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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 10, Iss. 9 — May. 6, 2002
  • pp: 413–418

Investigation of hybrid microlens integration with vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for free-space optical links

Yongqi Fu and Ngoi Kok Ann Bryan  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 10, Issue 9, pp. 413-418 (2002)

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In a novel one-step process, a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL, operation wavelength of 980 nm) is integrated with a hybrid microdiffractive lens by focused ion beam milling (FIBM) for use in free-space optical links. A hybrid microlens with a diameter of 100 μm, numerical aperture of 0.56, and sag height of 4.196 μm, combined with a diffractive lens with continuous relief and 6 annuli, was designed and fabricated in one step by FIBM on the back of a VCSEL with a GaAs substrate for beam collimation. A previous VCSEL integrated with a pure diffractive lens had a half-divergence angle of 0.6°; the half-divergence angle of the VCSEL with the hybrid microlens was improved to 0.3°. Test results show that athermalization with respect to the variation in operating temperature can be realized with the hybrid microlens.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.1970) Diffraction and gratings : Diffractive optics
(080.3620) Geometric optics : Lens system design
(220.1000) Optical design and fabrication : Aberration compensation
(220.4000) Optical design and fabrication : Microstructure fabrication
(220.4610) Optical design and fabrication : Optical fabrication
(250.7260) Optoelectronics : Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

ToC Category:
Research Papers

Original Manuscript: March 28, 2002
Revised Manuscript: April 25, 2002
Published: May 6, 2002

Fu Qi and Ngoi Kok Ann Bryan, "Investigation of hybrid microlens integration with vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for free-space optical links," Opt. Express 10, 413-418 (2002)

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