OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 16, Iss. 26 — Dec. 22, 2008
  • pp: 21529–21543

Self-compression of 2 µm laser filaments

Luc Bergé  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 16, Issue 26, pp. 21529-21543 (2008)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (384 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We numerically study the filamentation of ultrashort laser pulses at 2 µm carrier wavelength in noble gases (argon, xenon) and in air. Compared with filamentation in the near-visible domain (800 nm), mid-infrared optical sources with durations close to a single cycle can be generically produced at various pressures and powers near the self-focusing threshold. The mechanism by which self-compression takes place mainly involves optical self-focusing, pulse steepening and plasma defocusing. On-axis spectra and spectral phases are discussed. Delivering single-cycled pulses at long wavelengths has important applications in the generation of high-order harmonics and isolated attosecond pulses.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(260.5950) Physical optics : Self-focusing
(320.5520) Ultrafast optics : Pulse compression
(320.7110) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast nonlinear optics

ToC Category:
Ultrafast Optics

Original Manuscript: September 22, 2008
Revised Manuscript: November 7, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: November 7, 2008
Published: December 15, 2008

Luc Bergé, "Self-compression of 2 μm laser filaments," Opt. Express 16, 21529-21543 (2008)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. A. Braun, G. Korn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, "Self-channeling of high-peak-power femtosecond laser pulses in air," Opt. Lett. 20,73-75 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83,863-905 (2005). [CrossRef]
  3. A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media," Phys. Rep. 44,47-189 (2007). [CrossRef]
  4. L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, "Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media," Rep. Prog. Phys. 70,1633-1713 (2007). [CrossRef]
  5. J. Kasparian and J.-P. Wolf, "Physics and applications of atmospheric nonlinear optics and filamentation," Opt. Express 16,466-493 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Champeaux and L. Bergé, "Femtosecond pulse compression in pressure-gas cells filled with argon," Phys. Rev. E 68,066603 (2003). [CrossRef]
  7. C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79,673-677 (2004). [CrossRef]
  8. G. Stibenz, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, "Self-compression of millijoule pulses to 7.8 fs duration in a white-light filament," Opt. Lett. 31,274-276 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Skupin, G. Stibenz, and L. Bergé, F. Lederer, T. Sokollik, M. Schnürer, N. Zhavoronkov, and G. Steinmeyer, "Self-compression by femtosecond pulse filamentation: Experiments versus numerical simulations," Phys. Rev. E 74,056604 (2006). [CrossRef]
  10. A. Za¨ır, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, M. Holler, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, and U. Keller, "Spatio-temporal characterization of few-cycle pulses obtained by filamentation," Opt. Express 15,5394-5405 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, D. S. Uryupina, M. V. Kurilova, A. V. Mazhorova, A. B. Savel’ev, R. V. Volkov, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, "Optimization of a femtosecond pulse self-compression region along a filament in air," Appl. Phys. B 91,35-43 (2008). [CrossRef]
  12. L. Bergé and S. Skupin, "Few-cycle light bullets created by femtosecond filaments," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100,113902 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. Couairon and H. S. Chakraborty and M. B. Gaarde, "From single-cycle self-compressed filaments to isolated attosecond pulses in noble gases," Phys. Rev. A 77,053814 (2008). [CrossRef]
  14. E. Goulielmakis, S. Koehler, B. Reiter, M. Schultze, A. J. Verheof, E. E. Serebryannikov, A. M. Zheltikov, and F. Krausz, "Ultrabroadband, coherent light source based on self-channeling of few-cycle pulses in helium," Opt. Lett. 33,1407-1409 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. L. Bergé and S. Skupin, "Sub-2 fs pulses generated by self-channeling in the deep ultraviolet," Opt. Lett. 33,750-752 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Auge, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation," Science 292,1689-1692 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Galegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, "Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses," Science 314,443-446 (2008). [CrossRef]
  18. M. Nisoli, S. de Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szip¨oecs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, "Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs," Opt. Lett. 22,522-524 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. D. Faccio, A. Lotti, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, S. Tzortzakis, A. Couairon, and P. Di Trapani, "Spontaneous emergence of pulses with constant carrier-envelope phase in femtosecond filamentation," Opt. Express 16,11103-11114 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. B. Sheehy, J. D. D. Martin, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, M. B. Gaarde, and K. C. Kulander, "High harmonic generation at long wavelengths," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83,5270-5273 (1999). [CrossRef]
  21. B. Shan and Z. Chang, "Dramatic extension of the high-order harmonic cutoff by using a long-wavelength driving field," Phys. Rev. A 65,011804(R) (2001). [CrossRef]
  22. K. D. Schultz, C. I. Blaga, R. Chirla, P. Colosimo, J. Cryan, A. M. March, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, J. tate, J. Wheeler, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, "Strong field physics with long wavelength lasers," J. Mod. Opt. 54,1075-1085 (2007). [CrossRef]
  23. J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Sali`eres, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, "Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98,013901 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. C. P. Hauri, R. B. Lopez-Martens, C. I. Blaga, K. D. Schultz, J. Cryan, R. Chirla, P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, A. M. March, C. Roedig, E. Sistrunk, J. Tate, J. Wheeler, L. F. DiMauro, and E. P. Power, "Intense self-compressed, self-phase-stabilized few-cycle pulses at 2m from an optical filament," Opt. Lett. 32,868-870 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. C. Vozzi, C. Manzoni, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, G. Sansone, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, "Characterization of a high-energy self-phase-stabilized near-infrared parametric source," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25,112-117 (2008). [CrossRef]
  26. T. Fuji and T. Suzuki, "Generation of sub-two-cycle mid-infrared pulses by four-wave mixing through filamentation in air," Opt. Lett. 32,3330-3332 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. D. Brida, G. Cirmi, C. Manzoni, S. Bonora, P. Villoresi, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, "Sub-two-cycle light pulses at 1.6 m from an optical parametric amplifier," Opt. Lett. 33,741-743 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. T. Brabec and F. Krausz, "Nonlinear optical pulse propagation in the single-cycle regime," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78,3282-3285 (1997). [CrossRef]
  29. A. M. Perelomov, V. S. Popov, and M. V. Terent’ev, "Ionization of atoms in an alternating electric field," Sov. Phys. JETP 23,924-934 (1966).
  30. R. Nuter and L. Bergé, "Pulse chirping and ionization of O2 molecules for the filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses in air," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23,874-884 (2006). [CrossRef]
  31. M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, "Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field," Sov. Phys. JETP 64,1191-1194 (1986).
  32. R. Wiehle, B. Witzel, H. Helm, and E. Cormier, "Dynamics of strong-field above-threshold ionization of argon: Comparison between experiment and theory," Phys. Rev. A 67,063405 (2003). [CrossRef]
  33. E. Cormier, P.-A. Hervieux, R. Wiehle, B. Witzel, and H. Helm, "ATI of complex systems: Ar and C60," Eur. Phys. J. D. 26,83-90 (2003). [CrossRef]
  34. A. Dalgarno and A. E. Kingston, "The refractive indices and Verdet constants of the inert gases," Proc. Royal Soc. London A 259,424-429 (1960). [CrossRef]
  35. E. R. Peck and K. Reeder, "Dispersion of Air," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62,958-962 (1972). [CrossRef]
  36. D. P. Shelton, "Nonlinear-optical susceptibilities of gases measured at 1064 and 1319 nm," Phys. Rev. A 42,2578-2592 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. W. Liu and S. L. Chin, "Direct measurement of the critical power of femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulse in air," Opt. Express 13,5750-5755 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. S. Skupin and L. Bergé, "Supercontinuum generation of ulrashort pulses in air at different central wavelengths," Opt. Commun. 280,173-182 (2007). [CrossRef]
  39. S. Champeaux, L. Bergé, D. Gordon, A. Ting, J. Peñano, and P. Sprangle, "(3+1)-dimensional numerical simulations of femtosecond laser filaments in air: Toward a quantitative agreement with experiments," Phys. Rev. E 77,036406 (2008). [CrossRef]
  40. A. Talebpour, J. Yang, and S. L. Chin, "Semi-empirical model for the rate of tunnel ionization of N2 and O2 molecule in an intense Ti:sapphire laser pulse," Opt. Commun. 163,29-32 (1999). [CrossRef]
  41. D. Anderson and M. Lisak, "Nonlinear asymmetric self-phase modulation and self-steepening of pulses in long optical waveguides," Phys. Rev. A 27,1393-1398 (1983). [CrossRef]
  42. N. Ak¨ozbek, M. Scalora, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "White-light continuum generation and filamentation during the propagation of ultra-short laser pulses in air," Opt. Commun. 191,353-362 (2001). [CrossRef]
  43. N. Ak¨ozbek, S. A. Trushin, A. Baltuška,W. Fuss, E. Goulielmakis, K. Kosma, F. Krausz, S. Panja, M. Uiberacker, W. E. Schmid, A. Becker, M. Scalora, and M. Bloemer, "Extending the supercontinuum spectrum down to 200 nm with few-cycle pulses," New J. Phys. 8,177 (2006). [CrossRef]
  44. S. Champeaux and L. Bergé, "Long-range multifilamentation of femtosecond laser pulses versus air pressure," Opt. Lett. 31,1301-1303 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  45. J. Bernhardt, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, and R. Sauerbrey, "Pressure independence of intensity clamping during filamentation: theory and experiment," Appl. Phys. B 91,45-48 (2008). [CrossRef]
  46. M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, "Dynamic spatial replenishment of femtosecond pulses propagating in air," Opt. Lett. 23,382-384 (1998). [CrossRef]
  47. J. K. Ranka and A. L. Gaeta, "Breakdown of the slowly varying envelope approximation in the self-focusing of ultrashort pulses," Opt. Lett. 23,534-536 (1998). [CrossRef]
  48. G. G. Luther, J. V. Moloney, A. C. Newell, and E. M. Wright, "Self-focusing threshold in normally dispersive media," Opt. Lett. 19,862-864 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited