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Journal of the Optical Society of America B

Journal of the Optical Society of America B



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Early Posting

Accepted papers to appear in an upcoming issue

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Articles 1 to 20 of 22 Next Page >>


Mode characteristics and vertical radiation loss for AlGaInAs/InP microcylinder lasers

  • Yong-Zhen Huang, Yue-De Yang, Jin-Long Xiao, and Bowen Liu
  • received 10/24/2014; accepted 01/28/2015; posted 01/29/2015; Doc. ID 225656
  • [full text: PDF (862) KB)]
  • Abstract: Mode characteristics are experimentally and numerically investigated for the AlGaInAs/InP microcylinder lasers with radii R ranging from 3.25 to 5.5 μm. The measured lasing spectra suggest wavelength crossing between different radial-order modes at R = 3.5μm, and the threshold current dramatically increase as R < 3.5μm, which can be very well explained by three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulation. The simulated mode Q factors greatly degrade in the microcylinder resonators as R < 3.5μm and strongly depend on the mode wavelength because of vertical radiation loss, which results in a limitation for low threshold lasing. In addition, the near coincidence of mode wavelengths for different radial modes indicate the possible of mode coupling at R = 3.5μm.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.5960) Lasers and laser optics : Semiconductor lasers
  • (140.3945) Lasers and laser optics : Microcavities

(EPR2014) Demonstrating Continuous Variable EPR Steering in spite of Finite Experimental Capabilities using Fano Steering Bounds

  • James Schneeloch, Samuel Knarr, Gregory Howland, and John Howell
  • received 10/30/2014; accepted 01/27/2015; posted 01/29/2015; Doc. ID 225865
  • [full text: PDF (557) KB)]
  • Abstract: We show how one can demonstrate continuous-variable EPR-steering without needing to characterize entire measurement probability distributions. To do this, we develop a modified Fano inequality useful for discrete measurements of continuous variables, and use it to bound the conditional uncertainties in continuous-variable entropic EPR-steering inequalities. With these bounds, we show how one can hedge against experimental limitations including a finite detector size, dead space between pixels, and any such factors that impose an incomplete sampling of the true measurement probability distribution. Furthermore, we use experimental data from the position and momentum statistics of entangled photon pairs in parametric downconversion to show that this method is sufficiently sensitive for practical use.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (000.2190) General : Experimental physics
  • (270.0270) Quantum optics : Quantum optics
  • (270.5568) Quantum optics : Quantum cryptography
  • (270.5585) Quantum optics : Quantum information and processing

Highly confined gap surface plasmon modes in metal stripe-gap-film configurations

  • Michael G. Nielsen and Sergey Bozhevolnyi
  • received 11/19/2014; accepted 01/27/2015; posted 01/29/2015; Doc. ID 227221
  • [full text: PDF (3213) KB)]
  • Abstract: Plasmonic waveguides supporting gap surface plasmon (GSP) modes localized in a deep subwavelength dielectric gap between a metal stripe and underlay film are investigated numerically and experimentally at telecom wavelengths. Particularly, we demonstrate that GSP waveguides with only the top metal layer structured to form the waveguide including nanoantenna couplers optimized for normal incident Gaussian beam excitation, can be fabricated in a single lithography step leading to 15% experimental coupling efficiency of GSP modes with ~10um propagation length when the gap size is ten times smaller than the free-space wavelength.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
  • (250.5403) Optoelectronics : Plasmonics
  • (310.6628) Thin films : Subwavelength structures, nanostructures

Efficient Light Absorption in a new Bragg Fiber-Based Plasmonic Sensor

  • Vasile Popescu, Guido Perrone, and Niculae PUSCAS
  • received 10/15/2014; accepted 01/26/2015; posted 01/29/2015; Doc. ID 224951
  • [full text: PDF (410) KB)]
  • Abstract: We report the results of numerical simulation for a new Bragg-fiber based plasmonic sensor, with two gold layers used as reflectors, which exploits the interaction between core-guided modes and plasmon modes near the loss matching point to achieve high amplitude sensitivity (2483.0 RIU-1) and a better detection limit (4.0×10-6 RIU). Another advantage of the proposed sensing structure is that the difference between maximal amplitude sensitivity and resonant wavelengths is much smaller than that achieved for other similar sensors already reported in the literature (4.7nm instead of 30 nm).

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (130.6010) Integrated optics : Sensors
  • (230.1480) Optical devices : Bragg reflectors
  • (240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
  • (250.5403) Optoelectronics : Plasmonics

Accuracy of surface integral equation matrix elements in plasmonic calculations

  • Eric Le Ru, Raziman Thottungal Valapu, Walter Somerville, and Olivier Martin
  • received 11/17/2014; accepted 01/24/2015; posted 01/29/2015; Doc. ID 227019
  • [full text: PDF (737) KB)]
  • Abstract: We study the convergence of the integrals required to be evaluated in the surface integral equation (SIE) formulation (or method of moments) for simulating the optical response of plasmonic nanostructures. We analyze how the numerical quadratures used to compute the integrals affect the accuracy of the SIE matrix elements and in turn, that of the relevant physical quantities calculated using the method. Based on these studies, we propose an optimized algorithm for evaluation of the integrals, which improves the accuracy of the results without significantly increasing the calculation overhead.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (290.5850) Scattering : Scattering, particles
  • (050.1755) Diffraction and gratings : Computational electromagnetic methods
  • (250.5403) Optoelectronics : Plasmonics

Raman-Ramsey electromagnetically induced transparency in the configuration of counterpropagating pump and probe in vacuum Rb cell

  • Marina Lekic, Brana Jelenkovic, Ivan Radojicic, Milan Radonjic, Dragan Lukic, and Zoran Grujic
  • received 11/19/2014; accepted 01/22/2015; posted 01/22/2015; Doc. ID 226841
  • [full text: PDF (1449) KB)]
  • Abstract: Counter-propagating, spatially separated hollow pump and coaxial probe laser beams generate narrow Zeeman electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) resonances in the vacuum Rb cell. The lasers are locked to D2 line transition Fg = 2 → Fe = 1 of 87Rb. For the probe laser beam intensity between 0.1 mW/cm2 and 3.0 mW/cm2 this Ramsey type configuration yields dual-structured resonances having narrow peak on top of broader pedestal. Linewidths of the narrow peak are nearly independent of the probe laser beam intensity and of the probe diameter (for diameters 0.8 mm and 2.7 mm), provided that the dark region between the pump and the probe beams is fixed. At the probe laser beam intensities below 0.1 mW/cm2 Zeeman EIT is a single narrow resonance. With this geometry of laser beams, and at low probe intensity, the presence of the pump enables the probe EIT, i.e., the probe transmission becomes enhanced in a narrow spectral window. Accompanying theoretical model showed good quantitative agreement with the measurements.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (270.1670) Quantum optics : Coherent optical effects
  • (300.3700) Spectroscopy : Linewidth

Interface Modes for Monolithic Nonlinear Photonics

  • Amr Helmy, Junbo Han, Payam Abolghasem, and Arghavan Arjmand
  • received 11/28/2014; accepted 01/22/2015; posted 01/22/2015; Doc. ID 228725
  • [full text: PDF (1065) KB)]
  • Abstract: A design methodology for obtaining versatile interface modes in monolithic structures is discussed. These modes are then utilized in conjunction with total internal reflection modes for phase-matching second-harmonic generation in periodic layered media in AlxGa1-xAs material system. Typical loss values of 2:71 cm-1 for TE and 4:26 cm-1 for TM-polarized pump around 1550 nm were obtained. Nonlinear characterizations are carried out using 2-ps, 30-ps and continuous-wave pump for type-I and type-II interactions. Maximum SHG conversion efficiency of 1:14104 %W-1cm-2 is observed for type-II process with a pump power of 0.52 mW in a sample with a length of 2.0 mm.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (190.4390) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, integrated optics
  • (190.4400) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, materials
  • (190.4410) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, parametric processes
  • (240.1485) Optics at surfaces : Buried interfaces
  • (130.7405) Integrated optics : Wavelength conversion devices

Decomposition of Ethane Molecules at Atmospheric Pressure Using Metal Assisted Laser Induced Plasma

  • Parviz Parvin, Ali Reyhani, S. Zahra Mortazavi, M. Maleki, Z Ghorbani, A. Moosakhani, and Sajjad Kiani
  • received 10/01/2014; accepted 01/21/2015; posted 01/29/2015; Doc. ID 224118
  • [full text: PDF (1689) KB)]
  • Abstract: The decomposition of ethane (C2H6) and the subsequent conversion to other hydrocarbons are investigated using Q-SW Nd:YAG laser induced plasma inside a controlled chamber. The metal targets including iron, copper, nickel, and palladium are employed to assist the plasma formation and ethane decomposition. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography are used for identifying and analyzing the products to determine dissociation rates as well. Several C1and C2 components i.e. methane (CH4), ethylene (C2H4) and acetylene (C2H2) as well as heavier C3, C4 and C5 such as propane, butane and pentane are obtained after ethane decomposition. The yield, selectivity and conversion ratios of hydrocarbons mainly depend on the metal species as the active catalysts during laser exposure. The most abundant component is found to be ethylene having a selectivity of ~ 39% using palladium target. This technique offers high reproducibility to generate selective and desired hydrocarbon compounds in the controlled chamber.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.0140) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers and laser optics
  • (140.3440) Lasers and laser optics : Laser-induced breakdown
  • (300.0300) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy

Intrinsic and extrinsic absorption of CVD single crystal diamond from the middle ultraviolet to the far infrared

  • Scott Webster, Ying Chen, Giorgio Turri, Andrew Bennett, Benjamin Wickham, and Michael Bass
  • received 11/24/2014; accepted 01/20/2015; posted 01/22/2015; Doc. ID 228330
  • [full text: PDF (501) KB)]
  • Abstract: Optical absorption is reported in high quality single crystal, type IIa diamond grown by microwave-assisted chemical vapor deposition. Laser calorimetry and spectrophotometry were used at wavelengths from the ultraviolet to the infrared. There is minimal evidence of extrinsic absorption on or near the short wavelength side of the middle-ultraviolet edge (200-300 nm) or in the infrared absorption bands. At the long wavelength side of the middle-ultraviolet and extending into the visible, extrinsic absorption dominates, which is directly proportional to the amount of nitrogen and nitrogen-related lattice defects in diamond. At 10.6 µm, the measured absorption coefficients are comparable with, or less than, those of the highest quality samples previously reported. Evidence is presented showing that our measurements serve as upper bounds on the absorption coefficients and call into question previous calorimetric reports of near intrinsic absorption in the visible, near infrared and at 10.6 μm.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (160.3380) Materials : Laser materials
  • (160.4670) Materials : Optical materials
  • (160.4760) Materials : Optical properties

Trapping of Rayleigh spheroidal particles by highly focused radially polarized beams

  • Manman Li, Shaohui Yan, Baoli Yao, Ming Lei, Yan long Yang, Junwei Min, and Dan Dan
  • received 11/27/2014; accepted 01/19/2015; posted 01/22/2015; Doc. ID 228629
  • [full text: PDF (958) KB)]
  • Abstract: The optical forces and intrinsic optical torque of a highly focused radially polarized beam on a Rayleigh spheroidal particle are calculated with the dipole approximation. Numerical results show that the maximal trapping forces depend strongly on the orientation of the particle, and the torque is always perpendicular to the plane containing the major axis of spheroid and the optical axis. As a result of optical mechanical and torque equilibrium, the particle will stay at the focus with the major axis of the spheroid parallel to the optical axis.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.7010) Lasers and laser optics : Laser trapping
  • (260.2110) Physical optics : Electromagnetic optics
  • (290.0290) Scattering : Scattering
  • (290.5870) Scattering : Scattering, Rayleigh

Double Stokes Mueller polarimetry of second harmonic generation in ordered molecular structures

  • Masood Samim, Serguei Krouglov, and Virginijus Barzda
  • received 11/24/2014; accepted 01/17/2015; posted 01/22/2015; Doc. ID 226046
  • [full text: PDF (496) KB)]
  • Abstract: Second harmonic generation (SHG) is highly sensitive to the structure of ordered aggregates, and therefore, polarization measurement of SHG can help to elucidate the organization of molecules in crystalline structures. The double Stokes Mueller formalism is developed for the SHG polarimetry and convenient expressions are derived for the double Mueller matrix in terms of the nonlinear susceptibilities. The polarization analysis is presented for cylindrically symmetric structures providing the method to calculate the characteristic susceptibility component ratios and orientations of molecules in the ordered aggregates. This information, for example, can be used to investigate collagen or myosin structure in biological tissues.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (190.0190) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics
  • (190.2620) Nonlinear optics : Harmonic generation and mixing
  • (260.5430) Physical optics : Polarization
  • (180.4315) Microscopy : Nonlinear microscopy
  • (240.2130) Optics at surfaces : Ellipsometry and polarimetry

The unified analytical theory of single-order soft X-ray multilayer gratings

  • Xiaowei Yang, Igor Kozhevnikov, Qiushi Huang, and Zhanshan Wang
  • received 12/10/2014; accepted 01/16/2015; posted 01/16/2015; Doc. ID 229135
  • [full text: PDF (754) KB)]
  • Abstract: A universal analytical theory of soft X-ray multilayer gratings operating in the single-order regime is developed here. The single-order regime, in which an incident wave excites the only diffracted wave, is characterized by the maximum possible diffraction efficiency tending to the reflectivity of a conventional multilayer mirror. The theory is applied to analysis of different multilayer gratings including lamella multilayer gratings, sliced multilayer gratings, blazed multilayer gratings, and blazed lamella multilayer gratings. A simple analytical formula describing the diffraction efficiency of arbitrary multilayer grating as a function of the wavelength and the incidence angle is deduced. Expressions for the peak value of the diffraction efficiency and the generalized Bragg condition corresponding to the maximum efficiency are obtained. The high accuracy of the deduced analytical expressions is justified by comparison with rigorous numerical calculations. Comparative analysis of different types of gratings is performed. The advantages and disadvantages of different gratings in practical applications are discussed.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (050.1950) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction gratings
  • (050.1960) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction theory
  • (230.4170) Optical devices : Multilayers
  • (340.7480) X-ray optics : X-rays, soft x-rays, extreme ultraviolet (EUV)

Arbitrary sum arithmetic of lights with orbital angular momentum based on sum frequency generation

  • Zhiyuan Zhou, Yan Li, Dongsheng Ding, and Bao-Sen Shi
  • received 08/15/2014; accepted 01/16/2015; posted 01/16/2015; Doc. ID 221070
  • [full text: PDF (1479) KB)]
  • Abstract: Frequency sum of two light beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) in quasi-phase matching crystals was reported for the first time. The situations in which one light carried OAM and the other was in Gaussian mode and both beams carried OAM were studied in detail. Arbitrary sum arithmetic of lights with OAM was demonstrated in the conversion process, which verified OAM conservation in the sum frequency generation process. We give an analytical expression for the frequency conversion of two OAM-carrying beams, the experimental results are in well matched with the theoretical predictions. The methods showed here provide an effective way for OAM light generation. Our study is very promising in constructing hybrid OAM-based optical communication networks and all optical spatial mode switching.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (190.2620) Nonlinear optics : Harmonic generation and mixing
  • (050.4865) Diffraction and gratings : Optical vortices

Experimental analysis of coherent supercontinuum generation and ultrashort pulse generation using cross-correlation frequency resolved optical gating (X-FROG)

  • Norihiko Nishizawa, Atsushi Okamura, Youichi Sakakibara, Hiromichi Kataura, and Emiko Omoda
  • received 09/22/2014; accepted 01/15/2015; posted 01/16/2015; Doc. ID 223663
  • [full text: PDF (1319) KB)]
  • Abstract: We investigated the generation of a coherent, wideband supercontinuum (SC) with good flatness in a normal-dispersion highly nonlinear fiber and an ultrashort-pulse Er-doped fiber laser system. A passively mode-locked ultrashort-pulse Er-doped fiber laser with a carbon nanotube film was developed as the seed pulse source. A high-power soliton pulse was generated with the developed fiber laser, fiber amplifier, and optical fibers, and a high-quality coherent SC was generated in the normal-dispersion highly nonlinear fiber. The spectrogram of the generated SC was directly observed using cross-correlation frequency resolved optical gating, and the characteristics were investigated. Then, ultrashort pulse generation by dispersion compensation of the generated SC was also investigated in an all-fiber system. Extremely short pulses (22 fs) were generated. The characteristics of the SC and ultrashort pulses were investigated experimentally.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (060.5530) Fiber optics and optical communications : Pulse propagation and temporal solitons
  • (190.4370) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, fibers
  • (320.5520) Ultrafast optics : Pulse compression
  • (320.7140) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast processes in fibers
  • (320.6629) Ultrafast optics : Supercontinuum generation

Soliton control by a weak dispersive pulse

  • Luca Tartara
  • received 10/27/2014; accepted 01/15/2015; posted 01/16/2015; Doc. ID 225687
  • [full text: PDF (414) KB)]
  • Abstract: A detailed experimental investigation about the propagation of a fundamental soliton interacting with a weak dispersive pulse at an optical event horizon is presented. The results show that the soliton is either red- or blue-shifted depending on the wavelength of the dispersive pulse. As a consequence of such a wavelength shift, the soliton is either stretched or compressed. The results thus demonstrate the possibility of controlling the propagation of an intense optical pulse by means of a less powerful pulse.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (190.4370) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, fibers
  • (190.5530) Nonlinear optics : Pulse propagation and temporal solitons
  • (190.7110) Nonlinear optics : Ultrafast nonlinear optics

Optical resonators based on Bloch surface waves

  • Matteo Menotti and Marco Liscidini
  • received 11/19/2014; accepted 01/15/2015; posted 01/16/2015; Doc. ID 227150
  • [full text: PDF (883) KB)]
  • Abstract: A few recent works suggest the possibility of controlling light propagation at the interface of periodic multilayers supporting Bloch surface waves (BSWs), but optical resonators based on BSWs are yet to demonstrate. Here we discuss the feasibility of exploiting guided BSWs in a ring resonator configuration. In particular, we investigate the main issues related to the design of these structures, and we discuss about their limitations in terms of quality factors and dimensions. We believe these results might be useful for the development of a complete BSW-based platform for application ranging from optical sensing to the study of the light-matter interaction in micro and nano structures.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (230.5750) Optical devices : Resonators
  • (240.6690) Optics at surfaces : Surface waves
  • (250.5300) Optoelectronics : Photonic integrated circuits

Computational Studies of Light Shift in Raman-Ramsey Interference-Based Atomic Clock

  • Gour Pati, Zachary Warren, Nan Yu, and Selim Shahriar
  • received 11/19/2014; accepted 01/12/2015; posted 01/13/2015; Doc. ID 228241
  • [full text: PDF (1258) KB)]
  • Abstract: Determining light shift in Raman-Ramsey interference is important for the development of atomic frequency standards based on a vapor cell. We have accurately calculated light shift in Raman-Ramsey interference using the density-matrix equations for a three-level system without invoking the adiabatic approximation. Specifically, phase shifts associated with coherent density-matrix terms are studied as they are relevant to the detection of Raman-Ramsey interference in transmission (or absorption) through the medium. For the single-velocity case, the numerically computed results are compared with the analytical results obtained using the adiabatic approximation. The result shows light shift suppression in conformity with the closed-form analytic solutions. The computational studies have also been extended to investigate Raman-Ramsey interference for a Doppler-broadened vapor medium. Importantly, a velocity-induced frequency shift is found at the fringe center as an additional source of frequency error for a vapor cell Raman clock.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (020.1670) Atomic and molecular physics : Coherent optical effects
  • (020.3690) Atomic and molecular physics : Line shapes and shifts
  • (020.6580) Atomic and molecular physics : Stark effect

Efficient End-fire Coupling of Surface Plasmons in a Metal Waveguide

  • Caitlin Fisher, C. Martijn de Sterke, Ross McPhedran, Chris Poulton, and Lindsay Botten
  • received 09/03/2014; accepted 01/08/2015; posted 01/08/2015; Doc. ID 222362
  • [full text: PDF (43617) KB)]
  • Abstract: We present a semi-analytical study exploring the end-fire coupling of an incident beam into a surface plasmon mode propagating on a metal-dielectric interface. An energy-conserving projection method is used to solve for the resultant reflected and transmitted fields for a given incident beam, thereby determining the efficiency of the surface plasmon coupling. The coupling efficiency is found to be periodic with waveguide width due to the presence of a parasitically coupled transversely-propagating surface plasmon. Optimisation of the incident beam parameters, such as beam width, position and wavelength leads to numerically observed maximum efficiencies of approximately 80% when the beam width roughly matches the width of the surface plasmon.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (240.5420) Optics at surfaces : Polaritons
  • (240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons

Cross mode and polarization mixing in third and one-third harmonic generation in multi-mode waveguides

  • Max Lohe, Tanya Monro, Shahraam Afshar, and Daniel Hartley
  • received 09/19/2014; accepted 01/02/2015; posted 01/08/2015; Doc. ID 211212
  • [full text: PDF (736) KB)]
  • Abstract: We develop a general vectorial model of two frequency nonlinear pulse propagation in optical waveguides, including mixing effects between modes and polarizations across both frequencies, resulting in nontrivial new terms in the amplitude propagation equations. We present rules for calculating these terms from simple diagrammatic representations of physical processes. The corresponding coefficients are computed numerically for a simple step index fiber, demonstrating that even in the simplest case of a cylindrical fiber, these coefficients are significant in magnitude. These additional terms predict higher gain for third harmonic generation than equivalent models without mode and polarization mixing effects, and also predict power exchange between orthogonal polarizations and non phase matched modes in the waveguide.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (190.2620) Nonlinear optics : Harmonic generation and mixing
  • (190.4380) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, four-wave mixing
  • (190.5530) Nonlinear optics : Pulse propagation and temporal solitons

(OCT2014) Optical collimation of an atomic beam using a white light molasses

  • Rohan Glover and Thierry Bastin
  • received 11/04/2014; accepted 01/02/2015; posted 01/16/2015; Doc. ID 226250
  • [full text: PDF (1739) KB)]
  • Abstract: We investigate optical collimation of an atomic beam using a spectrally broadened `white light molasses'. We compare this technique with the standard technique using an atomic collimator and find that under certain conditions the white light molasses is preferable. Specifically, a white light molasses is suitable for atomic beams with relatively low mean velocities and broad velocity distributions, for example a beam effusing from a cryogenically cooled reservoir. This result is demonstrated by numerically modeling the atomic trajectories of argon atoms effusing from a cryogenically cooled reservoir. We find that given sufficient power a white light molasses captures a larger fraction of atoms when compared to an atomic collimator and the velocity distribution of the resulting beam is shifted towards slower velocities. Further, an optical molasses is geometrically relatively simple compared to an atomic collimator and therefore the complexity of the in vacuum optical arrangement can be significantly reduced.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (000.2170) General : Equipment and techniques
  • (020.0020) Atomic and molecular physics : Atomic and molecular physics
  • (020.3320) Atomic and molecular physics : Laser cooling

Articles 1 to 20 of 22 Next Page >>

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