We theoretically study the formation of the steady state multiple dark photovoltaic solitons in the closed-circuit photovoltaic photorefractive crystal. The results indicate that the formation of the multiple dark photovoltaic solitons in the closed-circuit photovoltaic crystal is dependent on the initial width of the dark notch at the entrance face of the crystal. The number of the solitons generated increases with the initial width of the dark notch. If the initial width of the dark notch is small, only a fundamental soliton or Y-junction soliton pair is generated. As the initial width of the dark notch is increased, the dark notch tends to split into an odd (or even) number of multiple dark photovoltaic solitons sequence, which realizes a progressive transition from a lower-order soliton to a higher-order solitons sequence. When the multiple solitons are generated, the separations between adjacent dark solitons become slightly smaller. The soliton pairs far away from the center have bigger width and less visibility and they move away from each other as they propagate in the photorefractive nonlinear crystal.
© 2013 Optical Society of America
(190.0190) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics
Original Manuscript: December 20, 2012
Published: April 30, 2013
Y. H. Zhang, X. H. Hu, K. Q. Lu, B. Y. Liu, W. Y. Liu, and R. L. Guo, "Steady-state multiple dark spatial solitons in closed-circuit photovoltaic media," J. Opt. Technol. 80, 135-141 (2013)