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Journal of the Optical Society of America B

Journal of the Optical Society of America B

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August


Comparative analysis of Dyakonov hybrid surface waves at the interfaces dielectric-elliptic and dielectric-hyperbolic media

  • E. Cojocaru
  • received 07/01/2014; accepted 08/28/2014; posted 09/03/2014; Doc. ID 214948
  • [full text: PDF (335) KB)]
  • Abstract: We investigate comparatively the Dyakonov surface waves (DSWs) traveling along the plane interface between a dielectric isotropic medium and a lossless anisotropic uniaxial medium with the optic axis parallel to the interface, when the principal permittivities of the uniaxial medium are both positive (elliptic medium) and of opposite signs (hyperbolic medium). New insights concerning the DSWs are given by analyzing the behavior of the Poynting vector (PV) components. Thus, singularity points at which the PV of the DSW vanishes there are only at the interface dielectric-elliptic media. The range of angles with respect to the optic axis, which is determined both for the wave vector and the respective PV, can be larger for the DSWs at the interface dielectric-hyperbolic media. Extremely high values of the wave vector and the PV components of the DSWs can be attained at the interface dielectric-hyperbolic media.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (160.1190) Materials : Anisotropic optical materials
  • (240.6690) Optics at surfaces : Surface waves
  • (350.5500) Other areas of optics : Propagation
  • (160.3918) Materials : Metamaterials

Nonlinear light-induced absorption in Bi2TeO5 photorefractive crystals

  • Ivan de Oliveira, Danilo Capovilla, Varese Timóteo, Jesiel Carvalho, and Jaime Frejlich
  • received 07/31/2014; accepted 08/27/2014; posted 09/08/2014; Doc. ID 220212
  • [full text: PDF (566) KB)]
  • Abstract: We report on the light-induced absorption in undoped photorefractive Bi2TeO5 (BTeO) crystal. The so-called “two-center” model is shown to adequately describe the present material behavior. We demonstrate that nonlinear light-induced absorption occurs for high light intensities. The theoretical model allowed finding out some material parameters from experimental data. We also investigate the effect of intensity and wavelength effects on the light-induced absorption.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (160.4760) Materials : Optical properties
  • (160.5320) Materials : Photorefractive materials
  • (190.4400) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, materials

Deterministic implementation of optimal symmetric quantum cloning with nitrogen-vacancy centers coupled to a whispering-gallery microresonator

  • Zhao Jin, Yan-Qiang Ji, Ai-Dong Zhu, Hong-Fu Wang, and Shou Zhang
  • received 06/26/2014; accepted 08/27/2014; posted 08/28/2014; Doc. ID 214834
  • [full text: PDF (840) KB)]
  • Abstract: The schemes for implementing quantum cloning are proposed with the nitrogen-vacancy(N-V) centers in diamond confined in the separated microtoroidal resonators(MTRs) via single-photon input-output process and linear optics. By properly arranging and adjusting the linear optical elements to control the interaction between the photons and N-V centers, we realize quantum cloning transformations including the optimal symmetric 1 ->2 universal, phase-covariant, and 1 ->M economical phase-covariant ones. In these schemes, the photons are used as the data buses and the information is copied from one N-V center to the others. We also discuss the cloning fidelities and dissipative effects. The results show the present schemes are robust under the current experiment conditions.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (270.5565) Quantum optics : Quantum communications
  • (270.5585) Quantum optics : Quantum information and processing

(LIM2014) Ultrafast Structural Phenomena: Theory of Phonon Frequency Changes and Simulations with CHIVES

  • Naira Grigoryan, Tobias Zier, Martin Garcia, and Eeuwe Zijlstra
  • received 06/02/2014; accepted 08/26/2014; posted 08/27/2014; Doc. ID 213030
  • [full text: PDF (697) KB)]
  • Abstract: When a femtosecond-laser pulse excites a solid it may, among other ultrafast processes, induce coherent phonons, phonon frequency changes, thermal phonon squeezing, and nonthermal melting. Using our in-house Code for Highly-excIted Valence Electron Systems (CHIVES), where laser-induced interatomic forces are computed ``on the fly' from ab initio theory, we performed molecular dynamics simulations of supercells with up to 800 atoms. For Si we found that thermal phonon squeezing precurses nonthermal melting as a function of fluence. Furthermore, our molecular dynamics trajectories showed that nonthermal melting includes a stage during which the atoms move fractionally diffusive. We also simulated femtosecond-laser-excited Ge. In addition, we explain the electronic origin of laser-induced phonon frequency redshifts and blueshifts in Mg.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.3390) Lasers and laser optics : Laser materials processing
  • (160.3900) Materials : Metals
  • (160.6000) Materials : Semiconductor materials
  • (320.7130) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast processes in condensed matter, including semiconductors
  • (260.7120) Physical optics : Ultrafast phenomena

(30th Anniversary) Mini-Review of Nonlinear Polarization Effects in Optical Fibers: Polarization Attraction and Modulation Instability

  • G. Millot and S. Wabnitz
  • received 07/04/2014; accepted 08/26/2014; posted 09/15/2014; Doc. ID 216335
  • [full text: PDF (2276) KB)]
  • Abstract: We review polarization stabilization techniques based on the polarization attraction effect in low-birefringence fibers. Polarization attraction or pulling may be based on crosspolarization modulation, on parametric amplification, and on Raman or Brillouin scattering. We also review methods for laser frequency conversion based on polarization modulation instabilities in low and high birefringence fibers, and photonic crystal fibers. Polarization instabilities in nonlinear fibers may also be exploited for sensing applications.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (060.4370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Nonlinear optics, fibers
  • (060.5530) Fiber optics and optical communications : Pulse propagation and temporal solitons
  • (190.3270) Nonlinear optics : Kerr effect
  • (190.4370) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, fibers
  • (190.4380) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, four-wave mixing
  • (190.5650) Nonlinear optics : Raman effect

Gap solitons and symmetry breaking in parity-time symmetric microring CROWs

  • Pedro Chamorro-Posada
  • received 06/26/2014; accepted 08/26/2014; posted 09/12/2014; Doc. ID 214856
  • [full text: PDF (3428) KB)]
  • Abstract: The propagation properties of optical fields in linear and nonlinear parity-time symmetric microring coupled resonator optical waveguides are studied. The effects described include the existence of symmetry breaking thresholds, the propagation of gap solitons in nonlinear transmission lines and the existence of quasi stable propagation regimes outside the broken symmetry regions.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (060.5530) Fiber optics and optical communications : Pulse propagation and temporal solitons
  • (190.5530) Nonlinear optics : Pulse propagation and temporal solitons
  • (250.5530) Optoelectronics : Pulse propagation and temporal solitons
  • (230.4555) Optical devices : Coupled resonators

Lossless Polarization Attraction of Telecom Signals: Application to All-Optical OSNR Enhancement

  • Matteo Barozzi and Armando Vannucci
  • received 07/24/2014; accepted 08/26/2014; posted 09/10/2014; Doc. ID 217763
  • [full text: PDF (448) KB)]
  • Abstract: We propose an all-optical fiber-based device able to accomplish both polarization control and OSNR enhancement of an amplitude modulated optical signal, at the same time. The proposed device is made of a nonlinear lossless polarizer (NLP), that performs polarization control, followed by an ideal polarizing filter, that removes the orthogonally polarized half of additive noise. The task of the NLP is to impose a signal polarization aligned with the transparent eigenstate of the polarizing filter. In order to effectively control the polarization of an amplitude modulated signal in the presence of additive noise, we show how one of the two different NLP configurations (with counter- or co-propagating pump laser) is needed, as a function of the signal polarization coherence time. We demonstrate that an OSNR gain close to 3 dB can be achieved by using the proper NLP configuration. Finally, we show how the achievable OSNR gain can be estimated theoretically.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (060.2360) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics links and subsystems
  • (060.4370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Nonlinear optics, fibers
  • (190.3270) Nonlinear optics : Kerr effect
  • (230.1150) Optical devices : All-optical devices
  • (230.4320) Optical devices : Nonlinear optical devices
  • (230.5440) Optical devices : Polarization-selective devices

Quantum atomic lithography via cross-cavity optical Stern-Gerlach Setup

  • T. Batalhão, R. Bachelard, G. de Moraes Neto, M. de Ponte, M. Moussa, and C. Máximo
  • received 07/24/2014; accepted 08/25/2014; posted 08/26/2014; Doc. ID 217038
  • [full text: PDF (914) KB)]
  • Abstract: We present a fully quantum scheme to perform 2D atomic lithography based on a cross-cavity optical Stern-Gerlach setup: an array of two mutually orthogonal cavities crossed by an atomic beam perpendicular to their optical axes, which is made to interact with two identical modes. After deriving an analytical solution for the atomic momentum distribution, we introduce a protocol allowing us to control the atomic deflection by manipulating the amplitudes and phases of the cavity field states.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (020.5580) Atomic and molecular physics : Quantum electrodynamics
  • (220.3740) Optical design and fabrication : Lithography
  • (270.0270) Quantum optics : Quantum optics
  • (270.6570) Quantum optics : Squeezed states
  • (020.1335) Atomic and molecular physics : Atom optics
  • (050.6624) Diffraction and gratings : Subwavelength structures

Hybrid SOI/polymer electro optical intensity modulator operating at 780 nm

  • Edgars Nitiss, Janis Busenbergs, and Martins Rutkis
  • received 05/22/2014; accepted 08/25/2014; posted 08/25/2014; Doc. ID 212416
  • [full text: PDF (585) KB)]
  • Abstract: Currently the inorganic materials prevail to be used as a nonlinear active medium for light modulation in electro optical (EO) device technology. A recent promising trend is to consider organic nonlinear optical materials for application in EO modulators due to their multiple advantages including low costs and high EO coefficients. In this paper, we proposed a new type of polymer EO modulator whose fabrication is compatible with the currently used silicon on insulator (SOI) technology. Our numerical optimization of the proposed structure demonstrates that it is theoretically possible to achieve a half-wave voltage of as low as 1.56 V for a 1 cm long modulator structure operating at 780 nm. Based on the results of the numerical calculations, we also outline the advantages and drawbacks of the design.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (190.4360) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, devices
  • (190.4400) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, materials
  • (190.4710) Nonlinear optics : Optical nonlinearities in organic materials
  • (230.2090) Optical devices : Electro-optical devices
  • (230.4110) Optical devices : Modulators
  • (230.7380) Optical devices : Waveguides, channeled

(LIM2014)Laser-induced transfer of nanoparticles for gas-phase analysis

  • Alexander Bulgakov, Nathan Goodfriend, Oleg Nerushev, Nadezhda Bulgakova, Sergei Starinskiy, Yuri Shukhov, and Eleanor Campbell
  • received 06/02/2014; accepted 08/25/2014; posted 08/25/2014; Doc. ID 212813
  • [full text: PDF (3165) KB)]
  • Abstract: An experimental study of laser-induced forward transfer of nanoparticles from a metal-coated glass substrate is presented. Nanoparticles are efficiently removed from the substrates due to transient blister formation. A combination of mass spectrometry, AFM studies of the irradiated substrates and theoretical considerations of temperature distributions and stresses in the films during irradiation serves to provide insight into the mechanisms involved.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (320.2250) Ultrafast optics : Femtosecond phenomena
  • (320.4240) Ultrafast optics : Nanosecond phenomena
  • (350.1820) Other areas of optics : Damage
  • (350.3390) Other areas of optics : Laser materials processing
  • (310.6845) Thin films : Thin film devices and applications

Exact Theory of Optical Transition Radiation in the Far and Near Zones

  • Ariel Nause, Egor Dyunin, Reuven Ianconescu, and Avraham Gover
  • received 07/15/2014; accepted 08/24/2014; posted 08/25/2014; Doc. ID 216885
  • [full text: PDF (2604) KB)]
  • Abstract: We present an exact solution of the complex field of Transition Radiation (TR) emitted by an electron incident on a conductive screen. The solution is valid in all space. In the reactive near zone it replicates the Coulomb fields of the electron and its image charge and their evolvement into radiation fields after termination of the charges current at the screen. Using a general formulation for radiation diffraction from a current line, we derive diffraction integral expressions in the reactive near-zone, the Fresnel near-zone and the Fraunhofer far-zone in analogy to diffraction from a planar radiation source. The derived exact complex field expressions can be useful for describing Coherent Optical TR (COTR) from a beam of phase-correlated charge particles in the near field and in the imaging plane of the screen.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (000.6800) General : Theoretical physics
  • (030.1640) Coherence and statistical optics : Coherence
  • (260.1960) Physical optics : Diffraction theory

Dispersive and scattering properties of multilayer arrays made of plasmonic nanoparticles

  • Giuseppe D'Aguanno and Nadia Mattiucci
  • received 07/15/2014; accepted 08/24/2014; posted 08/25/2014; Doc. ID 216906
  • [full text: PDF (1958) KB)]
  • Abstract: We analytically study, in the homogenization regime, the dispersive and transmission properties of periodic multilayer arrays of subwalength metal particles embedded in a dielectric medium. Far from the intrinsic plasmonic resonance of the individual nanoparticles, these structures behave similarly to conventional Bragg reflectors. At the plasmonic resonance, a different type of Bragg gap is formed with peculiar dispersive and tunneling properties.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (230.1480) Optical devices : Bragg reflectors
  • (160.4236) Materials : Nanomaterials
  • (250.5403) Optoelectronics : Plasmonics
  • (050.6624) Diffraction and gratings : Subwavelength structures

Electron excitation in thin metal films due to the magnetic field of ultrashort laser pulses

  • A. Lugovskoy and I. Bray
  • received 05/14/2014; accepted 08/24/2014; posted 08/26/2014; Doc. ID 211828
  • [full text: PDF (651) KB)]
  • Abstract: The behaviour of the conduction-band electrons in a metal film subjected to the action of an ultrashort laser pulse at normal incidence is analysed quantum-mechanically. We consider the case where the pulse duration is shorter that the electron mean free time. It is shown for the first time that electrons occupying low quantum-well states can be excited resonantly to the higher-energy quantum-well levels due to the action of the magnetic field of the wave. The excitation probability due to this mechanism can be even larger than the excitation probability due to the inverse bremsstrahlung in electron-phonon collisions.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (310.0310) Thin films : Thin films
  • (320.7120) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast phenomena
  • (320.7130) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast processes in condensed matter, including semiconductors

Raman fiber laser pumped high power, efficient Ho-doped fiber laser

  • Xiong Wang, Pu Zhou, Yu Miao, Hanwei Zhang, Hu Xiao, Xiaolin Wang, and Zejin Liu
  • received 07/01/2014; accepted 08/22/2014; posted 08/25/2014; Doc. ID 215042
  • [full text: PDF (422) KB)]
  • Abstract: We demonstrate a high power and efficient Ho-doped fiber laser (HDFL) employing a high power 1150 nm Raman fiber laser (RFL) as pump source. The 1150 nm RFL provided 110 W pump power and the output power of HDFL reached 42 W with slope efficiency of 0.37. The lasing wavelength covers from 2046.8 nm to 2049.5 nm with optical signal-to-noise ratio more than 30 dB. This is the first demonstration on a high power HDFL near 2 μm pumped by a 1150 nm RFL and the highest output power achieved at this pump band. Higher output power can be realized by launching more pump power into the HDFL and employing cladding pump scheme.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.3070) Lasers and laser optics : Infrared and far-infrared lasers
  • (140.3410) Lasers and laser optics : Laser resonators
  • (140.3510) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, fiber
  • (140.3550) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, Raman

Comparison of Gain and Phase Recovery Dynamics Among Optical Pumping Schemes in Quantum-Dot Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers

  • Jungho Kim and Bong-Ahn Yu
  • received 05/30/2014; accepted 08/22/2014; posted 08/22/2014; Doc. ID 213088
  • [full text: PDF (1576) KB)]
  • Abstract: We numerically compare the gain and phase recovery acceleration of quantum-dot (QD) semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) caused by four optical pumping schemes, which are the single-color optical pumping tune to the quantum-well (QW) carrier reservoir, the QD excited state (ES) ensembles, and the QD ground state (GS) ensembles together with the multi-color optical pumping tuned to both the GS and the ES ensembles of QDs. The temporal responses of both the gain and phase recoveries caused by the four optical pumping schemes are calculated and compared by solving 1088 coupled rate equations at the same pumping conditions. Among the four optical pumping schemes, the single-color optical pumping to the ES ensemble shows the fastest response of the gain and phase recovery. This results from the large carrier occupation ratio at the GS and the ES ensembles and the high modal gain at the pumping wavelength, which facilitates the reduction of the carrier recovery time within the GS and the ES ensembles due to the increased stimulated recombination rate caused by the optical pumping beam.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (230.5590) Optical devices : Quantum-well, -wire and -dot devices
  • (250.5980) Optoelectronics : Semiconductor optical amplifiers
  • (320.7130) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast processes in condensed matter, including semiconductors

Numerical Studies of the Modification of Photodynamic Processes by Film-Coupled Plasmonic Nanoparticles

  • Cristian Ciraci, Alec Rose, Christos Argyropoulos, and David Smith
  • received 07/10/2014; accepted 08/22/2014; posted 09/03/2014; Doc. ID 216667
  • [full text: PDF (5882) KB)]
  • Abstract: The local plasmon resonances of metallic nanostructures are commonly associated with massive local field enhancements, capable of increasing the photoexcitation of nearby quantum emitters by orders of magnitude. However, these same plasmonic structures support high densities of bound and dissipative states, often quenching the nearby emitter, or at least offering competitive non-radiative channels. Thus, finding a plasmonic platform that supports massive field enhancements and a high proportion of radiating to non-radiating states remains an active and promising area of research. In this paper, we outline a simple method for numerically studying plasmonic enhancements in fluorescence and apply it to several variants of the film-coupled nanoparticle platform. Film-coupled nanoparticles make excellent candidates for these investigations since the gap dimension between nanoparticle and film--key to the enhancement mechanism--can be precisely controlled in experimental realizations. By correlating the properties of embedded fluorophores with the resonances of the film-coupled nanoparticles, we demonstrate quantum yield engineering that is nearly independent of the fluorophore's intrinsic quantum yield, yielding overall fluorescence enhancements of over four orders of magnitude.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
  • (260.2510) Physical optics : Fluorescence
  • (260.3910) Physical optics : Metal optics
  • (300.2140) Spectroscopy : Emission
  • (250.5403) Optoelectronics : Plasmonics

(LIM2014) Effect of laser polarization and crystalline orientation on ZnO surface nanostructuring in the regime of high-density electronic excitation

  • Luc Museur, Alexandra Manousaki, Demetrios Anglos, Thierry Chauveau, and Andrei Kanaev
  • received 06/04/2014; accepted 08/20/2014; posted 09/09/2014; Doc. ID 213328
  • [full text: PDF (1254) KB)]
  • Abstract: The effect of laser polarization and crystalline orientation on nanoscale morphology of ZnO monocrystal has been studied in the regime of high density electronic excitation related to the saturation of the exciton fluorescence and appearance of the electron-hole plasma (EHP) continuum. The irradiation with femtosecond KrF laser (248 nm, 450 fs) was realized in sub-melting regime of fluences about a half of the ablation threshold. Two types of nanostructures were observed: holes of 10 nm diameter arranged in quasi-periodic zig-zag and straight lines, which propagate along the crystalline planes a, c, m. The nanostructuring sensitively depends on the crystalline planes orientation to laser electric field polarization (p). In crystalline planes c and m, the zig-zag and straight lines propagate along the crystalline cell axes with respectively small (≤30°) and large (90°) inclination to p. The nanostructuring in crystalline plane a is rare and of low intensity. This behavior can be related to a stress field due to an accumulation of space charges in the crystalline structure.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.3390) Lasers and laser optics : Laser materials processing
  • (160.6000) Materials : Semiconductor materials
  • (240.0240) Optics at surfaces : Optics at surfaces

(LIM2014)Pulsed laser modification of transparent dielectrics: What can be foreseen and predicted in numerical experiments?

  • Nadezhda Bulgakova, Vladimir Zhukov, Yuri Meshcheryakov, Laura Gemini, Jan Braier, Danijela Rostohar, and Tomas Mocek
  • received 06/02/2014; accepted 08/20/2014; posted 08/21/2014; Doc. ID 213243
  • [full text: PDF (2733) KB)]
  • Abstract: Numerical simulations based on Maxwell’s equations have been performed for gaining deep insight into the processes governing laser light absorption in transparent dielectrics in the regimes typical for laser direct writing of various optical structures inside bulk glasses such as waveguides, nanoplanes, and voids. Numerical simulations have been performed for fused silica glass irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses at 800 nm wavelength. The geometry of laser energy absorption is compared for two pulse durations and energies from 0.1 to 1 μJ. The effect of numerical aperture of the laser energy deposition is studied. The double pulse irradiation has been modeled to get insight into “exciton-seeded multiphoton ionization” [Phys. Rev. B 81, 212301 (2010)]. Furthermore, several consecutive laser pulses have been modeled to gain a better understanding of a qualitative tendency of memory effects related to defect accumulation. Such features of laser energy coupling into the bulk glass have been revealed as asymmetry of absorption for the cylindrically-symmetric linearly-polarized beam and formation of a defect shield developing in multipulse irradiation regimes.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.3390) Lasers and laser optics : Laser materials processing
  • (140.3440) Lasers and laser optics : Laser-induced breakdown
  • (160.2750) Materials : Glass and other amorphous materials
  • (320.7130) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast processes in condensed matter, including semiconductors

Terahertz generation with tilted-front laser pulses in contact-grating scheme

  • Michael Bakunov and Sergey Bodrov
  • received 07/22/2014; accepted 08/19/2014; posted 08/28/2014; Doc. ID 217452
  • [full text: PDF (859) KB)]
  • Abstract: We present a detailed analysis of terahertz generation with tilted-front optical pulses in a scheme, where the pulse-front tilt is introduced by transmitting the laser pulse through a diffraction grating placed on the boundary of an electro-optic crystal. The analysis accounts for a finite transverse size of the pump laser beam, initial chirp of the laser pulse, and distortion of the tilted-front pulse in the crystal due to the angular and material dispersions. Two situations of practical interest are explored -- LiNbO$_3$ pumped at 0.8 $\mu$m wavelength and GaAs pumped at 1.8 $\mu$m. Recommendations on increasing the efficiency of the optical-to-terahertz conversion, optimizing the generated terahertz spectrum, and improving the quality of the terahertz beam are given.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (190.7110) Nonlinear optics : Ultrafast nonlinear optics
  • (260.3090) Physical optics : Infrared, far

Dual-absorption Metamaterial Controlled by Electromagnetic Polarization

  • Young Ju Kim, Jung Myung Kim, Young Joon Yoo, Pham Van Tuong, Haiyu Zheng, Joo Rhee, and YoungPak Lee
  • received 06/02/2014; accepted 08/19/2014; posted 09/09/2014; Doc. ID 213141
  • [full text: PDF (1156) KB)]
  • Abstract: Polarization is one of the fundamental properties of electromagnetic waves, conveying valuable information in signal transmission and sensitive measurements. We investigated the controllability of dual-band absorption metamaterial whose unit-cells were designed and fabricated, based on the conventional absorber model with proper manipulation of structural pattern. A dual-band perfect absorption is achieved and gradually switched off according to the polarization angle. Moreover, another mode emerges concomitantly at higher frequencies. The electromagnetic properties were investigated to clarify the mechanisms of dual-band perfect absorption and polarization-sensitive switchable effects. Our work was demonstrated experimentally in the GHz range, and applied to the THz region.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (230.5440) Optical devices : Polarization-selective devices
  • (240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
  • (350.2450) Other areas of optics : Filters, absorption
  • (160.3918) Materials : Metamaterials

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