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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 15, Iss. 17 — Aug. 20, 2007
  • pp: 10842–10854

Rapid thermal annealing in high repetition rate ultrafast laser waveguide writing in lithium niobate

Amir H. Nejadmalayeri and Peter R. Herman  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 15, Issue 17, pp. 10842-10854 (2007)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.15.010842


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Abstract

For the first time to our knowledge, bulk modification of lithium niobate using high repetition rate ultrashort laser pulses has been studied. A fiber based ultrafast laser has been applied in a range of 0.1 to 1.5 MHz repetition rate to directly inscribe optical waveguides in z-cut lithium niobate. Circularly polarized light with stretched 600 fs pulses produced waveguides with nearly circular mode profiles that guided in the telecom band of 1300 nm. Higher laser repetition rate of 700 kHz was found to offer smooth waveguides with low propagation loss of 0.6 dB/cm, matching the best reported value so far, with the advantage of 50 fold faster writing speed. At repetition rates of 250 kHz and higher, the tracks exhibited a cladding-like modification zone that extended outside the main laser interaction volume, yielding smoother structures, despite higher net fluence delivery, providing concrete evidence of heat accumulation and thermal annealing effects. We also present the first observation of periodic micro-structures in the bulk laser interaction volume of a non-glass material.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(130.3120) Integrated optics : Integrated optics devices
(140.3390) Lasers and laser optics : Laser materials processing
(160.3730) Materials : Lithium niobate
(220.4000) Optical design and fabrication : Microstructure fabrication
(230.7370) Optical devices : Waveguides
(320.7160) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast technology

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: May 4, 2007
Revised Manuscript: July 10, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: August 4, 2007
Published: August 14, 2007

Citation
Amir H. Nejadmalayeri and Peter R. Herman, "Rapid thermal annealing in high repetition rate ultrafast laser waveguide writing in lithium niobate," Opt. Express 15, 10842-10854 (2007)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-17-10842


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