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Journal of the Optical Society of America B

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August


Low-light-level Ladder-type Electromagnetically Induced Transparency and Two-photon Absorption

  • Zong-Syun He, Jing-Yuan Su, Hong-Ren Chen, Wei-Fu Chen, Meng-Huang Sie, Jyun-Yan Ye, and Chin-Chun Tsai
  • received 05/26/2014; accepted 08/18/2014; posted 08/19/2014; Doc. ID 212711
  • [full text: PDF (402) KB)]
  • Abstract: Ladder-type electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and two photon absorption (TPA) under a low-light-level of probe regime (0.2 W/cm² (0.06Γ₂)) and a weak coupling power for cesium atom at room temperature are investigated. Reduction of the fluorescence due to TPA in a three-level system via EIT interference is clearly observed for the first time, while the probe Rabi frequency is reduced to about 0.3 MHz to avoid the affect by the vicinity of hyperfine state. The transparency ratio of EIT derived from the reduction of fluorescence is about 25%. Additionally, the linewidth below Γ (Γ₂+Γ₃) is obtained even thought the coupling Rabi frequency is as large as 1.9Γ (14.36 MHz). By solving the optical Bloch equations for the steady states, the numerical simulation results are in a good agreement with both EIT and TPA. According to the tendency of our investigations, subnatural linewidth is still achievable as Ωc reaching 2.5Γ (18.5 MHz).

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (270.1670) Quantum optics : Coherent optical effects
  • (290.3700) Scattering : Linewidth
  • (300.6420) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, nonlinear

The influence of guided acoustic wave Brillouin scattering on excess noise in fiber-based continuous variable quantum key distribution

  • Yongmin Li, Ning Wang, Xuyang Wang, and Zengliang Bai
  • received 06/23/2014; accepted 08/18/2014; posted 08/19/2014; Doc. ID 214626
  • [full text: PDF (575) KB)]
  • Abstract: We experimentally study the depolarized guided acoustic wave Brillouin scattering in a long-distance telecom single mode fiber (SMF-28e). It is shown that such scattering process can introduce excess noise and further degrade the performance of fiber-based continuous variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) system where a fiber is utilized as the quantum channel. Based on the experimental results we deduce a lower bound for the extinction ratio of the pulsed light in time-multiplexing CVQKD protocol.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (060.4370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Nonlinear optics, fibers
  • (270.5565) Quantum optics : Quantum communications
  • (270.5568) Quantum optics : Quantum cryptography

Efficient Electromagnetically Induced Phase Grating via Quantum Interference in a Four-Level N-Type Atomic System

  • Tayebeh Naseri and Rasoul Sadighi-Bonabi
  • received 07/09/2014; accepted 08/17/2014; posted 08/18/2014; Doc. ID 216553
  • [full text: PDF (561) KB)]
  • Abstract: Electromagnetically induced phase grating controlled by spontaneous generated coherence (SGC) in a four-level N-type atomic system is studied. The results indicate that the diffraction efficiency of phase grating is dramatically enhanced due to the existence of SGC and the diffraction efficiency up to 45% can be obtained. A novel result was considerable improving of the intensity of higher order diffractions via relative phase between applied laser fields. Furthermore, it is found that the frequency detuning of the switching and coupling fields with the corresponding atomic transition and incoherent pumping can improve the efficiency of the phase grating in the present atomic model.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (050.0050) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction and gratings
  • (050.1950) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction gratings
  • (190.0190) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics
  • (190.4360) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, devices

Optically controlled light pulse propagation in closed-loop configuration with saturable erbium-doped fiber

  • Anna Shlyagina and Serguei Stepanov
  • received 06/17/2014; accepted 08/17/2014; posted 08/22/2014; Doc. ID 213590
  • [full text: PDF (509) KB)]
  • Abstract: We report experimental results on the 1550nm light pulse propagation in a closed-loop all-fiber resonance configuration which includes a segment of the erbium-doped fiber with the saturable optical absorption. It is shown that by a simple change of the average incident light power one can switch from the undercoupling to the overcoupling with the closed-loop cavity which leads to a dramatic change from the delay to advancement in the transmitted optical pulse with the resonance carrier frequency. In the reported experiments with the  4.4m-long closed-loop cavity (with 2.4m-long EDF segment) we observed a switch from 0.65 fractional delay to  0.26 fractional advancement for 166ns light pulses with resonance frequency in 1550nm wavelength range when the average incident power was changed from 0.09 to 0.6mW.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (060.2410) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fibers, erbium
  • (060.4370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Nonlinear optics, fibers
  • (190.5530) Nonlinear optics : Pulse propagation and temporal solitons

Modeling the optical Kerr effect in periodic structures by the linear Fourier Modal Method

  • Subhajit Bej, Jani Tervo, Yuri Svirko, and Jari Turunen
  • received 05/13/2014; accepted 08/17/2014; posted 08/18/2014; Doc. ID 211992
  • [full text: PDF (550) KB)]
  • Abstract: We present a numerically feasible method for rigorous modeling of crossed diffraction gratings made of isotropic materials with third-order nonlinearity. The approach is based on an iterative solution of the crossed-grating problem with linear but anisotropic materials. We also discuss how the symmetries of the effective linear permittivity tensor can be exploited to speed up the computation when one considers normal incidence of light. Several numerical experiments are performed to demonstrate the accuracy as well as the versatility of this numerical technique.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (050.1950) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction gratings
  • (050.1970) Diffraction and gratings : Diffractive optics
  • (190.3270) Nonlinear optics : Kerr effect
  • (050.1755) Diffraction and gratings : Computational electromagnetic methods
  • (050.5745) Diffraction and gratings : Resonance domain
  • (050.6624) Diffraction and gratings : Subwavelength structures

Quantum engineering and nonclassical properties of SU(1,1) and SU(2) entangled nonlinear coherent states

  • Amir Karimi and Mohammad Tavassoly
  • received 05/15/2014; accepted 08/15/2014; posted 08/18/2014; Doc. ID 212156
  • [full text: PDF (6351) KB)]
  • Abstract: In this paper, after a brief review on the entangled coherent state a general form of entangled nonlinear co- herent state has been introduced based on the nonlinear coherent states approach. By choosing particular f-deformation functions, theoretical schemes for generation of two distinct classes of such states associated with SU(1,1) and SU(2) groups are presented. The entanglement characteristic of the corresponding entan- gled coherent states has been studied by evaluating the concurrence. In the continuation, other nonclassical behaviors of the produced states have been analyzed by investigating sub-Poissonian photon statistics, oscil- latory photon number distribution, one- and two-mode quadrature squeezing, sum- and dierence-squeezing. Accordingly, in addition to their entanglement property, other nonclassicality features of the introduced states are well-established in detail.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (270.0270) Quantum optics : Quantum optics
  • (270.5290) Quantum optics : Photon statistics
  • (270.6570) Quantum optics : Squeezed states

Dynamics of mode entanglement in a system of cavities coupled with a chiral mirror

  • Ali Ü. C. Hardal
  • received 05/23/2014; accepted 08/15/2014; posted 08/18/2014; Doc. ID 212640
  • [full text: PDF (393) KB)]
  • Abstract: We investigate the Hermitian and the non-Hermitian dynamics of the mode entanglement in two identical optical cavities coupled by a chiral mirror. By employing the non-Hermitian quantum evolution, we calculate the logarithmic negativity measure of entanglement for initially Fock, coherent and squeezed states, separately. We verify the non-conservation of mean spin for the initially coherent and squeezed states when the coupling is non-reciprocal and report the associated spin noise for each case. We examine the effects of non-conserved symmetries on the mode correlations and determine the degree of non-reciprocal coupling to establish robust quantum entanglement.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (270.1670) Quantum optics : Coherent optical effects
  • (270.5580) Quantum optics : Quantum electrodynamics
  • (270.5585) Quantum optics : Quantum information and processing

Long-range surface plasmons on gold-coated single-mode fibres

  • Chengkun Chen, Christophe Caucheteur, Valerie Voisin, Jacques Albert, and Pierre Berini
  • received 06/02/2014; accepted 08/15/2014; posted 08/18/2014; Doc. ID 213199
  • [full text: PDF (1516) KB)]
  • Abstract: A standard single-mode optical fibre, coated with a low-index polymer (Cytop), then a thin Au sheath, immersed in fluid, is proposed as a structure for optical (bio)chemical sensing. The highest-order EH1m cladding modes are found to couple strongly to long-range or short-range surface plasmons on the Au sheath, forming coupled modes that are sensitive to the refractive index of the fluid or to a biochemical adlayer formed on the outer surface of the Au sheath. Interrogation of the modes can be achieved with the help of a tilted grating photo-induced into the core of the fibre. We demonstrate experimentally, in this manner, the excitation of these modes, and their use for bulk sensing. Furthermore, a negative bulk sensitivity was observed for some leaky modes beyond cut-off.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (060.2370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics sensors
  • (240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons

Unidirectional light propagation through two-layer nanostructures based on optical near-field interactions

  • Makoto Naruse, Hirokazu Hori, Satoshi Ishii, Aurelien Drezet, Serge Huant, Morihisa Hoga, Yasuyuki Ohyagi, Tsutomu Matsumoto, Naoya Tate, and Motoichi Ohtsu
  • received 05/07/2014; accepted 08/15/2014; posted 08/15/2014; Doc. ID 211608
  • [full text: PDF (3662) KB)]
  • Abstract: We theoretically demonstrate direction-dependent polarization conversion efficiency, yielding unidirectional light transmission, through a two-layer nanostructure by using the angular spectrum representation of optical near-fields. The theory provides results that are consistent with electromagnetic numerical simulations. This study reveals that optical near-field interactions among nanostructured matter can provide unique optical properties, such as the unidirectionality observed here, and offers fundamental guiding principles for understanding and engineering nanostructures for realizing novel functionalities.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (260.5430) Physical optics : Polarization
  • (160.3918) Materials : Metamaterials
  • (310.6628) Thin films : Subwavelength structures, nanostructures

Alignment-free quantum key distribution by postselection

  • Xi-Han Li, Zhi Zeng, and Chun Wang
  • received 04/23/2014; accepted 08/15/2014; posted 08/18/2014; Doc. ID 210654
  • [full text: PDF (283) KB)]
  • Abstract: We propose an alignment-free photonic qubit transmission scheme and apply it in quantum key distribution schemes, in which the authorized parties do not have to calibrate their Cartesian reference frames in advance. The polarization states are labeled by time and the receiver can obtain the original state in his own coordinate by postselecting a determinate time of arrival. The scheme do not resort to decoherence-free subspace based on multiple photon states and it can be implemented with only passive linear optics, which make it efficient and practical with current technology. We demonstrate its application in quantum key distributions and the scheme should find applications in long-distance quantum communication without frame alignment.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (270.5565) Quantum optics : Quantum communications
  • (270.5585) Quantum optics : Quantum information and processing

Low-Threshold and Narrow Linewidth Random Lasing in Rhodamine 6G Dye-Doped Polyurethane with Dispersed ZrO₂ Nanoparticles

  • Benjamin Anderson, Ray Gunawidjaja, and Hergen Eilers
  • received 06/27/2014; accepted 08/15/2014; posted 08/18/2014; Doc. ID 214833
  • [full text: PDF (2233) KB)]
  • Abstract: We report on low-threshold and narrow linewidth intensity feedback random lasing in Rhodamine 6G dye-doped polyurethane with dispersed ZrO₂ nanoparticles. Depending on the dye/particle concentration, the lasing threshold is (6.8–15.4) MW/cm² and the linewidth is (4–6) nm. The lasing threshold as a function of nano particle concentration is found to follow a power law with an exponent of −0.496 ± 0.010, which is within uncertainty of Burin et al.’s theoretical prediction.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.2050) Lasers and laser optics : Dye lasers
  • (140.3380) Lasers and laser optics : Laser materials
  • (160.5470) Materials : Polymers
  • (290.4210) Scattering : Multiple scattering
  • (290.5850) Scattering : Scattering, particles

Extraction of displaced number states

  • Sergey Podoshvedov
  • received 07/09/2014; accepted 08/15/2014; posted 08/18/2014; Doc. ID 216720
  • [full text: PDF (529) KB)]
  • Abstract: We focus on implementation and optimization of an irreversible analog of the Hadamard gate. Three optical schemes are considered for the purpose. Two of them are probabilistic. Another is deterministic provided that special auxiliary state is beforehand prepared. One of the optical schemes is based on photon subtraction. Number and displaced number states of the quantum oscillator are connected with each other through unitary transformation matrix. Extraction of displaced photons from initial optical beams enables to improve characteristics of the analog of the Hadamard gate. We also present detailed analysis of one of the studied schemes in realistic scenario. Results stemming from realistic model coincide with those following from simplified model.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (270.0270) Quantum optics : Quantum optics
  • (270.1670) Quantum optics : Coherent optical effects
  • (270.6570) Quantum optics : Squeezed states
  • (270.5565) Quantum optics : Quantum communications
  • (270.5585) Quantum optics : Quantum information and processing

Third Order Nonlinear Optical Characterization of Organic Chromophores Using Liquid Core Optical Fibers

  • Shiva Shahin, Khanh Kieu, Joel Hales, Hyeongeu Kim, Yulia Getmanenko, Yadong Zhang, Joseph Perry, Seth Marder, Robert Norwood, and Nasser Peyghambarian
  • received 08/11/2014; accepted 08/15/2014; posted 08/27/2014; Doc. ID 220752
  • [full text: PDF (859) KB)]
  • Abstract: We present our technique to characterize the third order nonlinear optical properties of organic dyes in our previously introduced liquid core optical fiber (i-LCOF) platform. i-LCOF is filled with the solution of the organic dyes and the change in the laser pulse spectral width due to self-phase modulation is investigated. The measurements are done at 1550nm using a mode-locked femtosecond fiber laser. The solution/laser interaction length is long (~50cm) which removes the need for large power pump pulses. This method is fast, simple and can be extended to the characterization of other nanoscale particles such as quantum dots and plasmonic metal nanoparticles in solutions.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (060.4370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Nonlinear optics, fibers
  • (160.4330) Materials : Nonlinear optical materials
  • (160.4890) Materials : Organic materials
  • (190.4400) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, materials

A geometric approach to the distribution of quantum states in bipartite physical systems

  • J. Batle and Mahmmoud Abdel-Aty
  • received 06/18/2014; accepted 08/15/2014; posted 08/25/2014; Doc. ID 214132
  • [full text: PDF (715) KB)]
  • Abstract: Any set of pure states living in an given Hilbert space possesses a natural and unique metric --the Haar measure-- on the group $U(N)$ of unitary matrices. However, there is no specific measure induced on the set of eigenvalues $\Delta$ of any density matrix $\rho$. Therefore, a general approach to the global properties of mixed states depends on the specific metric defined on $\Delta$. In the present work we shall employ a simple measure on $\Delta$ that has the advantage of possessing a clear geometric visualization whenever discussing how arbitrary states are distributed according to some measure of mixedness. The degree of mixture will be that of the participation ratio $R=1/Tr(\rho^2)$ and the concomitant maximum eigenvalue $\lambda_m$. The cases studied will be the qubit-qubit system and the qubit-qutrit system, whereas some discussion will be made on higher-dimensional bipartite cases in both the $R$-domain and the $\lambda_m$-domain.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (000.2690) General : General physics
  • (270.0270) Quantum optics : Quantum optics
  • (350.0350) Other areas of optics : Other areas of optics

Multi-Dressed Suppression and Enhancement of Spontaneous Parametric Four-Wave Mixing Processes

  • Feng Wen, Huayan Lan, Dan Zhang, Changbiao Li, Haixia Chen, and Yanpeng Zhang
  • received 05/12/2014; accepted 08/11/2014; posted 08/18/2014; Doc. ID 211920
  • [full text: PDF (538) KB)]
  • Abstract: For the first time, dressed spontaneous parametric four-wave mixing (SP-FWM) process and fluorescence (FL) signals in hot alkali atom vapor are demonstrated both in theory and experiment. Firstly, by scanning pumping fields, Autler-Townes (AT) splitting in SP-FWM and two-photon suppression dip in FL are observed. Then, by scanning coupling fields, single-, double-and triple dressed effect on those signals is demonstrated, such as, suppressed and/or enhanced of SP-FWM signal and suppressed two-photon emission peak of FL. The interaction effect between dressing fields on SP-FWM and FL signals is also observed. Such investigations can find potential applications in multi-channel narrowband long-distance quantum communication.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (190.4380) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, four-wave mixing
  • (190.4975) Nonlinear optics : Parametric processes

Zigzag Modes in QC Laser Emission Spectra

  • Richard Tober, John Bruno, Sergey Suchalkin, and Gregory Belenky
  • received 05/23/2014; accepted 08/08/2014; posted 08/11/2014; Doc. ID 212658
  • [full text: PDF (501) KB)]
  • Abstract: We present emission spectra obtained from ridge waveguide quantum cascade (QC) lasers with atypical periodic features that result from optical modes that suffer total internal sidewall reflections and traverse zigzag paths along the length of the waveguide structure. These “zigzag” modes are equally spaced, in frequency, about the single lasing mode that arises at threshold. Moreover, they only exist at relatively low injection currents and with increasing current yield to the broadband Fabry-Perot modes that typically comprise the complicated spectra of QC lasers. A straightforward geometric analysis shows a clear correspondence between the zigzag modes and parameters useful for characterizing the quality of the laser waveguide structure.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.4780) Lasers and laser optics : Optical resonators
  • (140.5960) Lasers and laser optics : Semiconductor lasers
  • (260.5740) Physical optics : Resonance
  • (140.5965) Lasers and laser optics : Semiconductor lasers, quantum cascade

Two Novel Properties of Twisted-Light Absorption

  • Andrei Afanasev, Carl Carlson, and Asmita Mukherjee
  • received 05/07/2014; accepted 08/08/2014; posted 09/09/2014; Doc. ID 211271
  • [full text: PDF (374) KB)]
  • Abstract: We discuss novel features of twisted-light absorption both by hydrogen-like atoms and by micro-particles. First, we extend the treatment of atomic photoexcitation by twisted photons to include atomic recoil, derive generalized quantum selection rules and consider phenomena of forbidden atomic transitions. Second, using the same electromagnetic potential for the twisted light beams, we analyze the radiation pressure from these beams on micro-sized particles, and verify that while the Poynting vector can in some circumstances point back toward the source, a complete analysis nonetheless gives a repulsive radiation pressure.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (020.1670) Atomic and molecular physics : Coherent optical effects
  • (050.4865) Diffraction and gratings : Optical vortices

Quantum Correlations of Quadratic Optomechanical Oscillator

  • S. K. Singh and C. H. Ooi
  • received 06/04/2014; accepted 08/05/2014; posted 08/18/2014; Doc. ID 213449
  • [full text: PDF (1434) KB)]
  • Abstract: Quantum optomechanical system serves as an interface for coupling between photons, excitons and mechanical vibrations. We use the quantum Langevin approach to study a hybrid system which contains a single undoped semiconductor quantum-well in a cavity, where one of its mirrors is a thin dielectric membrane having quadratic response to the cavity fields. A decorrelation method is employed to solve for a large number of coupled equations. Transient mean numbers of cavity photons, moving membrane and exciton we obtain the two-boson correlation functions for the cavity field, membrane oscillator number, and the cross-correlation. The nonclassical quantum statistical properties provide useful insights of the quadratic optomechanical system.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (200.4880) Optics in computing : Optomechanics
  • (270.0270) Quantum optics : Quantum optics
  • (120.4880) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Optomechanics

July


(30th Anniversary) (Invited) Mini-review: Spatial solitons supported by localized gain

  • Boris Malomed
  • received 06/02/2014; accepted 07/28/2014; posted 08/08/2014; Doc. ID 213280
  • [full text: PDF (1754) KB)]
  • Abstract: The creation of stable 1D and 2D localized modes in lossy nonlinear media is a fundamental problem in optics and plasmonics. This article gives a short review of theoretical methods elaborated for this purpose, using localized gain applied at one or several "hot spots"(HSs). The introduction surveys a broad class of models for which this approach was developed. Other sections focus in some detail on basic 1D continuous and discrete systems, where the results can be obtained, partly of fully, in an analytical form (verified by comparison with numerical results), which provides a deeper insight into the nonlinear dynamics of optical beams in dissipative nonlinear media. In particular, considered are the single and double HS in the usual waveguide with the self-focusing (SF) or self-defocusing (SDF) Kerr nonlinearity, which gives rise to rather sophisticated results, in spite of apparent simplicity of the model; solitons attached to a PT -symmetric dipole embedded into the SF or SDF medium; gap solitons pinned to an HS in a Bragg grating (BG); and discrete solitons in a 1D lattice with a "hot site".

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (140.3280) Lasers and laser optics : Laser amplifiers
  • (190.0190) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics
  • (190.4360) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, devices
  • (230.4320) Optical devices : Nonlinear optical devices
  • (190.6135) Nonlinear optics : Spatial solitons

(PNR2014) Measurement of photon correlations with multipixel photon counters

  • Dmitry Kalashnikov and Leonid Krivitsky
  • received 06/19/2014; accepted 07/28/2014; posted 08/28/2014; Doc. ID 214352
  • [full text: PDF (743) KB)]
  • Abstract: Development of reliable photon number resolving detectors (PNRD), devices which are capable to distinguish 1,2,3.. photons, is of a great importance for quantum optics and its applications. A new class of affordable PNRD is based on multipixel photon counters (MPPC). Here we review results of experiments on using MPPCs for direct characterization of squeezed vacuum (SV) states, generated via parametric downconversion (PDC). We use MPPCs to measure the second order normalized intensity correlation function (g²) and directly detect the two-mode squeezing of SV states. We also present a method of calibration of crosstalk probability in MPPCs based on g² measurements of coherent states.

Keywords (OCIS):

  • (270.0270) Quantum optics : Quantum optics
  • (270.5290) Quantum optics : Photon statistics
  • (270.5570) Quantum optics : Quantum detectors
  • (040.1345) Detectors : Avalanche photodiodes (APDs)

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