OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 12, Iss. 13 — Jun. 28, 2004
  • pp: 3035–3045

Recirculation-enhanced switching in photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers

T. P. White, C. Martijn de Sterke, R. C. McPhedran, T. Huang, and L. C. Botten  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 12, Issue 13, pp. 3035-3045 (2004)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (459 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We show that Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs) formed from waveguides in a perfectly reflecting cladding can display manifestly different transmission characteristics to conventional MZIs due to mode recirculation and resonant reflection. Understanding and exploiting this behavior, rather than avoiding it, may lead to improved performance of photonic crystal (PC) based MZIs, for which cladding radiation is forbidden for frequencies within a photonic bandgap. Mode recirculation in such devices can result in a significantly sharper switching response than in conventional interferometers. A simple and accurate analytic model is presented and we propose specific PC structures with both high and low refractive index backgrounds that display these properties.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.2230) Diffraction and gratings : Fabry-Perot
(130.3120) Integrated optics : Integrated optics devices
(230.5750) Optical devices : Resonators

ToC Category:
Research Papers

Original Manuscript: June 2, 2004
Revised Manuscript: June 21, 2004
Published: June 28, 2004

Thomas White, C. de Sterke, R. McPhedran, T. Huang, and L. Botten, "Recirculation-enhanced switching in photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers," Opt. Express 12, 3035-3045 (2004)

Sort:  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. A. N. Chester, S. Martellucci, and A. M. V. Scheggi, eds., Optical fiber sensors (Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht, 1987). [CrossRef]
  2. G. V. Treyz, ???Silicon Mach-Zehnder waveguide interferometers operating at 1.3 µm,??? Electron. Lett. 27, 118???120 (1991). [CrossRef]
  3. C. Rolland, R. S. Moore, F. Shepherd, and G. Hillier, ???10 Gbit/s, 1.56 µm Multiquantum well InP/InGaAsP Mach-Zehnder Optical Modulator,??? Electron. Lett. 29, 471???472 (1993). [CrossRef]
  4. E. A. Camargo, H. M. H. Chong, and R. M. De. La. Rue, ???Photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder structures for thermo-optic switching,??? Opt. Express 12, 588???592 (2004). <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-4-588">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-4-588</a>. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. H. Shih, W. J. Kim, W. Kuang, J. R. Cao, H. Yukawa, S. J. Choi, J. D. O???Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, ???Twodimensional photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers,??? Appl. Phys. Lett. 84 (2004). [CrossRef]
  6. A. Martinez, A. Griol, P. Sanchis, and J. Marti, ???Mach-Zehnder interferometer employing coupled-resonator optical waveguides,??? Opt. Lett. 28, 405???407 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. P. White, L. C. Botten, C. M. de Sterke, R. C. McPhedran, A. A. Asatryan, and T. N. Langtry, ???Bloch mode scattering matrix methods for modelling extended photonic crystal structures. Part II: Applications,??? Phys. Rev. E (2004). To be published. [CrossRef]
  8. A. Lan, K. Kanamoto, T. Yang, A. Nishikawa, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, H. Nakamura, K. Asakawa, and H. Ishikawa, ???Similar role of waveguide bends in photonic crystal circuits and disordered defects in coupled cavity waveguides: An intrinsic problem in realizing photonic crystal circuits,??? Phys. Rev. B 67 (2003). [CrossRef]
  9. T. P. White, L. C. Botten, R. C. McPhedran, and C. M. de Sterke, ???Utracompact resonant filters in photonic crystals,??? Opt. Lett. 28, 2452???2454 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. L. C. Botten, T. P. White, A. A. Asatryan, T. N. Langtry, C. M. de Sterke, and R. C. McPhedran, ???Bloch mode scattering matrix methods for modelling extended photonic crystal structures. Part I: Theory,??? Phys. Rev. E (2004). To be published. [CrossRef]
  11. L. C. Botten, T. P. White, C. M. de Sterke, R. C. McPhedran, A. A. Asatryan, and T. Langtry, ???Photonic crystal devices modelled as grating stacks: matrix generalizations of thin film optics,??? Opt. Express 12, 1592???1604 (2004). <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-8-1592">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-8-1592</a>. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-optic communication systems, 3rd ed. (John Wiley and Sons, New York, 2002). [CrossRef]
  13. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1975).
  14. R. Wilson, T. J. Karle, I. Moerman, and T. F. Krauss, ???Efficient photonic crystal Y-junctions,??? J. Opt. A 5, S76???S80 (2003). [CrossRef]
  15. M. Tokushima, H. Yamada, and Y. Arakawa, ???1.5- µm-wavelength light guiding in waveguides in square-latticeof-rod photonic crystal slab,??? Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4298???4300 (2004). [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Sugimoto, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, T. Yang, H. Nakamura, K. Asakawa, K. Inoue, T. Maruyama, K. Miyashita, K. Ishida, and Y.Watanabe, ???Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,??? Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236???3238 (2003). [CrossRef]
  17. A. Chutinan, S. John, and O. Toader, ???Diffractionless flow of light in all-optical microchips,??? Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 123,901 (2003). [CrossRef]
  18. P. Lalanne, S. Mias, and J. P. Hugonin, ???Two physical mechanisms for boosting the quality factor to cavity volume ratio of photonic crystal microcavities,??? Opt. Express 12, 458???467 (2004). <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-3-458">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-3-458</a>. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Supplementary Material

» Media 1: MOV (1864 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (1823 KB)     

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited