OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 13, Iss. 9 — May. 2, 2005
  • pp: 3208–3217

Ultrashort pulse non-linear optical absorption in transparent media

D. M. Rayner, A. Naumov, and P. B. Corkum  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 13, Issue 9, pp. 3208-3217 (2005)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (180 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A focused ultrashort pulse can reach high enough intensity that non-linear ionization dominates its interaction with transparent media while still having relatively low fluence. In this case, the energy extracted from the beam can counter self-focusing by energy depletion and plasma formation, providing controlled energy deposition that can modify the material in a highly local manner. We demonstrate that non-linear absorption limits the intensity that can be reached and that the energy is deposited prior to the focus. We model the energy distribution, and predict and measure the energy transmitted through the focus. We establish the threshold intensity for non-linear ionization in dielectrics at ~1013 W cm-2. We use the refractive index modification that the non-linear ionization causes in glass to image the spatial distribution of the energy deposition.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(190.4180) Nonlinear optics : Multiphoton processes
(320.7110) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast nonlinear optics

ToC Category:
Research Papers

Original Manuscript: March 24, 2005
Revised Manuscript: April 13, 2005
Published: May 2, 2005

D. Rayner, A. Naumov, and P. Corkum, "Ultrashort pulse non-linear optical absorption in transparent media," Opt. Express 13, 3208-3217 (2005)

Sort:  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Suguimoto, and K. Hirao, �??Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,�?? Opt. Lett. 21, 1729�??1731 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. M. Streltsov and N. F. Borrelli, �??Study of femtosecond-laser-written waveguides in glasses,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2496�??2504 (2002). [CrossRef]
  3. V. R. Bhardwaj, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, and R. S. Taylor, �??Stress in femtosecond-laser-written waveguides in fused silica,�?? Opt. Lett. 29, 1312�??1314 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, �??Femtosecond laser fabrication of nanostructures in silica glass,�?? Opt. Lett. 28, 1043�??1045 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Marcinkevi�?ius, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, M. Miwa, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, �??Femtosecond laser-assisted three-dimensional microfabrication in silica,�?? Opt. Lett. 26, 277�??279 (2001). [CrossRef]
  6. N. Shen, C. B. Schaffer, D. Datta, and E. Mazur, �??Photodisruption in biological tissues and single cells using femtosecond laser pulses,�?? in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, pp. 403�??404 (Baltimore, MD, 2001).
  7. M. F. Yanik, H. Cinar, H. N. Cinar, A. D. Chisholm, Y. Jin, and A. Ben-Yakar, �??Neurosurgery: Functional regeneration after laser axotomy,�?? Nature 432, 822 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. V. Keldysh, �??Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave,�?? Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307�??1314 (1965).
  9. D. von der Linde and H. Schüler, �??Breakdown threshold and plasma formation in femtosecond laser-solid interaction,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 216�??222 (1996). [CrossRef]
  10. J. Krüger andW. Kautek, �??Femtosecond-pulse visible laser processing of transparent materials,�?? Appl. Surf. Sci. 96-98, 430�??438 (1996). [CrossRef]
  11. S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, �??Tunneling ionization of noble gases in a high-intensity laser field,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2212�??2215 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, and T. Srinivasan-Rao, �??Supercontinuum generation in gases,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2268�??2271 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, S. Grantham, and M. Richardson, �??Photoionization of silicate glasses exposed to IR femtosecond pulses,�?? J. Non-crystal. Solids 253, 58�??67 (1999). [CrossRef]
  14. A. Vogel, J. Noack, K. Nahen, D. Theisen, S. Busch, U. Parlitz, D. Hammer, G. Noojin, B. Rockwell, and R. Birngruber, �??Energy balance of optical breakdown in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales,�?? Appl. Phys. B 68, 271�??280 (1999). [CrossRef]
  15. L. N. Gaier, M. Lein, M. I. Stockman, P. L. Knight, P. B. Corkum, M. Y. Ivanov, and G. L. Yudin, �??Ultrafast multiphoton forest fires and fractals in clusters and dielectrics,�?? J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Phys. 37, L57�??L67 (2004). [CrossRef]
  16. G. L. Yudin, L. N. Gaier, M. Lein, P. L. Knight, P. B. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, �??Hole-Assisted Energy Deposition in Clusters and Dielectrics in Multiphoton Regime,�?? Laser Physics 14, 51-56 (2004).
  17. W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Aközbek, C. M. Bowden, S. L. Chin, �??Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter,�?? Opt. Commun. 202, 189�??197 (2002). [CrossRef]
  18. M. Lenzner, J. Krger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, C. Spielmann, G. Mourou,W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, �??Femtosecond Optical Breakdown in Dielectrics,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076�??4079 (1998). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited