 207310
  • [full text: PDF (3374) KB)]
  • Abstract: We investigate numerically interactions between two bright or dark incoherent localized beams in an strontium barium niobate photorefractive crystal in one dimension, using the coherent density method. For the case of bright beams, if the interacting beams are in-phase, they attract each other during propagation and form bound breathers; if out-of-phase, the beams repel each other and y away. The bright incoherent beams do not radiate much and form long-lived well-defined breathers or quasi-stable solitons. If the phase dierence is =2, the interacting beams may both attract or repel each other, depending on the interval between the two beams, the beam widths, and the degree of coherence. For the case of dark incoherent beams, in addition to the above the interactions also depend on the symmetry of the incident beams. As already known, an even- symmetric incident beam tends to split into a doublet, whereas an odd-symmetric incident beam tends to split into a triplet. When launched in pairs, the dark beams display dynamics consistent with such a picture and in general obey soliton-like conservation laws, so that the collisions are mostly elastic, leading to little energy and momentum exchange. But they also radiate and breathe while propagating. In all the cases, the smaller the interval between the two interacting beams, the stronger the mutual interaction. On the other hand, the larger the degree of incoherence, the weaker the interaction.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (160.5320) Materials : Photorefractive materials
  • (190.4420) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, transverse effects in
  • (190.5330) Nonlinear optics : Photorefractive optics
  • (190.6135) Nonlinear optics : Spatial solitons

Zigzag Modes in QC Laser Emission Spectra

  • Richard Tober, John Bruno, Sergey Suchalkin, and Gregory Belenky
  • received 05/23/2014; accepted 08/08/2014; posted 08/11/2014; Doc. ID 212658
  • [full text: PDF (501) KB)]
  • Abstract: We present emission spectra obtained from ridge waveguide quantum cascade (QC) lasers with atypical periodic features that result from optical modes that suffer total internal sidewall reflections and traverse zigzag paths along the length of the waveguide structure. These “zigzag” modes are equally spaced, in frequency, about the single lasing mode that arises at threshold. Moreover, they only exist at relatively low injection currents and with increasing current yield to the broadband Fabry-Perot modes that typically comprise the complicated spectra of QC lasers. A straightforward geometric analysis shows a clear correspondence between the zigzag modes and parameters useful for characterizing the quality of the laser waveguide structure.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.4780) Lasers and laser optics : Optical resonators
  • (140.5960) Lasers and laser optics : Semiconductor lasers
  • (260.5740) Physical optics : Resonance
  • (140.5965) Lasers and laser optics : Semiconductor lasers, quantum cascade

Theoretical and experimental study of slow-scale Hopf limit-cycles in laser-based wideband optoelectronic oscillators

  • Geraud Goune Chengui, Alain F. Talla, Jimmi H. Talla Mbé, Aurélien Coillet, Khaldoun Saleh, Laurent Larger, Paul Woafo, and Yanne Chembo
  • received 06/02/2014; accepted 08/08/2014; posted 08/11/2014; Doc. ID 213275
  • [full text: PDF (621) KB)]
  • Abstract: Optoelectronic oscillators are the subject of extensive research because of the wide variety of associated applications, which include chaos cryptography, ultra-stable microwave generation and neuromorphic computing. The wideband optoelectronic oscillator presents a particular feature allowing for two dynamical timescales to be superimposed, namely a slow one and a fast one. In this paper, we fully characterize the onset of the slow-scale oscillation in the wideband optoelectronic oscillator. We investigate the dynamics associated to the first Hopf bifurcation, and calculate analytically both the amplitude and period of the induced limit-cycle. Our theoretical results are in very good agreement with the experimental measurements.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (130.0250) Integrated optics : Optoelectronics
  • (130.1750) Integrated optics : Components
  • (190.4360) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, devices
  • (230.4320) Optical devices : Nonlinear optical devices

Articles 1 to 20 of 42 Next Page >>





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