OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 13, Iss. 19 — Sep. 19, 2005
  • pp: 7288–7297

Influence of diffraction by a rectangular aperture on the aspect ratio of femtosecond direct-write waveguides

K.J. Moh, Y.Y. Tan, X.-C. Yuan, D.K.Y. Low, and Z.L. Li  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 13, Issue 19, pp. 7288-7297 (2005)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OPEX.13.007288


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (986 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Rectangular apertures have been used as a simple means to approximate elliptical Gaussian beams in femtosecond direct writing systems to correct for the elongated focus inherent in low numerical aperture (NA) systems. In this work it is recognized that the rectangular aperture, more accurately functions as a diffractive element and hence redistributes the intensity gradient around the focus in accordance to the physical effects of diffraction. A diffractive model for the technique was proposed and confirmed experimentally to investigate the effects of diffraction and the extent of its influence on the focus shape over different conditions. It was found that because of diffraction, the radius of curvature for the leading edge of the focal spot is dissimilar from its trailing edge. However this effect is mitigated when lower processing energy is used and circular waveguides can be obtained.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.1960) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction theory
(160.2750) Materials : Glass and other amorphous materials
(220.4000) Optical design and fabrication : Microstructure fabrication
(320.2250) Ultrafast optics : Femtosecond phenomena

ToC Category:
Research Papers

History
Original Manuscript: August 8, 2005
Revised Manuscript: August 24, 2005
Published: September 19, 2005

Citation
K. Moh, Y. Tan, X.-C. Yuan, D. Low, and Z. Li, "Influence of diffraction by a rectangular aperture on the aspect ratio of femtosecond direct-write waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 7288-7297 (2005)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-19-7288


Sort:  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. K.M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, �??Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,�?? Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, �??Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997). [CrossRef]
  3. K. Minoshima, A.M. Kowalevicz, I. Hartl, E.P. Ippen, and J.G. Fujimoto, �??Fabrication of coupled mode photonic devices in glass by nonlinear femtosecond laser materials processing,�?? Opt. Express 10, 645-652 (2002), <a href= "http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-15-645.">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-15-645.</a> [PubMed]
  4. C. Florea and K.A. Winick, �??Fabrication and Characterization of Photonic Devices Directly Written in Glass Using Femtosecond Laser Pulses,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 246-253 (2003). [CrossRef]
  5. K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, and K. Midorikawa, �??Three-dimensional micromachining of glass using femtosecond laser for lab-on-a-chip device manufacture,�?? Appl. Phys. A 81, 1-10 (2005). [CrossRef]
  6. S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, �??Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,�?? Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003). [CrossRef]
  7. J. J. Stamnes, Waves in Focal Regions: Propagation, Diffraction and Focusing of Light, Sound and WaterWaves (Adam Hilger Series in Optics and Optoelectronics, Bristol and Boston: Institute of Physics Publishing, 1986).
  8. C.B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J.F. García, and E. Mazur, �??Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy,�?? Opt. Lett. 26, 93-95 (2001). [CrossRef]
  9. Z. Bor, �??Distortion of femtosecond laser pulses in lenses,�?? Opt. Lett. 14, 119-121 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S.D. Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, �??Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 15591567 (2003) [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, and K. Shihoyama, �??Control of the cross-sectional shape of a hollow microchannel embedded in photostructurable glass by use of a femtosecond laser,�?? Opt. Lett. 28, 55-57 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Ams, G.D. Marshall, D.J. Spence, and M.J. Withford, �??Slit beam shaping method forfemtosecond laser direct-write fabrication of symmetric waveguides in bulk glasses,�?? Opt. Express 13, 5676-5681 (2005), <a href= "http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-15-5676.">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-15-5676.</a> [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J.W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier optics (McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1996).
  14. M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, H. Helvajian, and K. Midorikawa, �??3-D microstructuring inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation,�?? Appl. Phys. A 76, 857-860 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited