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Journal of the Optical Society of America B

Journal of the Optical Society of America B

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Accepted papers to appear in an upcoming issue

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March


Far field narrowing in spatially modulated broad area edge-emitting semiconductor amplifiers

  • Mindaugas Radziunas, Ramon Herrero, Muriel Botey, and Kestutis Staliunas
  • received 02/04/2015; accepted 03/30/2015; posted 04/03/2015; Doc. ID 234035
  • [full text: PDF (1036) KB)]
  • Abstract: We perform a detailed theoretical analysis of the far field narrowing in broad-area edge-emitting semiconductor amplifiers that are electrically injected through the contacts periodically modulated in both, longitudinal and transverse, directions. The beam propagation properties within the semiconductor amplifier are explored by a (1+2)-dimensional traveling wave model and its coupled mode approximation. Assuming a weak field regime, we analyze the impact of different parameters and modulation geometry on the narrowing of the principal far field component.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (000.3860) General : Mathematical methods in physics
  • (070.6110) Fourier optics and signal processing : Spatial filtering
  • (080.2720) Geometric optics : Mathematical methods (general)
  • (250.5980) Optoelectronics : Semiconductor optical amplifiers
  • (050.5298) Diffraction and gratings : Photonic crystals

Hyperbolic Metamaterial Feasible for Fabrication with Direct Laser Writing Processes

  • Durdu Guney, Xu Zhang, and Sanjoy Debnath
  • received 01/21/2015; accepted 03/28/2015; posted 04/03/2015; Doc. ID 232762
  • [full text: PDF (954) KB)]
  • Abstract: Stimulated emission depletion microscopy inspired direct laser writing (STED-DLW) processes can offer diffraction-unlimited fabrication of 3D-structures, not possible with traditional electron-beam or optical lithography. We propose a hyperbolic metamaterial for fabrication with STED-DLW. First, we design meandering wire structures with three different magnetic dipoles which can be excited under different incidences of light. Then, based on effective parameters corresponding to normal incidence and lateral incidence, we find that the hyperbolic dispersion relation for five-layer structure appears between 15THz to 20 THz. Finally, we investigate the influence of imaginary parts of the effective parameters on the metamaterial dispersion. The proposed metamaterial structure has also potential for three-dimensionally isotropic permeability despite geometric anisotropy.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (220.0220) Optical design and fabrication : Optical design and fabrication
  • (260.2030) Physical optics : Dispersion
  • (160.3918) Materials : Metamaterials

Bloch oscillations in an optical lattice generated by a laser source based on a fiber amplifier: decoherence effects due to amplified spontaneous emission

  • Saida GUELLATI-KHELIFA, Manuel ANDIA, Pierre CLADÉ, François BIRABEN, and Etienne WODEY
  • received 12/19/2014; accepted 03/26/2015; posted 04/01/2015; Doc. ID 231143
  • [full text: PDF (772) KB)]
  • Abstract: We present the development of a laser source generated by frequency doubling of a seed laser at 1560 nm using a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) crystal. The seed laser passes through a 30 W fiber amplifier. The laser source at 780 nm is used to perform Bloch oscillations of ultra-cold atoms in an optical lattice. In this paper we investigate the decoherence effects induced by the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) in the gain medium. We show that the ASE drastically reduces the efficiency of Bloch oscillations. We totally filter out the ASE around the D2-line using a heated rubidium vapor cell. We precisely determine the power spectral density of the ASE by measuring the fraction of atoms transferred from the hyperfine level F = 1 to F = 2, when the laser is switched on.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (020.1670) Atomic and molecular physics : Coherent optical effects
  • (060.2320) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics amplifiers and oscillators
  • (270.2500) Quantum optics : Fluctuations, relaxations, and noise
  • (020.1335) Atomic and molecular physics : Atom optics

The Hong-Ou-Mandel interference between independent sources of heralded ultra-fast single photons: Influence of chirp

  • Liang Cui, xiaoxin ma, and Xiaoying Li
  • received 07/01/2014; accepted 03/25/2015; posted 03/25/2015; Doc. ID 215080
  • [full text: PDF (1162) KB)]
  • Abstract: For the quantum interference between two truly independent heralded single photon sources (HSPSs), which are generated from the spontaneous parametric processes pumping with ultra-fast laser pulses, the visibility of Hong-Ou-Mandel interference will be degraded by the mode mismatch. The influence of the purity of HSPSs has been extensively investigated, here we show that the chirp of HSPSs will change the pulse duration of ultra-fast single photons and introduce additional mode mismatch. To obtain the high visibility interference, in addition to improving the purity, the chirp of HSPSs which may originated form the pulsed pump fields and the propagation media of HSPSs should be properly managed. Our theoretical analysis shows the methods for minimizing the chirp induced mode mismatch depend on the bandwidth and phase matching condition of the HSPSs. Our study is useful for designing the Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometers in quantum information processing.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (270.5290) Quantum optics : Photon statistics
  • (270.5530) Quantum optics : Pulse propagation and temporal solitons
  • (190.4975) Nonlinear optics : Parametric processes
  • (270.5585) Quantum optics : Quantum information and processing

Experimental and theoretical study of passively Q-switched Nd:LuAG laser at 1.3 µm with V3+:YAG saturable absorber

  • Cheng Liu, Shengzhi Zhao, Guiqiu Li, Kejian Yang, Dechun Li, Tao Li, qiaowen chao, Tianli Feng, and Xintian Chen
  • received 12/10/2014; accepted 03/22/2015; posted 04/03/2015; Doc. ID 229202
  • [full text: PDF (3157) KB)]
  • Abstract: We report the characteristics of a diode-pumped continuous-wave (CW) and passively Q-switched Nd:LuAG laser emitting 1.3 µm wavelength. A maximum average output power of 954 mW was obtained under CW operation, giving a slope efficiency of 14.7 %. With an V3+:YAG crystal wafer employed as saturable absorber, the passively Q-switched Nd:LuAG laser produced a minimum pulse duration of 17 ns under a repetition rate of 8 kHz, and a maximum single pulse energy of 18.9 µJ. A rate equation model is introduced to theoretically analyze the results obtained in the experiment, in which the Gaussian spatial distribution of the intracavity photon density and the longitudinal distribution of the photon density along the cavity axis are taken into account. The results of numerical calculations of the rate equations are consistent with the experimental results. The results indicated the Nd:LuAG crystal as promising gain medium for achieving short pulses with high energy at 1.3 µm

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.3460) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers
  • (140.3480) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, diode-pumped
  • (140.3540) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, Q-switched

Surface plasmon resonance mediated fringe modulation using a birefringent lens creating radial shearing environment

  • Mahua Bera, Mina Ray, and Jayeta Banerjee
  • received 10/22/2014; accepted 03/21/2015; posted 03/25/2015; Doc. ID 225387
  • [full text: PDF (2927) KB)]
  • Abstract: A cost-effective simple technique to observe and analyze the surface plasmon resonance modulated radially sheared interference images using a birefringent lens is reported. Theoretical and experimental investigations have been presented for metallic thickness optimization, angle selection depending on the numerical aperture of birefringent lens together with real and complex plane analysis of resonance parameters for better understanding of experimental results. Simultaneous observation of p- and s- polarizations using Wollaston prism also supports the modulation due to coupling of surface plasmons with p-polarization whereas the unperturbed s-polarization can be used as reference. Moreover, we have also utilized this technique as the refractive index sensor for the analyte in contact with the plasmon generating metallic film.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
  • (260.1440) Physical optics : Birefringence
  • (260.3160) Physical optics : Interference
  • (250.5403) Optoelectronics : Plasmonics

Phase retrieval via regularization in self-diffraction based spectral interferometry

  • Simon Birkholz, Gunter Steinmeyer, Bernd Hofmann, Daniel Gerth, Steven Bürger, and Sebastian Koke
  • received 12/10/2014; accepted 03/18/2015; posted 03/25/2015; Doc. ID 229469
  • [full text: PDF (947) KB)]
  • Abstract: A novel variant of spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction (SPIDER) is introduced and experimentally demonstrated. Other than most previously demonstrated variants of SPIDER, our method is based on a third-order nonlinear optical effect, namely self-diffraction, rather than the second-order effect of sum-frequency generation. On one hand, self-diffraction (SD) substantially simplifies phase-matching capabilities for multi-octave spectra that cannot be hosted by second-order processes, given manufacturing limitations of crystal lengths in the few-micrometer range. On the other hand, however, SD SPIDER imposes an additional constraint as it effectively measures the spectral phase of a self-convolved spectrum rather than immediately measuring the fundamental phase. Reconstruction of the latter from the measured phase and the spectral amplitude of the fundamental turns out to be an ill-posed problem, which we address by a regularization approach. We discuss the numerical implementation in detail and apply it to measured data from a Ti:sapphire amplifier system. Our experimental demonstration used 40-fs pulses and a 500 µm thick BaF2 crystal to show that the SD SPIDER signal is sufficiently strong to be separable from stray light. Extrapolating these measurements to the thinnest conceivable nonlinear media, we predict that bandwidths well above two optical octaves can be measured by a suitably adapted SD SPIDER apparatus, enabling the direct characterization of pulses down to single-femtosecond pulse durations. Such characteristics appear out of range for any currently established pulse measurement technique.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (000.3860) General : Mathematical methods in physics
  • (120.5050) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Phase measurement
  • (190.4380) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, four-wave mixing
  • (320.7110) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast nonlinear optics

Wavelength dependence of reversible photodegradation of disperse orange 11 dye-doped PMMA thin films.

  • Benjamin Anderson, Mark Kuzyk, and Sheng-Ting Hung
  • received 01/07/2015; accepted 03/18/2015; posted 04/01/2015; Doc. ID 231934
  • [full text: PDF (1139) KB)]
  • Abstract: Using transmittance imaging microscopy we measure the wavelength dependence of reversible photodegradation in disperse orange 11 (DO11) dye-doped (poly)methyl-methacrylate (PMMA). The reversible and irreversible inverse quantum efficiencies (IQEs) are found to be constant over the spectral region investigated, with the average reversible IQE being $\overline{B}_\alpha= 8.70 (\pm 0.38)\times 10^5$ and the average irreversible IQE being $\overline{B}_\epsilon= 1.396 (\pm 0.031)\times 10^8$. The large difference between the IQEs is consistent with the hypothesis that the irreversible species involves a dye-polymer complex. Additionally, we find that the recovery rate is independent of wavelength with a value of $\overline{\beta}=3.88(\pm 0.47) \times 10^{-3}$ min$^{-1}$. These results are consistent with the correlated chromophore domain model of reversible photodegradation.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.3330) Lasers and laser optics : Laser damage
  • (140.3380) Lasers and laser optics : Laser materials
  • (160.4890) Materials : Organic materials
  • (160.5470) Materials : Polymers
  • (310.0310) Thin films : Thin films

On and off optical resonance dynamics of dielectric micro-cylinders under plane wave illumination

  • Ibrahim Mahariq and Hamza Kurt
  • received 01/28/2015; accepted 03/17/2015; posted 04/01/2015; Doc. ID 233418
  • [full text: PDF (815) KB)]
  • Abstract: We explore the on resonance and off resonance optical response of dielectric cylinders excited by normal incident plane waves. Both analytical method based on Mie theory and numerical method implemented with spectral element method are undertaken in the study. We demonstrate that whispering gallery mode characteristic of resonance behavior is strongly dependent on the refractive index and radius changes. Detuning of the either parameter deteriorates the resonance action and creates yet another exciting phenomenon known as photonic nano-jets. Sub-wavelength light focusing property can be associated with nano-jets and engineering the parameters yield strong field confinement and slowly diffracting beam propagation. The current work investigates the optical properties of the dielectric micro-cylinders at the close proximity of the resonance condition. Both strong field focusing associated with photonic nano-jet and enhanced field localization linked with the resonance condition are desired for photon manipulation scenarios in nano-photonics.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (060.4370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Nonlinear optics, fibers
  • (290.0290) Scattering : Scattering
  • (300.0300) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy

Breathing particles and clustering via synchronization

  • Svetlana Tatarkova
  • received 01/21/2015; accepted 03/17/2015; posted 04/23/2015; Doc. ID 233067
  • [full text: PDF (1195) KB)]
  • Abstract: We report the first experimental observation of synchronization and clustering in an array of colloid microscopic particles confined in the extended optical trap. Under certain conditions initially random and incoherent fluctuations of the individual particles in the array go through an abrupt transition to a fully coherent state resulting in phase synchronization and clustering into a single giant oscillator. The factors triggering synchronization are identified. The interpretation of the results is given using the Kuramoto model. In addition the transverse snake-type instability is observed for clustered particles.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (350.4990) Other areas of optics : Particles
  • (350.4855) Other areas of optics : Optical tweezers or optical manipulation

Nanofocusing in the graphene-coated tapered nanowire infrared probe

  • Bofeng Zhu, Guobin Ren, Yixiao Gao, Yang Yang, Beilei Wu, Yudong Lian, and Shuisheng Jian
  • received 10/29/2014; accepted 03/13/2015; posted 03/25/2015; Doc. ID 225950
  • [full text: PDF (757) KB)]
  • Abstract: We conduct analytical and numerical investigations of graphene-coated tapered nanowire probe and to determine the optimal conditions and structural parameters for achieving maximal possible local field enhancement at the probe tip. Based on the adiabatic approximation, analytic methods are adopted in the investigation of modal performances and field enhancement of the probe, showing well consistence with the rigorous numerical simulations up to the taper angle near 24°. Both the adiabatic theory and numerical simulation have shown that the existence of optimal conditions and structural parameters. The dependencies of tip field enhancement as well as the optimal structure parameters on geometric parameters, chemical potential, nanowire permittivity and tip radius have been intensively investigated with the electric field amplitude can be enhanced as high as 24 times. The proposed probe and the corresponding discussion may have promising applications for single molecule detection, measurement and nano-manipulation technique.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
  • (180.4243) Microscopy : Near-field microscopy
  • (310.6628) Thin films : Subwavelength structures, nanostructures

Anomalous optical bistability and robust entanglement of mechanical oscillators using two-photon coherence

  • Eyob Sete and Hichem Eleuch
  • received 01/14/2015; accepted 03/12/2015; posted 03/25/2015; Doc. ID 232449
  • [full text: PDF (2641) KB)]
  • Abstract: We analyze the optical bistability and the entanglement of two movable mirrors coupled to a two-mode laser in a doubly-resonant cavity. We show that in stark contrast to the usual red-detuned condition to observe bistability in single-mode optomechanics, the optical intensities exhibit bistability for all values of cavity-laser detuning due to intermode coupling induced by the two-photon atomic coherence. Interestingly, an unconventional bistability with ``ribbon-shaped' hysteresis can be observed for certain range of cavity-laser detuning. We also demonstrate that the atomic coherence leads to a strong entanglement between the movable mirrors in the adiabatic regime. Surprisingly, the mirror-mirror entanglement is shown to persist for environment temperatures of the phonon bath up to $12~\text{K}$ using experimental parameters.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (200.4880) Optics in computing : Optomechanics
  • (270.0270) Quantum optics : Quantum optics
  • (270.1670) Quantum optics : Coherent optical effects
  • (270.3100) Quantum optics : Instabilities and chaos
  • (270.3430) Quantum optics : Laser theory

Efficient excitation and control of arbitrary surface plasmon polariton beams using one-dimensional metallic gratings

  • Jacob Scheuer, Ady Arie, Doron Bar-Lev, and Itai Epstein
  • received 12/04/2014; accepted 03/03/2015; posted 03/12/2015; Doc. ID 228827
  • [full text: PDF (1077) KB)]
  • Abstract: We develop a general approach for efficient excitation and control of arbitrarily shaped surface plasmon polariton waves using one-dimensional metallic grating by proper manipulation of the exciting free-space beam. We present a complete and rigorous theory that relates the electromagnetic fields of the free-space beam impinging upon the grating to the resulting surface plasmon. Following, we deduce an optimal grating and efficient polarization schemes which facilitates the excitation of surface plasmons propagating at angles up to almost 90 degrees with respect to the grating’s axis with negligible polarization losses. The theoretical predictions are verified both numerically and experimentally by exciting two-dimensional surface plasmons through one dimensional metallic gratings. We show that this method can be readily applied for generating arbitrary plasmonic wave-fronts and the general design formalism is given. Finally, we show how the developed design rules can be applied for the excitation of optically controlled surface plasmon hotspots.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (060.5060) Fiber optics and optical communications : Phase modulation
  • (230.1950) Optical devices : Diffraction gratings
  • (240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
  • (070.6120) Fourier optics and signal processing : Spatial light modulators

February


Bragg Holography in Active Semiconductor Microcavities

  • Hao Sun, David Nolte, Eric Harmon, and James Hyland
  • received 01/26/2015; accepted 02/20/2015; posted 04/20/2015; Doc. ID 232173
  • [full text: PDF (903) KB)]
  • Abstract: High-speed dynamic holography is studied numerically and experimentally in broad-area InGaAs/InP multiple-quantum-well asymmetric Fabry-Perot (ASFP) microcavities that have pumped gain gratings near the lasing threshold. Two numerical approximation methods are developed to predict Bragg diffraction effects in these active microcavities. The cavity Raman-Nath method assumes multipass Raman-Nath diffraction, while the Cavity Bragg method assumes an effective medium. Both methods predict that Raman-Nath diffraction in a micron thick cavity resonator can exhibit Bragg-like selectivity for angles near the Bragg angle. The angular and spectral selectivities are studied experimentally in optically-pumped free carrier gratings using a tunable 1.55 micron laser in a nondegenerate four-wave mixing configuration. The device operates at gigahertz speeds with transient diffraction efficiency near unity.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (050.2230) Diffraction and gratings : Fabry-Perot
  • (050.2770) Diffraction and gratings : Gratings
  • (090.0090) Holography : Holography
  • (090.7330) Holography : Volume gratings
  • (190.4380) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, four-wave mixing

Optical nonlinearity enhancement in oblate semi-spheroid-shaped quantum dots coupled to wetting layer

  • Mohammadreza Shahzadeh and Mohammad Sabaeian
  • received 10/06/2014; accepted 02/17/2015; posted 04/20/2015; Doc. ID 224283
  • [full text: PDF (1509) KB)]
  • Abstract: The authors report optical nonlinearity enhancement in oblate semi-spheroid-shaped quantum dots (QDs) coupled to wetting layer. To reach this result, two groups of InAs/GaAs QDs were examined. In group (A), the base length of semi-spheroid-shaped QDs was set to 14 nm and the height was changed from 3 to 14 nm. In group (B), the height was set to 4 nm and the base-length was increased from 10 to 25 nm. The energy eigenvalues, transition energies, transition dipole moments, oscillator strengths, and linear and nonlinear optical susceptibility of the two groups were compared. Nonlinear susceptibility of group (B) QDs was shown to be much more sensitive in both peak-position and value to size-changes, in contrast to group (A) QDs. Interestingly, a ~11.4 times increasing in real and imaginary parts of the third-order susceptibility was observed when the base-length of group (B) QDs was increased from 10 nm to 25 nm. Moreover, the third-order susceptibility of the most-stretched QDs of group (B), i.e. b=25nm, was shown to be ~4.6 times larger than the tallest QD of group (A), i.e. h=14 nm. Finally, the figure of merit showed ~3.38 times increasing with QD base length increasing from b=10 nm to b=25nm.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (020.4900) Atomic and molecular physics : Oscillator strengths
  • (190.4720) Nonlinear optics : Optical nonlinearities of condensed matter
  • (250.0250) Optoelectronics : Optoelectronics
  • (260.5430) Physical optics : Polarization
  • (250.5590) Optoelectronics : Quantum-well, -wire and -dot devices

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