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Journal of the Optical Society of America B

Journal of the Optical Society of America B



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Boundary Tracking Algorithms for Determining of the Stability of Modelocked Pulses

  • Shaokang Wang, Andrew Docherty, Brian Marks, and Curtis Menyuk
  • received 08/04/2014; accepted 09/04/2014; posted 09/24/2014; Doc. ID 220362
  • [full text: PDF (1696) KB)]
  • Abstract: We develop robust computational methods, referred to as boundary tracking algorithms, that can rapidly determine the existence and stability of pulses in passively modelocked laser systems over a broad parameter range. Applying the boundary tracking algorithms to the cubic-quintic modelocking equation, we find a rich dynamical structure.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (000.3860) General : Mathematical methods in physics
  • (000.4430) General : Numerical approximation and analysis
  • (140.4050) Lasers and laser optics : Mode-locked lasers

Three-dimensional extended nonlocal photo-polymerization driven diffusion model. Part I. Absorption

  • Haoyu Li, Yue Qi, and John Sheridan
  • received 07/24/2014; accepted 09/03/2014; posted 09/08/2014; Doc. ID 217691
  • [full text: PDF (2504) KB)]
  • Abstract: When holographic gratings being recorded in a photopolymer material layer, the spatial distributions of the photoreactions taking place lead to the formation of non-uniform gratings in depth. In an effort to study such effects, in this series of papers a three-dimensional (3-D) nonlocal photo-polymerization driven diffusion (NPDD) model is developed. In Part I, we focused on describing the photo-initiation mechanisms by introducing a 3-D dye absorption model which more accurately and physically describes the processes taking place. Then, the values of physical parameters are extracted by numerical fitting experimentally obtained normalized transmittance growth curves for a range of layer thicknesses in an acrylamide/polyvinyl alcohol (AA/PVA) photopolymer material sensitized by Erythrosine B (EB). In Part II, applying the results in Part I, the full 3-D photophysical and photochemical evolutions are modeled. Then the resulting 3-D NPDD model is validated experimentally.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (050.7330) Diffraction and gratings : Volume gratings
  • (090.0090) Holography : Holography
  • (090.2900) Holography : Optical storage materials
  • (160.5335) Materials : Photosensitive materials
  • (010.1030) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Absorption

Optical Multiple Bistability in Metal-Insulator-Metal Plasmonic Waveguides Side-coupled with Twin Racetrack Resonators

  • Ruei-Cheng Shiu, Yung-Chiang Lan, and Guang-Yu Guo
  • received 03/18/2014; accepted 09/03/2014; posted 09/04/2014; Doc. ID 208373
  • [full text: PDF (1605) KB)]
  • Abstract: We investigate the resonant transmissions of surface plasmons that propagate in a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguide side-coupled to two MIM racetrack resonators in which optical third-order nonlinear material is filled, by the coupling mode analyses and finite-difference time-domain simulations. We find the multiple bistabilities and the hysteresis phenomena in the transmission coefficient as the input power varies. Furthermore, the mode conversion between the bistable states can be controlled by varying the input-gate power with a short switching time of about 333 fs, indicating that the MIM waveguide system may have applications in multiple switches, logic operations, and electromagnetically induced transparency.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (190.1450) Nonlinear optics : Bistability
  • (230.7370) Optical devices : Waveguides
  • (240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons

Non-diffracting and non-attenuating vortex light beams in media nonlinear absorption of orbital angular momentum

  • Miguel Porras and Carlos Ruiz-Jimenez
  • received 07/09/2014; accepted 09/02/2014; posted 09/03/2014; Doc. ID 216724
  • [full text: PDF (1679) KB)]
  • Abstract: We show that a high-order Bessel beam propagating in a medium with nonlinear absorption is not completely absorbed, but survives in the form of a new propagation invariant vortex beam in which the beam energy and orbital angular momentum are permanently transferred to matter and at the same time refueled by spiral inward currents of energy and angular momentum. Unlike vortex solitons and dissipative vortex solitons, these vortex beams are not supported by specific dispersive nonlinearities (self-focusing or self-defocusing) and do not require gain. Propagation invariance in presence of multiple absorption of photons carrying (possibly high) orbital angular momentum makes these beams attractive for optical pumping of angular momentum over long distances.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (190.3270) Nonlinear optics : Kerr effect
  • (190.4180) Nonlinear optics : Multiphoton processes
  • (190.4420) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, transverse effects in
  • (190.5940) Nonlinear optics : Self-action effects
  • (050.4865) Diffraction and gratings : Optical vortices
  • (190.6135) Nonlinear optics : Spatial solitons

Superradiance as a Source of Collective Decoherence in Quantum Computers

  • D. Yavuz
  • received 07/16/2014; accepted 09/02/2014; posted 09/03/2014; Doc. ID 217201
  • [full text: PDF (350) KB)]
  • Abstract: We analyze the radiative coupling of qubits to a common radiation bath in free space and discuss that superradiance (collective emission) results in decoherence that scales with the square of the number of qubits. This decoherence mechanism is non-local; the collective emission simultaneously decoheres all the qubits in the computer. Because the noise source is not local, the introduced errors are outside the applicability of the threshold theorem. As a result, we argue that the errors due to superradiance cannot be corrected using the current models of fault-tolerant quantum computation.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (270.2500) Quantum optics : Fluctuations, relaxations, and noise
  • (270.6630) Quantum optics : Superradiance, superfluorescence
  • (270.5585) Quantum optics : Quantum information and processing

Controlling the optical bistability via interacting double dark resonances in linear quantum dot molecules

  • Si-Cong Tian, Ren-Gang Wan, Cun-Zhu Tong, and Yong-Qiang Ning
  • received 06/25/2014; accepted 09/02/2014; posted 09/05/2014; Doc. ID 214469
  • [full text: PDF (662) KB)]
  • Abstract: The behavior of optical bistability in linear triple quantum dot molecules using double tunneling coupling by means of a unidirectional ring cavity is investigated. The linear and nonlinear susceptibilities of the system are also investigated. The double tunneling between the quantum dots can induce the interacting of double dark resonances, which can enhance the nonlinear response of the system. And the type, the hysteresis loop and the threshold of optical bistability can be controlled by the intensity of the double tunneling and the detuning of the probe field. Our results give insights for future experiments and applications in optics using quantum dot molecules.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (190.1450) Nonlinear optics : Bistability
  • (270.0270) Quantum optics : Quantum optics

Preparation of photonic Fock state using bichromatic adiabatic passage under dissipative environment

  • Wan-Li Yang, Qizhe Hou, Mang Feng, and Changyong Chen
  • received 06/11/2014; accepted 09/02/2014; posted 09/03/2014; Doc. ID 213780
  • [full text: PDF (740) KB)]
  • Abstract: We propose a potentially practical scheme for generating the controllable photonic Fock state in a cavity by using bichromatic adiabatic passage technique in the atom-cavity-laser system under dissipative environment. By numerically simulating the quantum dynamics of the whole system, we demonstrate quantitatively that the maximal probabilities of Fock state can be achieved by elaborately adjusting the peak amplitudes of the laser's Rabi frequency and the detuning between the laser frequency and the atomic transition frequency. In addition, we have also shown that the atomic and cavity dissipation play different roles in the preparation of Fock state inside cavity. The experimental feasibility and challenge are justified using currently available technology.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (020.5580) Atomic and molecular physics : Quantum electrodynamics
  • (020.5780) Atomic and molecular physics : Rydberg states
  • (270.5585) Quantum optics : Quantum information and processing

(LIM2014) Transient optical properties of dielectric and semiconductor excited by the ultrashort laser pulse

  • E. Gamaly and A. Rode
  • received 06/03/2014; accepted 09/01/2014; posted 09/02/2014; Doc. ID 213070
  • [full text: PDF (1660) KB)]
  • Abstract: Transient permittivity of dielectrics and semiconductors excited by powerful ultra-short laser pulse is introduced here in explicit form, which shows the decreasing contribution of the valence electrons and the increasing contribution of free carries with the rising laser fluence. We describe the evolution of permittivity from the initial state up to transformation into plasma before the ablation. Two orders of magnitude change in the electron’s collision rate during this transition is taken into account explicitly. The interplay between the ionization nonlinearity and the electron collisions dominate the transient optical properties of a swiftly excited material and results in unexpected minima and maxima in the permittivity and reflectivity. Our analysis of the transient permittivity of silica and silicon at 800 and 1300 nm reveals the differences in fs-excitation of narrow and wide band gap material and also distinguishes a metal-like state of the ionized dielectric from the excited state in metals. The obtained dependence of the transient permittivity on the electron density can be directly mapped on to the fluence distribution in the time and space domains. We briefly discuss the possibility to measure these transient properties in pump-probe experiments.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (320.7120) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast phenomena
  • (320.7130) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast processes in condensed matter, including semiconductors
  • (350.3390) Other areas of optics : Laser materials processing

Computational fluid dynamics modeling of subsonic flowing-gas diode pumped alkali lasers: comparison with semi-analytical model calculations and with experimental results

  • Karol Waichman, Boris Barmashenko, and Salman Rosenwaks
  • received 07/18/2014; accepted 09/01/2014; posted 09/03/2014; Doc. ID 217256
  • [full text: PDF (2143) KB)]
  • Abstract: Comprehensive analysis of kinetic and fluid dynamic processes in flowing-gas diode pumped alkali lasers (DPALs) using two- and three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (2D and 3D CFD) models is reported. The 2D model is applied to a DPAL with optical resonator-flow field coaxial configuration and the 3D model is applied to an optical axis transverse to the flow configuration. The models take into account effects of temperature rise and losses of alkali atoms due to ionization. The 2D CFD model is applied to 1 kW flowing-gas Cs DPAL [A.V. Bogachev et al., Quantum Electron. 42, 95 (2012)] and the calculated results are in good agreement with the measurements. Comparison of the 2D CFD to semi-analytical model [B. D. Barmashenko and S. Rosenwaks, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 1118 (2013)] shows that for low pump power both models predict very close values of the laser power; however, at higher pump power, corresponding to saturation of the absorption of the pump transition, the laser power calculated using the 2D CFD model is much higher than that obtained using the semi-analytical model. At high pump power, the heat convection out of the laser resonator is more efficient for the transverse case than the coaxial case, the beam temperature is lower and consequently the calculated laser power is higher. Optimization of the Cs DPAL parameters, using 3D CFD modeling, shows that applying high flow velocity and narrowband pumping, maximum lasing power as high as 40 kW can be obtained at pump power of 80 kW for transverse flow configuration in a pumped volume of ~ 0.7 cm3.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.1340) Lasers and laser optics : Atomic gas lasers
  • (140.3430) Lasers and laser optics : Laser theory
  • (140.3480) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, diode-pumped
  • (140.6810) Lasers and laser optics : Thermal effects


Bandwidth analysis of type-I optical parametric chirped pulse amplification systems

  • Xiaoyang Guo, Cheng Wang, Yuxin Leng, and Ruxin Li
  • received 07/18/2014; accepted 08/30/2014; posted 09/03/2014; Doc. ID 217250
  • [full text: PDF (986) KB)]
  • Abstract: We propose a set of empirical formulas to describe the signal broadband gain regime and ultra-broadband gain point under a given pump wavelength for a type-I optical parametric chirped pulse amplification system. These formulas are applied in the usual nonlinear crystals (BBO, KDP, DKDP, CLBO, LBO, and YCOB), and the corresponding results agree with numerically calculated ones. The empirical formulas provide guidelines for selecting appropriate crystals, or pump wavelengths to design OPCPA for broadband or ultra-broadband gain bandwidths with appointed signal wavelength.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (190.4970) Nonlinear optics : Parametric oscillators and amplifiers
  • (190.7110) Nonlinear optics : Ultrafast nonlinear optics

Polarization-resolved characterization of long-wavelength VCSEL parameters

  • P. Perez, A. Valle, and L. Pesquera
  • received 06/11/2014; accepted 08/30/2014; posted 09/03/2014; Doc. ID 213851
  • [full text: PDF (402) KB)]
  • Abstract: A measurement of the parameters characterizing polarization behavior of a 1550-nm single transverse mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) is presented from the analysis of CW high-resolution optical spectra. Current-induced polarization switching (PS) is observed in our device. A minimum in the absolute value of the effective dichroism is observed at the PS point. The value of the effective birefringence has a discontinuity at the current at which PS is observed. Birefringence oscillations with the bias current are also observed. PS characteristics are used for the extraction of the parameters describing the polarization behavior of the VCSEL. Obtained values of the spontaneous emission fraction and spin-flip rate are larger than those typically used in theoretical modeling of these devices.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.5960) Lasers and laser optics : Semiconductor lasers
  • (140.7260) Lasers and laser optics : Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

Laser resonator modeling by field tracing - a flexible approach for fully vectorial transversal eigenmode calculation

  • Daniel Asoubar, Site Zhang, Michael Kuhn, and Frank Wyrowski
  • received 07/09/2014; accepted 08/30/2014; posted 09/03/2014; Doc. ID 216638
  • [full text: PDF (497) KB)]
  • Abstract: In this work we generalize the scalar Fox and Li algorithm for the dominant transversal resonator eigenmode calculation to a fully vectorial field tracing concept. Therefore we reformulate Fox and Li’s scalar integral equation to a set of coupled operator equations. The introduction of a field tracing round trip operator concept shows that, in principle, any modeling technique which can be formulated to operate for electromagnetic fields can be used to simulate light propagation through the different subdomains of the resonator. This allows a flexible, fast and accurate simulation of the fully vectorial dominant transversal resonator eigenmode. An example is presented to demonstrate the flexibility and accuracy of the field tracing approach.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.3410) Lasers and laser optics : Laser resonators
  • (140.3570) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, single-mode
  • (140.4780) Lasers and laser optics : Optical resonators
  • (260.5430) Physical optics : Polarization

Numerical evaluation of ultrabroadband parametric amplification in YCOB

  • Hugo Pires, Marco Galimberti, and Goncalo Figueira
  • received 05/08/2014; accepted 08/29/2014; posted 09/03/2014; Doc. ID 211732
  • [full text: PDF (1297) KB)]
  • Abstract: The technique of optical parametric chirped pulse amplification has the potential to generate high energy few-cycle pulses at high repetition rates, thanks to its high fidelity and ultrabroadband capability. The biaxial nonlinear crystal yttrium calcium oxyborate (YCOB) exhibits a favorable set of optical and thermal properties for these purposes. We evaluate numerically the performance of this crystal as the nonlinear medium in a parametric amplifier for a wide range of phase matching parameters. We explore optimized ultrabroadband noncollinear optical parametric amplification by operating at phase-matching angles outside the principal planes.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.4480) Lasers and laser optics : Optical amplifiers
  • (190.4400) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, materials
  • (190.4970) Nonlinear optics : Parametric oscillators and amplifiers
  • (320.7110) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast nonlinear optics

A Unified Model for Analysis of Light Amplification in Rare-Earth Doped Fibers

  • J. Bai and E. Towe
  • received 07/29/2014; accepted 08/29/2014; posted 09/17/2014; Doc. ID 218860
  • [full text: PDF (1687) KB)]
  • Abstract: This paper discusses a unified method for modeling and simulating signal light amplification in rare earth doped optical fiber amplifiers. The model accounts for gain saturation, spontaneous emission, dispersion, and nonlinear effects along the length of the distributed gain medium. Simulations based on the unified model are shown to compare favorably with experimental results. The new model can be used to provide guidance in the design and construction of a variety of fiber-based optical amplifiers. Furthermore, it is suitable for analyzing the performance of high power amplifiers in a wide range of operating conditions.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (060.2320) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics amplifiers and oscillators
  • (060.5530) Fiber optics and optical communications : Pulse propagation and temporal solitons
  • (140.4480) Lasers and laser optics : Optical amplifiers
  • (190.4370) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, fibers
  • (140.3615) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, ytterbium
  • (060.5295) Fiber optics and optical communications : Photonic crystal fibers

(30th Anniversary) Progress in Terahertz Sources Based on Difference Frequency Generation

  • Yujie Ding
  • received 06/16/2014; accepted 08/28/2014; posted 09/03/2014; Doc. ID 214168
  • [full text: PDF (1216) KB)]
  • Abstract: We review our previous results on efficient, high-power and compact terahertz (THz) sources based on parametric processes. By reversely stacking GaP plates, we have improved photon conversion efficiency from 25% to 40%, which corresponds to the maximum value. As the number of the plates is increased from 4 to 5, the output power is decreased due to back conversion. The corresponding peak power of the THz output reaches 4 kW. We have investigated THz generation by mixing two frequencies generated by a single Nd:YLF solid-state laser. The average output power reaches 1 μW. By introducing two Nd:YLF crystals, we significantly improved the output power to 4.5 μW. Such a configuration allows us to generate different output frequencies. We review our progress for making our THz source further compact by taking advantage of passively Q-switched laser pulses. We have demonstrated that intracavity can be utilized to enhance the THz output powers by two orders of magnitude.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (190.4360) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, devices
  • (190.4410) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, parametric processes
  • (190.4223) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear wave mixing

Comparative analysis of Dyakonov hybrid surface waves at the interfaces dielectric-elliptic and dielectric-hyperbolic media

  • E. Cojocaru
  • received 07/01/2014; accepted 08/28/2014; posted 09/03/2014; Doc. ID 214948
  • [full text: PDF (335) KB)]
  • Abstract: We investigate comparatively the Dyakonov surface waves (DSWs) traveling along the plane interface between a dielectric isotropic medium and a lossless anisotropic uniaxial medium with the optic axis parallel to the interface, when the principal permittivities of the uniaxial medium are both positive (elliptic medium) and of opposite signs (hyperbolic medium). New insights concerning the DSWs are given by analyzing the behavior of the Poynting vector (PV) components. Thus, singularity points at which the PV of the DSW vanishes there are only at the interface dielectric-elliptic media. The range of angles with respect to the optic axis, which is determined both for the wave vector and the respective PV, can be larger for the DSWs at the interface dielectric-hyperbolic media. Extremely high values of the wave vector and the PV components of the DSWs can be attained at the interface dielectric-hyperbolic media.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (160.1190) Materials : Anisotropic optical materials
  • (240.6690) Optics at surfaces : Surface waves
  • (350.5500) Other areas of optics : Propagation
  • (160.3918) Materials : Metamaterials

(30th anniversary) Hybrid metal-dielectric terahertz waveguides: challenges and opportunities

  • Andrey Markov, Hichem Guerboukha, and Maksim Skorobogatiy
  • received 04/18/2014; accepted 08/28/2014; posted 09/03/2014; Doc. ID 210221
  • [full text: PDF (27533) KB)]
  • Abstract: In this review we evaluate recent experimental and theoretical progress in the development of hybrid metal / dielectric waveguides used for practical low-loss and low-dispersion delivery of terahertz radiation. Waveguides considered in this review utilize plasmonic modes guided in the air gap between two parallel wires. The two parallel wires are, in turn, encapsulated inside of a low-loss, low-refractive index micro or nano-structured cladding that provides mechanical stability and isolation from the environment. We describe two alternative techniques that may be used to encapsulate the two-wire waveguides while minimizing the negative impact of dielectric cladding on the optical properties of the waveguide. The first technique uses low-density foam as a cladding material, while the other uses air-filled microstructured plastic claddings to support metallic wires. Additionally, we offer a detailed analysis of the modal properties of the hybrid metal/dielectric waveguides, compare them with the properties of a classic two-wire waveguide, and present several strategies for the improvement of hybrid waveguide performance. Using resonant dependence of the confinement properties of some hybrid plasmonic modes also allows us to propose their use in THz refractometry. Finally, we demonstrate that hybrid metal/dielectric porous waveguides can have a very large operational bandwidth while supporting tightly confined, air-bound modes both at high and low frequencies. This is possible as, at higher frequencies, hybrid fibers can support ARROW-like low-loss air-bound modes while changing their guidance mechanism to plasmonic confinement in the inter-wire air gap at lower frequencies.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (060.2280) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber design and fabrication
  • (250.5403) Optoelectronics : Plasmonics
  • (300.6495) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, teraherz

(LIM2014) Excitation and Relaxation Dynamics in Dielectrics Irradiated by an Intense Ultrashort Laser Pulse

  • Nils Brouwer and Barbel Rethfeld
  • received 06/10/2014; accepted 08/28/2014; posted 08/28/2014; Doc. ID 213659
  • [full text: PDF (519) KB)]
  • Abstract: When transparent dielectrics are irradiated by an intense, ultrashort laser pulse, the electron density in the conduction band is increased tremendously. Simultaneously, valence band states become unoccupied and the electron-phonon coupling strength is increased. In this paper, we present our work on modeling the ultrafast non-equilibrium dynamics of laser-excited transparent dielectrics with Boltzmann collision integrals. We track the distribution function of conduction and valence band electrons and discuss the effects of Auger recombination in relation to impact ionization and multiphoton/tunnel ionization on the femtosecond timescale. Finally, we investigate the electron-phonon coupling strength in highly excited dielectrics and calculate the electron- phonon coupling parameter for silicon dioxide-like material.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.3440) Lasers and laser optics : Laser-induced breakdown
  • (190.4180) Nonlinear optics : Multiphoton processes
  • (320.2250) Ultrafast optics : Femtosecond phenomena
  • (320.7130) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast processes in condensed matter, including semiconductors

Spectral compression and modulation of second harmonic generation by Fresnel-inspired binary phase shaping

  • Baihong Li, Yonggang Xu, Haifei Zhu, Qianlan Lin, Lan An, Fukun Lin, and Yongfang Li
  • received 06/18/2014; accepted 08/28/2014; posted 08/28/2014; Doc. ID 214139
  • [full text: PDF (482) KB)]
  • Abstract: The second harmonic generation (SHG) process is investigated theoretically using the quantum mechanics method of coherent control. Based on the extremum conditions for the SHG intensity at the center frequency, a Fresnel-inspired binary phase shaping scheme is proposed for tailoring the fundamental pulse. The SHG spectrum can be compressed into a narrowband signal with lower background by modulating the relative phases between the frequency components within the fundamental pulse, inducing constructive interference at the center frequency and destructive interference elsewhere. Multi-peak second harmonic signals can also be obtained by properly modulating various interference pathways. These results have potential applications in high resolution nonlinear spectroscopy, microscopy and information coding.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (190.2620) Nonlinear optics : Harmonic generation and mixing
  • (190.7110) Nonlinear optics : Ultrafast nonlinear optics
  • (320.5540) Ultrafast optics : Pulse shaping

Deterministic implementation of optimal symmetric quantum cloning with nitrogen-vacancy centers coupled to a whispering-gallery microresonator

  • Zhao Jin, Yan-Qiang Ji, Ai-Dong Zhu, Hong-Fu Wang, and Shou Zhang
  • received 06/26/2014; accepted 08/27/2014; posted 08/28/2014; Doc. ID 214834
  • [full text: PDF (840) KB)]
  • Abstract: The schemes for implementing quantum cloning are proposed with the nitrogen-vacancy(N-V) centers in diamond confined in the separated microtoroidal resonators(MTRs) via single-photon input-output process and linear optics. By properly arranging and adjusting the linear optical elements to control the interaction between the photons and N-V centers, we realize quantum cloning transformations including the optimal symmetric 1 ->2 universal, phase-covariant, and 1 ->M economical phase-covariant ones. In these schemes, the photons are used as the data buses and the information is copied from one N-V center to the others. We also discuss the cloning fidelities and dissipative effects. The results show the present schemes are robust under the current experiment conditions.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (270.5565) Quantum optics : Quantum communications
  • (270.5585) Quantum optics : Quantum information and processing

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