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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 16, Iss. 25 — Dec. 8, 2008
  • pp: 20789–20802

Diffraction loss in long-wavelength buried tunnel junction VCSELs analyzed with a hybrid coupled-cavity transfer-matrix model

Jörgen Bengtsson, Johan Gustavsson, Å sa Haglund, Anders Larsson, Alexander Bachmann, Kaveh Kashani-Shirazi, and Markus-Christian Amann  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 16, Issue 25, pp. 20789-20802 (2008)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.16.020789


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Abstract

Intra-cavity diffraction in VCSELs is a loss mechanism that potentially can cause a significant decrease in efficiency and a rise in the threshold current, particularly in cavities with small lateral features with a high index contrast. One such VCSEL type is the 2.3 µm GaSb-based buried tunnel junction (BTJ) VCSEL studied in this work, where the BTJ induced topology of the top layers gives rise to excess loss through diffraction. Diffraction loss is difficult to measure, and also the numerical estimation must be done with care because of the non-axial propagation of the diffracted fields. We present a simulation method with spatially varying dimensionality, such that the field is three-dimensional (3D) in the entire cavity, whereas the material structure of the cavity is modelled in 3D near the BTJ and the layers with a varying topology, but elsewhere is assumed to be 1D like in a regular DBR structure. We find that the diffraction loss displays a non-monotonic behaviour as a function of the BTJ diameter, but as expected it rapidly increases below a certain diameter of the BTJ and may even become the dominant cause of loss in some device designs. We also show that the diffraction loss can be much reduced if the layers above the BTJ can be deposited such that the surface profile becomes smoother with increasing distance from the BTJ.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.1940) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction
(140.3070) Lasers and laser optics : Infrared and far-infrared lasers
(140.3410) Lasers and laser optics : Laser resonators
(140.5960) Lasers and laser optics : Semiconductor lasers
(230.0250) Optical devices : Optoelectronics
(140.7260) Lasers and laser optics : Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

ToC Category:
Optical Devices

History
Original Manuscript: October 20, 2008
Revised Manuscript: November 25, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: November 25, 2008
Published: December 1, 2008

Citation
Jörgen Bengtsson, Johan Gustavsson, Åsa Haglund, Anders Larsson, Alexander Bachmann, Kaveh Kashani-Shirazi, and Markus-Christian Amann, "Diffraction loss in long-wavelength buried tunnel junction VCSELs analyzed with a hybrid coupled-cavity transfer-matrix model," Opt. Express 16, 20789-20802 (2008)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-25-20789


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