OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 16, Iss. 6 — Mar. 17, 2008
  • pp: 4192–4205

Simultaneous self-phase modulation and two-photon absorption measurement by a spectral homodyne Z-scan method

Martin C. Fischer, Henry C. Liu, Ivan R. Piletic, and Warren S. Warren  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 16, Issue 6, pp. 4192-4205 (2008)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (388 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We developed a technique to simultaneously measure self-phase modulation and two-photon absorption using shaped femtosecond laser pulses. In the conventional Z-scan measurement technique the amount of nonlinearity is determined by measuring the change in shape and intensity of a transmitted laser beam. In contrast, our method sensitively measures nonlinearity-induced changes in the pulse spectrum. In this work we demonstrate the technique in nonlinear absorptive and dispersive samples, quantify the obtained signal, and compare the measurements with traditional Z-scans. This technique is capable of measuring these nonlinearities in highly scattering samples.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(190.0190) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics
(190.7110) Nonlinear optics : Ultrafast nonlinear optics
(320.5540) Ultrafast optics : Pulse shaping

ToC Category:
Nonlinear Optics

Original Manuscript: February 5, 2008
Revised Manuscript: March 10, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: March 10, 2008
Published: March 12, 2008

Virtual Issues
Vol. 3, Iss. 4 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Martin C. Fischer, Henry C. Liu, Ivan R. Piletic, and Warren S. Warren, "Simultaneous self-phase modulation and two-photon absorption measurement by a spectral homodyne Z-scan method," Opt. Express 16, 4192-4205 (2008)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, B. J. Chen, G. Yurtserver, and W. S. Warren, "High-resolution in vivo imaging of blood vessels without labeling," Opt. Lett. 32, 2641-2643 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, G. Yurtsever, and W. S. Warren, "Two-color, two-photon, and excited-state absorption microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054004 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. C. Fischer, H. Liu, I. R. Piletic, Y. Escobedo-Lozoya, R. Yasuda, and W. S. Warren, "Self-phase modulation signatures of neuronal activity," Opt. Lett. 33219-221 (2008). [CrossRef]
  4. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, and E. W. van Stryland, "High-sensitivity, single-beam n2 measurements," Opt. Lett. 14, 955-957 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E.W. van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990). [CrossRef]
  6. T. Xia, D. J. Hagan, M. Sheik-Bahae, and E. W. van Stryland, "Eclipsing Z-scan measurement of ?/104 wavefront distortion," Opt. Lett. 19, 317-319 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. Tsigaridas, M. Fakis, I. Polyzos, P. Persephonis, and V. Giannetas, "Z-scan technique through beam radius measurements," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers and Optics 76, 83-86 (2003). [CrossRef]
  8. H. Ma, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araujo, "Measurements of nondegenerate optical nonlinearity using a two-color single beam method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2666-2668 (1991). [CrossRef]
  9. J. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, and E.W. Van Stryland, "Time-resolved Z-scan measurements of optical nonlinearities," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1009-1017 (1994). [CrossRef]
  10. I. Guedes, L. Misoguti, L. De Boni, and S. C. Zilio, "Heterodyne Z-scan measurements of slow absorbers," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 063112 (2007). [CrossRef]
  11. J.-M. Menard, M. Betz, I. Sigal, and H. M. Van Driel, "Single-beam differential Z-scan technique," Appl. Opt. 46, 2119-2122 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, J. A. Hermann, T. J. McKay, and R. G. McDuff, "Single-beam Z-scan: measurement techniques and analysis," J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 253-293 (1997). [CrossRef]
  13. R. E. Bridges, G. L. Fischer, and R. W. Boyd, "Z-scan measurement technique for non-Gaussian beams and arbitrary sample thicknesses," Opt. Lett. 20, 1821-1823 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. C. Fischer, T. Ye, G. Yurtsever, A. Miller, M. Ciocca, W. Wagner, and W. S. Warren, "Two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation measurements with shaped femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 30, 1551-1553 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. C. W. Hillegas, J. X. Tull, D. Goswami, D. Strickland, and W. S. Warren, "Femtosecond laser pulse shaping by use of microsecond radio-frequency pulses," Opt. Lett. 19, 737-739 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, (Academic Press, 2003).
  17. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, (Elsevier / Academic Press, 2007).
  18. S. T. Hendow and S. A. Shakir, "Recursive numerical solution for nonlinear wave propagation in fibers and cylindrically symmetrical systems," Appl. Opt. 25, 1759-1764 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. A. Hermann and R. G. McDuff, "Analysis of spatial scanning with thick optically nonlinear media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 2056-2064 (1993). [CrossRef]
  20. J. A. Hermann, "Nonlinear optical absorption in thick media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 814-823 (1997). [CrossRef]
  21. P. Tian and W. S. Warren, "Ultrafast measurement of two-photon absorption by loss modulation," Opt. Lett. 27, 1634-1636 (2002). [CrossRef]
  22. W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, "Femtosecond laser pulse filamentation versus optical breakdown in H2O," Appl Phys B 76, 215-229 (2003). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited