OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 13, Iss. 12 — Jun. 13, 2005
  • pp: 4568–4579

Signal statistics and maximum likelihood sequence estimation in intensity modulated fiber optic links containing a single optical preamplifier

Nikola Alić, George C. Papen, Robert E. Saperstein, Laurence B. Milstein, and Yeshaiahu Fainman  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 13, Issue 12, pp. 4568-4579 (2005)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (724 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Exact signal statistics for fiber-optic links containing a single optical pre-amplifier are calculated and applied to sequence estimation for electronic dispersion compensation. The performance is evaluated and compared with results based on the approximate chi-square statistics. We show that detection in existing systems based on exact statistics can be improved relative to using a chi-square distribution for realistic filter shapes. In contrast, for high-spectral efficiency systems the difference between the two approaches diminishes, and performance tends to be less dependent on the exact shape of the filter used.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(000.5490) General : Probability theory, stochastic processes, and statistics
(030.6600) Coherence and statistical optics : Statistical optics
(060.2310) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics
(060.4510) Fiber optics and optical communications : Optical communications

ToC Category:
Research Papers

Original Manuscript: March 31, 2005
Revised Manuscript: May 30, 2005
Published: June 13, 2005

Nikola Ali�?, George Papen, Robert Saperstein, Laurence Milstein, and Yeshaiahu Fainman, "Signal Statistics and Maximum Likelihood Sequence Estimation in Intensity Modulated Fiber Optic Links Containing a Single Optical Pre-amplifier," Opt. Express 13, 4568-4579 (2005)

Sort:  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. S. Benedetto and E. Biglieri, Principles of Digital Transmission (Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 1999).
  2. J.H. Winters and R.D. Gitlin, �??Electrical signal processing techniques in long-haul fiber-optic systems,�?? IEEE Trans. Commun. 38, 1439-1453 (1990). [CrossRef]
  3. J.H. Winters and S. Kasturia, �??Constrained maximum likelihood detection for high-speed fiber optic systems,�?? in Proc. GLOBECOM �??91, 1574-1579 (1991).
  4. N. S. Bergano �??Undersea Communication Systems�?? in Fiber optic telecommunications IVB, Ivan Kaminow and T. Li, Eds. (Elsevier Science 2002).
  5. H.F. Haunstein et al., Design of near optimum electrical equalizers for optical transmission in the presence of PMD�??, in Proc. OFC, 2001, Paper WAA4-1.
  6. H. Bulow, G. Thielecke, �??Electronic PMD mitigation-from linear equalization to maximum-likelihood detection�?? in Proc. OFC 2001, 2001, Paper WAA3-1.
  7. N. Ali�?, G. C. Papen, L. B. Milstein, P. H. Siegel and Y. Fainman, �??Performance Bounds of MLSE in Intensity Modulated Fiber Optic Links,�?? Fiber optic communication theory and techniques, (Enrico Forestieri Ed.) 2004 Tyrrhenian International Workshop on Digital Communications, paper 4.5, (2004).
  8. N. Ali�? G. C. Papen and Y. Fainman, �??Theoretical Performance Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Sequence Estimation in Intensity Modulated Short-Haul Fiber Optic Links,�?? Proc. IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting, Puerto Rico, paper ThB3, (2004).
  9. N. Ali�?, G. C. Papen, L. B. Milstein, P. H. Siegel, R. E. Saperstein, F. Parvaresh, N. Santhi and Y. Fainman, �??Performance Analysis of Maximum Likelihood Sequence Estimation in Short-Haul Intensity Modulated Fiber Optic Links, �?? submitted to Journal of Lightwave Technology.
  10. A. J. Weiss, �??On the Performance of Electrical Equalization in Optical Fiber Transmission Systems�??, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1225-1227 (2003). [CrossRef]
  11. H. F. Haunstein, W. Sauer-Greff, A. Dittrich, K. Sticht, and R. Urbansky, �??Principles for Electronic Equalization of Polarization-Mode Dispersion�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 22 1169-82 (2004). [CrossRef]
  12. . A. Faerbert, S. Langenbach, N. Stojanovic, C. Dorschky, T. Kupfer, C. Schulien, J.-P. Elbers, H. Wernz, H. Griesser, C. Glingener, �??Performance of a 10.7 Gb/s Receiver with Digital Equaliser using Maximum Likelihood Sequence Estimation,�?? Proc. of ECOC�??O4, Th.4.1.5, (2004).
  13. J.-P. Elbers, H. Wernz, H. Griesser, C. Glingener, A. Faerbert, S . Langenbach, N. Stojanovic, C. Dorschky, T. Kupfer, C. Schulien, �??Measurement of the Dispersion Tolerance of Optical Duobinary with an MLSE-Receiver at 10.7 Gb/s,�?? Proc. of OFC�??O5,OthJ4, (2005).
  14. P.A. Humblet and M. Azizoglu, �??On the Bit Error Rate in Lightwave Systems with Optical Amplifiers,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1576-82 (1991). [CrossRef]
  15. R.N McDonough and A.D. Whalen, Detection of Signals in Noise, Second Edition (San Diego, Academic Press 1995).
  16. J. M. Wozencraft and I. M. Jacobs, Principles of Communication Engineering (Waveland Press, reprint 1990).
  17. E. Arthurs and H. Dym, �??On the Optimum Detection of Digital Signals in the Presence of White Gaussian Noise �?? A Geometric Interpretation and a Study of Three Basic Data Transmission Systems�??, IRE Trans. On Communication Systems 10, 336-372 (1962). [CrossRef]
  18. J. Lee et al., �??Bit-error-rate analysis of optically preamplified receivers using an eigenfunction expansion method in optical frequency domain�??, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1224-1229 (1994). [CrossRef]
  19. I. T. Monroy, G. Einarsson, �??On Analytical Expressions for the Distribution of the filtered Output of Square Envelope Receivers with Signal and Colored Gaussian Noise Input,�?? IEEE Transactions on Communications 49, 19-23 (2001). [CrossRef]
  20. G. Jacobsen, K. Berlitzon, Z. Xiapin, �??WDM Transmission System Performance: Influence of non-Gaussian Detected ASE Noise and Periodic DEMUX Characteristic,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1804-1812 (1998). [CrossRef]
  21. I. T. Monroy, G. Einarsson, �??Bit Error Evaluation of Optically Preamplified Direct Detection Receivers with Fabry-Perot Optical Filters,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1546-1553 (1997). [CrossRef]
  22. G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, R. Gaudino, P. Poggiolini, and S. Benedetto, �??A Novel Analytical Method for the BER Evaluation in Optical Systems Affected by Parametric Gain,�?? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 152-4, (2000). [CrossRef]
  23. G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, R. Gaudino, P. Poggiolini, and S. Benedetto, �??A Novel Analytical Approach to the Evaluation of the Impact of Fiber Parametric Gain on the Bit Error Rate�?? IEEE Trans. Commun. 49, 2154-63 (2001). [CrossRef]
  24. I. B. Djordjevic, B. Vasic, �??Receiver Modeling for Optically Amplified Communication Systems,�?? International J. Electron. Commun. 57, 381-390 (2003). [CrossRef]
  25. F. Buchali and H. Bulow, �??Correlation sensitive Viterbi equalization of 10 Gb/s signals in bandwidth limited receivers,�?? in Proc. OFC 2005, Paper F020.
  26. R. Loudon, T.J. Shepherd, �??Properties of the Optical Quantum Amplifier,�?? Optica Acta, 31, 1243-1269 (1984). [CrossRef]
  27. C. Dorrer, C.R. Doerr, I. Kang, R. Ryf, J. Leuthold and P.J. Winzer, �??Measurement of eye diagrams and constellation diagrams of optical sources using linear optics and waveguide technology,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 178-186 (2005). [CrossRef]
  28. B. Saleh, Photoelectron Statistics, With Applications to Spectroscopy and Optical Communication, (Springer-Verlag, 1978).
  29. C. Flammer, Spheroidal Wave Functions (Stanford Univ. Press, 1957).
  30. D. Slepian and E. Sonnenblick, �??Eigenvalues Associated with Prolate Spheroidal Wave Functions of Zero Order,�?? Bell Sys. Tech. J. 45, 1745-59 (1965).
  31. D. Slepian, �??Fluctuations of Random Noise Power,�?? Bell Sys. Tech. J. 37, 163 (1958)
  32. D. Slepian, �??A Numerical Method Of Determining EigenValues And EigenFunction Of Analytic Kernels�?? SIAM Journal of Numerical Analysis, 5, 586-600 (1968). [CrossRef]
  33. D. Slepian, �??On Bandwidth,�?? Proc. Of IEEE, 64, 292-300 (1976). [CrossRef]
  34. I. C. Moore and M. Cada, �??Prolate spheroidal wave functions, an introduction to the Slepian series and its properties�?? Appl. Comput. Harmon. Anal. 16, 208�??230 (2004). [CrossRef]
  35. D.B. Percival, and A.T. Walden Spectral Analysis for Physical Applications: Multitaper and Conventional Univariate Techniques (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1993). [CrossRef]
  36. K. Yonenaga, S. Kuwano, �??Dispersion-Tolerant Optical Transmission System Using Duobinary Transmitter and Binary Receiver,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1530-1537 (1997). [CrossRef]
  37. R. A. Griffin and A. C. Carter, �??Optical differential quadrature phaseshift keying (oDQPSK) for high capacity optical transmission,�?? in Proc. OFC, 2002, Paper WX6C.
  38. A.H. Gnauck, P.J.Winzer, �??Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 23 , 115 �?? 130 (2005). [CrossRef]
  39. P. Stoica and R. Moses, Introduction to Spectral Analysis (Prentice Hall, 1997).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited