OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 15, Iss. 6 — Mar. 19, 2007
  • pp: 2791–2802

Why does the Secchi disk disappear? An imaging perspective

Weilin Hou, Zhongping Lee, and Alan D. Weidemann  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 15, Issue 6, pp. 2791-2802 (2007)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.15.002791


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (166 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

The widely-used Secchi disk method is re-examined from the modulation transfer aspect. Namely, by assuming a volume scattering function and applying small angle scattering approximation, we show that the Secchi depth and horizontal visibility can be determined using the water modulation transfer function and the corresponding spatial frequencies associated with the disk. A basic equation of Secchi disk is reached that is comparable to the radiative transfer approach, in that the Secchi depth is inversely proportional to the attenuation coefficient (c). With typical values for parameters applied, we demonstrate that the modulation transfer technique produces a horizontal visibility range of about 4.8/c, which is inline with previous studies. The improvement lies in the fact that the current approach correctly addresses the response of all spatial frequencies according to the modeled optical transfer function of the water. In terms of Secchi disk theory, the current approach helps to understand the effect of disk size as well as the role of scattering on the Secchi disk depth. The approach presented provides an understanding of Secchi disk disappearance by showing that as the disk is moved away from the observer, the spatial frequencies corresponding to the disk size increase, while the modulation transfer dampens contrast at an increased rate.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.4450) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Oceanic optics
(110.4850) Imaging systems : Optical transfer functions
(330.6130) Vision, color, and visual optics : Spatial resolution

ToC Category:
Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

History
Original Manuscript: January 2, 2007
Revised Manuscript: February 21, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: February 28, 2007
Published: March 19, 2007

Virtual Issues
Vol. 2, Iss. 4 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Weilin Hou, Zhongping Lee, and Alan D. Weidemann, "Why does the Secchi disk disappear? An imaging perspective," Opt. Express 15, 2791-2802 (2007)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-6-2791


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. R. W. Preisendorfer, and Environmental Research Laboratories (U.S.), Eyeball optics of natural waters : Secchi disk science (U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Environmental Research Laboratories, [Washington, D.C.], 1986).
  2. R. W. Preisendorfer, "Secchi disk science: Visual optics of natural waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 31, 909-926 (1986). [CrossRef]
  3. Z. P. Lee, A. Weidemann, J. Kindle, R. Arnone, K. L. Carder, and C. Davis, "Euphotic zone depth: Its derivation and implication to ocean-color remote sensing," J. Geophys. Res., Accepted (2006). [PubMed]
  4. J. R. Zaneveld, and W. S. Pegau, "Robust underwater visibility parameter," Opt. Express 11, 2997-3009 (2004). [CrossRef]
  5. S. Q. Duntley, "Light in the sea," J.Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 214-233 (1963). [CrossRef]
  6. H. R. Blackwell, "Contrast thresholds of the human eye," J.Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 624-643 (1946). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. J. Davies-Colley, "Measuring water clarity with a black disk," Limnol. Oceanogr. 33, 616-623 (1988). [CrossRef]
  8. E. A. Steel, and S. Neuhausser, "Comparison of methods for measuring visual water clarity," J. of the North American Benthological Society 21, 326-335 (2002). [CrossRef]
  9. H. H. Barrett, and K. J. Myers, Foundations of image science (Wiley-Interscience, Hoboken, NJ, 2004).
  10. J. W. Coltman, "The specification of imaging properties by response to a Sine wave input," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 468-471 (1954). [CrossRef]
  11. W. H. Wells, "Theory of small angle scattering," in AGARD Lec. Series No. 61 (NATO, 1973).
  12. C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: radiative transfer in natural waters (Academic Press, New York, 1994).
  13. J. W. McLean and K. J. Voss, "Point spread function in ocean water: comparison between theory and experiment," Appl. Opt. 34, 2027-2030 (1991).
  14. C. F. Bohren, "Optics atmospheric," in Encyclopedia of Applied Physics (New York, 1995), pp. 405-434.
  15. J. Jaffe, "Monte Carlo modeling of underwater image formation: validity of the linear and small-angle approximations," Appl. Opt. 34, 5413 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. R. E. Carlson, "The Secchi disk and the volunteer monitor," LakeLine 15, 28-29 (1995).
  17. N. K. Hojerslev, "Visibility of the sea with special reference to the Secchi disc," in Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Inst. Eng. 294-305 (1986).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Figures

Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3.
 

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited