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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 15, Iss. 20 — Oct. 1, 2007
  • pp: 13129–13138

Dependence of extrinsic loss on group velocity in photonic crystal waveguides

Liam O’Faolain, Thomas P. White, David O’Brien, Xiaodong Yuan, Michael D. Settle, and Thomas F. Krauss  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 15, Issue 20, pp. 13129-13138 (2007)

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We examine the effects of disorder on propagation loss as a function of group velocity for W1 photonic crystal (PhC) waveguides. Disorder is deliberately and controllably introduced into the photonic crystal by pseudo-randomly displacing the holes of the photonic lattice. This allows us to clearly distinguish two types of loss. Away from the band-edge and for moderately slow light (group velocity c/20-c/30) loss scales sub-linearly with group velocity, whereas near the band-edge, reflection loss increases dramatically due to the random and local shift of the band-edge. The optical analysis also shows that the random fabrication errors of our structures, made on a standard e-beam lithography system, are below 1 nm root mean square.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(130.5296) Integrated optics : Photonic crystal waveguides

ToC Category:
Photonic Crystals

Original Manuscript: July 23, 2007
Revised Manuscript: September 19, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: September 21, 2007
Published: September 26, 2007

Liam O'Faolain, Thomas P. White, David O'Brien, Xiadong Yuan, Michael D. Settle, and Thomas F. Krauss, "Dependence of extrinsic loss on group velocity in photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 13129-13138 (2007)

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  1. M. Soljačić, S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, M. Ibanescu, E. Ippen, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Photonic-crystal slow-light enhancement of nonlinear phase sensitivity," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2052 (2002). [CrossRef]
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  6. S. Hughes, L. Ramunno, J. F. Young, and J. E. Sipe, "Extrinsic Optical Scattering Loss in Photonic Crystal Waveguides: Role of Fabrication Disorder and Photon Group Velocity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033903 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. YuriiA. Vlasov and Sharee J. McNab," Coupling into the slow light mode in slab-type photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Lett. 31, 50, (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. <other>. However, non disordered devices have been modeled successfully in 3D, see S.Boscolo and M. Midrio, "3D Multiple-Scattering Technique for the Analysis of PhC Slabs" J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2778 (2004), for an example.</other>
  9. A 2D model makes some significant simplifications when applied to this problem- it cannot account for out of plane scattering and coupling to substrate modes. Complex interactions between the loss mechanisms cannot be ruled out, however, the model shows good agreement with the experiment (2nm difference in shifts), suggesting that these interactions do not have a significant effect. The small discrepancy is probably due to absence of these effects in the simulation.
  10. D. Gerace and L. C. Andreani, "Disorder-induced losses in photonic crystal waveguides with line defects," Opt. Lett. 29, 1897 (2004) [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. Ferrini, D. Leuenberger, R. Houdré, H. Benisty, M. Kamp and A. Forchel, "Disorder-induced losses in planar photonic crystals," Opt. Lett. 31, 1426 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. This analysis assumes that loss is disorder limited and that absorption (which would also scale with vg) is negligible. This is reasonable in the SOI system at this wavelength.
  13. This makes the non-trivial assumption that disorder does not change the group velocity. In order to verify this, we ran simulations of pulses propagating through the disorder. We found that up to the group indices where pulses break up due to dispersion (n>16), there was only minimal differences in group velocity between normal and disordered W1 waveguides.
  14. S.G. Johnson, M.L. Povinelli, M. Soukoulis, A. Karalis, S. Jacobs and J.D. Joannopoulos, "Roughness losses and volume-current methods in photonic-crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. B 81, 283 (2005). [CrossRef]
  15. Eric Dulkeith, Sharee J. McNab, and Yurii A. Vlasov, "Mapping the optical properties of slab-type two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. B 72, 115102 (2005). [CrossRef]
  16. A. F. Koenderink, Ad Lagendijk and Willem L. Vos, "Optical extinction due to intrinsic structural variations of photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 72, 153102 (2005). [CrossRef]
  17. L. C. Andreani and D. Gerace, submitted Phys. Status Solidi B.

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