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August


Optically controlled light pulse propagation in closed-loop configuration with saturable erbium-doped fiber

  • Anna Shlyagina and Serguei Stepanov
  • received 06/17/2014; accepted 08/17/2014; posted 08/22/2014; Doc. ID 213590
  • [full text: PDF (509) KB)]
  • Abstract: We report experimental results on the 1550nm light pulse propagation in a closed-loop all-fiber resonance configuration which includes a segment of the erbium-doped fiber with the saturable optical absorption. It is shown that by a simple change of the average incident light power one can switch from the undercoupling to the overcoupling with the closed-loop cavity which leads to a dramatic change from the delay to advancement in the transmitted optical pulse with the resonance carrier frequency. In the reported experiments with the  4.4m-long closed-loop cavity (with 2.4m-long EDF segment) we observed a switch from 0.65 fractional delay to  0.26 fractional advancement for 166ns light pulses with resonance frequency in 1550nm wavelength range when the average incident power was changed from 0.09 to 0.6mW.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (060.2410) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fibers, erbium
  • (060.4370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Nonlinear optics, fibers
  • (190.5530) Nonlinear optics : Pulse propagation and temporal solitons

Low-Threshold and Narrow Linewidth Random Lasing in Rhodamine 6G Dye-Doped Polyurethane with Dispersed ZrO₂ Nanoparticles

  • Benjamin Anderson, Ray Gunawidjaja, and Hergen Eilers
  • received 06/27/2014; accepted 08/15/2014; posted 08/18/2014; Doc. ID 214833
  • [full text: PDF (2233) KB)]
  • Abstract: We report on low-threshold and narrow linewidth intensity feedback random lasing in Rhodamine 6G dye-doped polyurethane with dispersed ZrO₂ nanoparticles. Depending on the dye/particle concentration, the lasing threshold is (6.8–15.4) MW/cm² and the linewidth is (4–6) nm. The lasing threshold as a function of nano particle concentration is found to follow a power law with an exponent of −0.496 ± 0.010, which is within uncertainty of Burin et al.’s theoretical prediction.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.2050) Lasers and laser optics : Dye lasers
  • (140.3380) Lasers and laser optics : Laser materials
  • (160.5470) Materials : Polymers
  • (290.4210) Scattering : Multiple scattering
  • (290.5850) Scattering : Scattering, particles

A geometric approach to the distribution of quantum states in bipartite physical systems

  • J. Batle and Mahmmoud Abdel-Aty
  • received 06/18/2014; accepted 08/15/2014; posted 08/25/2014; Doc. ID 214132
  • [full text: PDF (715) KB)]
  • Abstract: Any set of pure states living in an given Hilbert space possesses a natural and unique metric --the Haar measure-- on the group $U(N)$ of unitary matrices. However, there is no specific measure induced on the set of eigenvalues $\Delta$ of any density matrix $\rho$. Therefore, a general approach to the global properties of mixed states depends on the specific metric defined on $\Delta$. In the present work we shall employ a simple measure on $\Delta$ that has the advantage of possessing a clear geometric visualization whenever discussing how arbitrary states are distributed according to some measure of mixedness. The degree of mixture will be that of the participation ratio $R=1/Tr(\rho^2)$ and the concomitant maximum eigenvalue $\lambda_m$. The cases studied will be the qubit-qubit system and the qubit-qutrit system, whereas some discussion will be made on higher-dimensional bipartite cases in both the $R$-domain and the $\lambda_m$-domain.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (000.2690) General : General physics
  • (270.0270) Quantum optics : Quantum optics
  • (350.0350) Other areas of optics : Other areas of optics

Long-range surface plasmons on gold-coated single-mode fibres

  • Chengkun Chen, Christophe Caucheteur, Valerie Voisin, Jacques Albert, and Pierre Berini
  • received 06/02/2014; accepted 08/15/2014; posted 08/18/2014; Doc. ID 213199
  • [full text: PDF (1516) KB)]
  • Abstract: A standard single-mode optical fibre, coated with a low-index polymer (Cytop), then a thin Au sheath, immersed in fluid, is proposed as a structure for optical (bio)chemical sensing. The highest-order EH1m cladding modes are found to couple strongly to long-range or short-range surface plasmons on the Au sheath, forming coupled modes that are sensitive to the refractive index of the fluid or to a biochemical adlayer formed on the outer surface of the Au sheath. Interrogation of the modes can be achieved with the help of a tilted grating photo-induced into the core of the fibre. We demonstrate experimentally, in this manner, the excitation of these modes, and their use for bulk sensing. Furthermore, a negative bulk sensitivity was observed for some leaky modes beyond cut-off.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (060.2370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics sensors
  • (240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons

Quantum engineering and nonclassical properties of SU(1,1) and SU(2) entangled nonlinear coherent states

  • Amir Karimi and Mohammad Tavassoly
  • received 05/15/2014; accepted 08/15/2014; posted 08/18/2014; Doc. ID 212156
  • [full text: PDF (6351) KB)]
  • Abstract: In this paper, after a brief review on the entangled coherent state a general form of entangled nonlinear co- herent state has been introduced based on the nonlinear coherent states approach. By choosing particular f-deformation functions, theoretical schemes for generation of two distinct classes of such states associated with SU(1,1) and SU(2) groups are presented. The entanglement characteristic of the corresponding entan- gled coherent states has been studied by evaluating the concurrence. In the continuation, other nonclassical behaviors of the produced states have been analyzed by investigating sub-Poissonian photon statistics, oscil- latory photon number distribution, one- and two-mode quadrature squeezing, sum- and dierence-squeezing. Accordingly, in addition to their entanglement property, other nonclassicality features of the introduced states are well-established in detail.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (270.0270) Quantum optics : Quantum optics
  • (270.5290) Quantum optics : Photon statistics
  • (270.6570) Quantum optics : Squeezed states

Dynamics of mode entanglement in a system of cavities coupled with a chiral mirror

  • Ali Ü. C. Hardal
  • received 05/23/2014; accepted 08/15/2014; posted 08/18/2014; Doc. ID 212640
  • [full text: PDF (393) KB)]
  • Abstract: We investigate the Hermitian and the non-Hermitian dynamics of the mode entanglement in two identical optical cavities coupled by a chiral mirror. By employing the non-Hermitian quantum evolution, we calculate the logarithmic negativity measure of entanglement for initially Fock, coherent and squeezed states, separately. We verify the non-conservation of mean spin for the initially coherent and squeezed states when the coupling is non-reciprocal and report the associated spin noise for each case. We examine the effects of non-conserved symmetries on the mode correlations and determine the degree of non-reciprocal coupling to establish robust quantum entanglement.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (270.1670) Quantum optics : Coherent optical effects
  • (270.5580) Quantum optics : Quantum electrodynamics
  • (270.5585) Quantum optics : Quantum information and processing

Extraction of displaced number states

  • Sergey Podoshvedov
  • received 07/09/2014; accepted 08/15/2014; posted 08/18/2014; Doc. ID 216720
  • [full text: PDF (529) KB)]
  • Abstract: We focus on implementation and optimization of an irreversible analog of the Hadamard gate. Three optical schemes are considered for the purpose. Two of them are probabilistic. Another is deterministic provided that special auxiliary state is beforehand prepared. One of the optical schemes is based on photon subtraction. Number and displaced number states of the quantum oscillator are connected with each other through unitary transformation matrix. Extraction of displaced photons from initial optical beams enables to improve characteristics of the analog of the Hadamard gate. We also present detailed analysis of one of the studied schemes in realistic scenario. Results stemming from realistic model coincide with those following from simplified model.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (270.0270) Quantum optics : Quantum optics
  • (270.1670) Quantum optics : Coherent optical effects
  • (270.6570) Quantum optics : Squeezed states
  • (270.5565) Quantum optics : Quantum communications
  • (270.5585) Quantum optics : Quantum information and processing

Dispersion engineering of suspended silicon photonic waveguides for broadband mid-infrared wavelength conversion

  • Xibin Li, Ping Zhou, Sailing He, and Shiming Gao
  • received 04/15/2014; accepted 08/15/2014; posted 08/15/2014; Doc. ID 210041
  • [full text: PDF (750) KB)]
  • Abstract: Silicon photonics has much potential in the mid-infrared (MIR) band due to the broad low-loss window of silicon. The performance of wavelength conversion based on degenerate four-wave mixing (FWM) is theoretically evaluated in suspended silicon waveguides, which are adopted to eliminate the strong absorption of silica in MIR region. A theoretical model is formed for MIR wavelength conversion by taking the nonlinear loss into account, where three-photon absorption (3PA) and related free-carrier absorption (FCA) play dominant roles. The relationship of the dispersion and the waveguide dimensions is analyzed, and the dispersion is manipulated by tuning the cross section of the waveguide. The phase mismatch is effectively reduced and a MIR band conversion bandwidth as broad as 706 nm is obtained with a conversion efficiency of -20.5 dB in an 8-mm-long suspended silicon waveguide pumped by a light intensity as low as 0.1 GW/cm2.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (070.4340) Fourier optics and signal processing : Nonlinear optical signal processing
  • (190.4380) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, four-wave mixing
  • (130.7405) Integrated optics : Wavelength conversion devices

Higher dimensional localized mode families in parity-time symmetric potentials with competing nonlinearities

  • Chao-Qing Dai and Yan Wang
  • received 04/23/2014; accepted 08/15/2014; posted 08/15/2014; Doc. ID 210762
  • [full text: PDF (1322) KB)]
  • Abstract: Both two-dimensional and three-dimensional localized mode families in different parity-time ($\mathcal{PT}$) symmetric potentials with competing nonlinearities are investigated. We show that localized mode families described by a (2+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schr\"{o}dinger equation in the extended complex $\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric Rosen-Morse potential wells are unstable for all parameters due to the residue of gain (loss) in the system from the non-vanishing imaginary part in the extended Rosen-Morse potentials. In the extended hyperbolic Scarf II potentials, spatial localized modes are stable only for the defocusing cubic and focusing quintic nonlinearities. In this case, the gain (loss) should be also enough small for a certain real part of the $\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric potential, otherwise, localized modes eventually lead to instability. These results have been verified by the linear stability analysis from analytical solutions and the direct numerical simulation of the governing equation. The phase switch, power and power-flow density associated with these fundamental localized modes have also been examined. Moreover, the spatial and spatiotemporal localized mode families are presented, and the corresponding stability analysis for these solutions is also carried out.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (190.0190) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics
  • (190.6135) Nonlinear optics : Spatial solitons

Unidirectional light propagation through two-layer nanostructures based on optical near-field interactions

  • Makoto Naruse, Hirokazu Hori, Satoshi Ishii, Aurelien Drezet, Serge Huant, Morihisa Hoga, Yasuyuki Ohyagi, Tsutomu Matsumoto, Naoya Tate, and Motoichi Ohtsu
  • received 05/07/2014; accepted 08/15/2014; posted 08/15/2014; Doc. ID 211608
  • [full text: PDF (3662) KB)]
  • Abstract: We theoretically demonstrate direction-dependent polarization conversion efficiency, yielding unidirectional light transmission, through a two-layer nanostructure by using the angular spectrum representation of optical near-fields. The theory provides results that are consistent with electromagnetic numerical simulations. This study reveals that optical near-field interactions among nanostructured matter can provide unique optical properties, such as the unidirectionality observed here, and offers fundamental guiding principles for understanding and engineering nanostructures for realizing novel functionalities.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (260.5430) Physical optics : Polarization
  • (160.3918) Materials : Metamaterials
  • (310.6628) Thin films : Subwavelength structures, nanostructures

Alignment-free quantum key distribution by postselection

  • Xi-Han Li, Zhi Zeng, and Chun Wang
  • received 04/23/2014; accepted 08/15/2014; posted 08/18/2014; Doc. ID 210654
  • [full text: PDF (283) KB)]
  • Abstract: We propose an alignment-free photonic qubit transmission scheme and apply it in quantum key distribution schemes, in which the authorized parties do not have to calibrate their Cartesian reference frames in advance. The polarization states are labeled by time and the receiver can obtain the original state in his own coordinate by postselecting a determinate time of arrival. The scheme do not resort to decoherence-free subspace based on multiple photon states and it can be implemented with only passive linear optics, which make it efficient and practical with current technology. We demonstrate its application in quantum key distributions and the scheme should find applications in long-distance quantum communication without frame alignment.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (270.5565) Quantum optics : Quantum communications
  • (270.5585) Quantum optics : Quantum information and processing

Third Order Nonlinear Optical Characterization of Organic Chromophores Using Liquid Core Optical Fibers

  • Shiva Shahin, Khanh Kieu, Joel Hales, Hyeongeu Kim, Yulia Getmanenko, Yadong Zhang, Joseph Perry, Seth Marder, Robert Norwood, and Nasser Peyghambarian
  • received 08/11/2014; accepted 08/15/2014; posted 08/27/2014; Doc. ID 220752
  • [full text: PDF (859) KB)]
  • Abstract: We present our technique to characterize the third order nonlinear optical properties of organic dyes in our previously introduced liquid core optical fiber (i-LCOF) platform. i-LCOF is filled with the solution of the organic dyes and the change in the laser pulse spectral width due to self-phase modulation is investigated. The measurements are done at 1550nm using a mode-locked femtosecond fiber laser. The solution/laser interaction length is long (~50cm) which removes the need for large power pump pulses. This method is fast, simple and can be extended to the characterization of other nanoscale particles such as quantum dots and plasmonic metal nanoparticles in solutions.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (060.4370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Nonlinear optics, fibers
  • (160.4330) Materials : Nonlinear optical materials
  • (160.4890) Materials : Organic materials
  • (190.4400) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, materials

Giant and tunable Goos-Hanchen shifts for attenuated total reflection structure containing graphen

  • Min Cheng, Ping Fu, Xiyao Chen, Xiahui Zeng, Shangyuan Feng, and Rong Chen
  • received 07/09/2014; accepted 08/13/2014; posted 08/14/2014; Doc. ID 213891
  • [full text: PDF (770) KB)]
  • Abstract: We investigate the effect of a surface plasmon (SP) resonance on Goos-Hanchen (GH) spatial and angular shifts in the reflection of a light beam by considering an attenuated total reflection (ATR) structure containing a graphene layer. In particular, we find giant spatial and angular GH shifts for the p-wave light close to the plasmon resonance. The GH shifts can be controlled by adjusting the voltage applied to graphene via external gate. The giant and tunable GH shifts provide an alternative SP sensing scheme, which improves the sensitivity of SP sensors significantly.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (240.0240) Optics at surfaces : Optics at surfaces
  • (240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
  • (260.2110) Physical optics : Electromagnetic optics

Multi-Dressed Suppression and Enhancement of Spontaneous Parametric Four-Wave Mixing Processes

  • Feng Wen, Huayan Lan, Dan Zhang, Changbiao Li, Haixia Chen, and Yanpeng Zhang
  • received 05/12/2014; accepted 08/11/2014; posted 08/18/2014; Doc. ID 211920
  • [full text: PDF (538) KB)]
  • Abstract: For the first time, dressed spontaneous parametric four-wave mixing (SP-FWM) process and fluorescence (FL) signals in hot alkali atom vapor are demonstrated both in theory and experiment. Firstly, by scanning pumping fields, Autler-Townes (AT) splitting in SP-FWM and two-photon suppression dip in FL are observed. Then, by scanning coupling fields, single-, double-and triple dressed effect on those signals is demonstrated, such as, suppressed and/or enhanced of SP-FWM signal and suppressed two-photon emission peak of FL. The interaction effect between dressing fields on SP-FWM and FL signals is also observed. Such investigations can find potential applications in multi-channel narrowband long-distance quantum communication.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (190.4380) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, four-wave mixing
  • (190.4975) Nonlinear optics : Parametric processes

Interactions of incoherent localized beams in a photorefractive medium

  • Yiqi Zhang, Milivoj Belic, Huaibin Zheng, Haixia Chen, Changbiao Li, Jianeng Xu, and Yanpeng Zhang
  • received 03/06/2014; accepted 08/10/2014; posted 08/11/2014; Doc. ID 207310
  • [full text: PDF (3374) KB)]
  • Abstract: We investigate numerically interactions between two bright or dark incoherent localized beams in an strontium barium niobate photorefractive crystal in one dimension, using the coherent density method. For the case of bright beams, if the interacting beams are in-phase, they attract each other during propagation and form bound breathers; if out-of-phase, the beams repel each other and y away. The bright incoherent beams do not radiate much and form long-lived well-defined breathers or quasi-stable solitons. If the phase dierence is =2, the interacting beams may both attract or repel each other, depending on the interval between the two beams, the beam widths, and the degree of coherence. For the case of dark incoherent beams, in addition to the above the interactions also depend on the symmetry of the incident beams. As already known, an even- symmetric incident beam tends to split into a doublet, whereas an odd-symmetric incident beam tends to split into a triplet. When launched in pairs, the dark beams display dynamics consistent with such a picture and in general obey soliton-like conservation laws, so that the collisions are mostly elastic, leading to little energy and momentum exchange. But they also radiate and breathe while propagating. In all the cases, the smaller the interval between the two interacting beams, the stronger the mutual interaction. On the other hand, the larger the degree of incoherence, the weaker the interaction.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (160.5320) Materials : Photorefractive materials
  • (190.4420) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, transverse effects in
  • (190.5330) Nonlinear optics : Photorefractive optics
  • (190.6135) Nonlinear optics : Spatial solitons

Zigzag Modes in QC Laser Emission Spectra

  • Richard Tober, John Bruno, Sergey Suchalkin, and Gregory Belenky
  • received 05/23/2014; accepted 08/08/2014; posted 08/11/2014; Doc. ID 212658
  • [full text: PDF (501) KB)]
  • Abstract: We present emission spectra obtained from ridge waveguide quantum cascade (QC) lasers with atypical periodic features that result from optical modes that suffer total internal sidewall reflections and traverse zigzag paths along the length of the waveguide structure. These “zigzag” modes are equally spaced, in frequency, about the single lasing mode that arises at threshold. Moreover, they only exist at relatively low injection currents and with increasing current yield to the broadband Fabry-Perot modes that typically comprise the complicated spectra of QC lasers. A straightforward geometric analysis shows a clear correspondence between the zigzag modes and parameters useful for characterizing the quality of the laser waveguide structure.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.4780) Lasers and laser optics : Optical resonators
  • (140.5960) Lasers and laser optics : Semiconductor lasers
  • (260.5740) Physical optics : Resonance
  • (140.5965) Lasers and laser optics : Semiconductor lasers, quantum cascade

Theoretical and experimental study of slow-scale Hopf limit-cycles in laser-based wideband optoelectronic oscillators

  • Geraud Goune Chengui, Alain F. Talla, Jimmi H. Talla Mbé, Aurélien Coillet, Khaldoun Saleh, Laurent Larger, Paul Woafo, and Yanne Chembo
  • received 06/02/2014; accepted 08/08/2014; posted 08/11/2014; Doc. ID 213275
  • [full text: PDF (621) KB)]
  • Abstract: Optoelectronic oscillators are the subject of extensive research because of the wide variety of associated applications, which include chaos cryptography, ultra-stable microwave generation and neuromorphic computing. The wideband optoelectronic oscillator presents a particular feature allowing for two dynamical timescales to be superimposed, namely a slow one and a fast one. In this paper, we fully characterize the onset of the slow-scale oscillation in the wideband optoelectronic oscillator. We investigate the dynamics associated to the first Hopf bifurcation, and calculate analytically both the amplitude and period of the induced limit-cycle. Our theoretical results are in very good agreement with the experimental measurements.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (130.0250) Integrated optics : Optoelectronics
  • (130.1750) Integrated optics : Components
  • (190.4360) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, devices
  • (230.4320) Optical devices : Nonlinear optical devices

Sub-30-fs pulse compression and pulse shaping at the output of a 2-meter-long optical fiber in the near infrared range

  • Claire Lefort, Meri Kalashyan, Guillaume Ducourthial, Tigran Mansuryan, Rodney O'Connor, and Frederic Louradour
  • received 06/27/2014; accepted 08/08/2014; posted 08/11/2014; Doc. ID 214886
  • [full text: PDF (876) KB)]
  • Abstract: We experimentally demonstrate fiber delivery of sub-30 fs pulses in the near infrared range achieving 1.6 nJ at the output of a 2-meter-long standard single mode fiber, starting with 150 fs pulse duration at laser output and with a standard system. It results from the compensation of linear and nonlinear effects by a grism-based stretcher giving a pulse compression factor of 5, representing the best temporal, energetic and tunable performances. We compare these results with the fiber delivery of nanojoule pulses changing the fiber for a 2-meter-long large mode area one, giving similar results, but with a longer pulse duration. Then, we experimentally demonstrate the adaptation of the fibered setup to shape the spectrum in amplitude and phase at the fiber output with a shaping module placed before the fiber.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (230.4320) Optical devices : Nonlinear optical devices
  • (230.6120) Optical devices : Spatial light modulators
  • (320.2250) Ultrafast optics : Femtosecond phenomena
  • (320.5540) Ultrafast optics : Pulse shaping
  • (320.5550) Ultrafast optics : Pulses
  • (130.2035) Integrated optics : Dispersion compensation devices

Exciton–plasmon couplings in plexcitonic CuCl–Ag nanoshells: Rabi splitting and induced transparency

  • DaJian Wu, Ying Cheng, XueWei Wu, and XiaoJun Liu
  • received 07/03/2014; accepted 08/08/2014; posted 08/11/2014; Doc. ID 216313
  • [full text: PDF (1011) KB)]
  • Abstract: The plasmon–exciton couplings in the Ag nanoshell with a semiconductor CuCl core (CuCl–Ag) have been studied theoretically. By changing the geometry of the CuCl–Ag nanoshell, the antisymmetric dipole mode (ω+|₁) in the outer Ag shell can be tuned through the exciton resonance (ωe) of the inner CuCl core. For small CuCl core, the strong plasmon–exciton couplings between ω+|₁ and ωe modes can induce two new plexcitonic modes. The splitting energy between the plasmon and exciton of about 85 meV is obtained for the CuCl–Ag nanoshells. With increasing the thickness of the outer shell, the interference of these two new plexcitonic modes leads to a Fano dip in the scattering spectra. Furthermore, it is found that the plasmon–exciton induced transparency can be realized in the CuCl–Ag nanoshell with a large inner CuCl core, which is due to the destructive interference between the broad ω+|₁ peak and sharp ωe peak.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (160.4760) Materials : Optical properties
  • (260.5740) Physical optics : Resonance
  • (160.4236) Materials : Nanomaterials
  • (250.5403) Optoelectronics : Plasmonics

Polarization spectroscopy of 1S0-1P1 transition of neutral ytterbium isotopes in a hollow cathode lamp

  • Shaobing Zhu, Tao Chen, Xiaolin Li, and Yuzhu Wang
  • received 06/10/2014; accepted 08/07/2014; posted 08/08/2014; Doc. ID 213460
  • [full text: PDF (2248) KB)]
  • Abstract: We analyze the polarization spectrum of ${}^1\text{S}_{0}-{}^1\text{P}_{1}$ transition in atomic ytterbium with bosonic and fermionic isotopes in a hollow cathode lamp. Bosonic signals are created by saturation effects because of the only non-degenerate ground state, whereas fermionic counterparts are generated by optical pumping. The dependence of spectral signals on the cathode lamp current as well as the powers of the pump and probe beams are systematically investigated. Optimized parameters for future frequency-locking applications are suggested. The effects of pump beam polarization are determined by comparing results obtained from a circularly polarized pump beam to those obtained from an elliptically polarized one; here, enhanced signals were achieved by the former compared with the latter.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.3320) Lasers and laser optics : Laser cooling
  • (300.6320) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, high-resolution
  • (300.6420) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, nonlinear
  • (140.3425) Lasers and laser optics : Laser stabilization

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