OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 16, Iss. 9 — Apr. 28, 2008
  • pp: 6592–6599

Direct electron beam writing of electro-optic polymer microring resonators

Haishan Sun, Antao Chen, Benjamin C. Olbricht, Joshua A. Davies , Philip A. Sullivan, Yi Liao , and Larry R. Dalton  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 16, Issue 9, pp. 6592-6599 (2008)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (622 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Electro-optic polymer waveguides in electron beam sensitive polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) polymer matrix doped with organic nonlinear chromophores could be directly patterned by electron beam exposure with high resolution and smoothness. The polymer in the exposed regions was removed with standard electron beam resist developer and without damaging the chromophore containing polymer waveguides. Feature sizes on the order of 100 nm could be clearly resolved. High quality microring resonators made of YL124/PMMA electro-optic polymer were successfully fabricated with this technique. The measured resonance extinction ratios were more than 16 dB and quality factors were in the range of 103~104.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(160.2100) Materials : Electro-optical materials
(230.5750) Optical devices : Resonators
(220.4241) Optical design and fabrication : Nanostructure fabrication
(130.5460) Integrated optics : Polymer waveguides

ToC Category:
Integrated Optics

Original Manuscript: February 14, 2008
Revised Manuscript: March 21, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: March 27, 2008
Published: April 24, 2008

Haishan Sun, Antao Chen, Benjamin C. Olbricht, Joshua A. Davies, Philip A. Sullivan, Yi Liao, and Larry R. Dalton, "Direct electron beam writing of electro-optic polymer microring resonators," Opt. Express 16, 6592-6599 (2008)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. B. E. Little and S. T. Chu, "Toward very large-scale integrated photonics," Opt. Photonics News 11, 24-28 (2000). [CrossRef]
  2. F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, "Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip," Nat. Photonics 1, 65-71 (2007). [CrossRef]
  3. Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. Sun, A. Pyajt, J. Luo, Z. Shi, S. Hau, A. K. Y. Jen, L. R. Dalton, and A. Chen, "All-Dielectric Electrooptic Sensor Based on a Polymer Microresonator coupled side-polished Optical Fiber," IEEE Sens. J. 7, 515 (2007). [CrossRef]
  5. C. Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, "Polymer microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 134-142 (2006). [CrossRef]
  6. M. Kuwata-Gonokami, R. H. Jordan, A. Dodabalapur, H. E. Katz, M. L. Schilling, R. E. Slusher, and S. Ozawa, "Polymer microdisk and microring lasers," Opt. Lett. 20, 2093-2095 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. Dekker, D. J. W. Klunder, A. Borreman, M. B. J. Diemeer, A. Driessen, and J. W. Stouwdam, "Stimulated emission and optical gain in LaF3: Nd nanoparticle-doped polymer-based waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett 85, 6104-6106 (2004). [CrossRef]
  8. A. V. Malko, A. A. Mikhailovsky, M. A. Petruska, J. A. Hollingsworth, H. Htoon, M. G. Bawendi, and V. I. Klimov, "From amplified spontaneous emission to microring lasing using nanocrystal quantum dot solids," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1303-1305 (2002). [CrossRef]
  9. P. Rabiei, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, "Polymer micro-ring filters and modulators," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1968-1975 (2002). [CrossRef]
  10. T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, G. Wang, R. Lawson, Y. Liao, P. A. Sullivan, L. Dalton, A. K. Y. Jen, and A. Scherer, "Optical modulation and detection in slotted silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 5216-5226 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. Luo, B. Chen, Z. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. K. Y. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, "Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon-polymer hybrid system," Nat. Maters. 5, 703-709 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. H. Sun, L. Dalton, and A. Chen, "Systematic Design and Simulation of Polymer Microring Resonators with the Combination of Beam Propagation Method and Matrix Model," in LEOS Summer Topical Meetings, 2007 Digest of the IEEE (Portland, OR, 2007), pp. 217-218.
  13. Y. Huang, G. T. Paloczi, A. Yariv, C. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, "Fabrication and replication of polymer integrated optical devices using electron-beam lithography and soft lithography," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 8606-8613 (2004). [CrossRef]
  14. H. Tazawa, Y.-H. Kuo, I. Dunayevskiy, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, H. R. Fetterman, and W. H. Steier, "Ring resonator-based electrooptic polymer traveling-wave modulator," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3514-3519 (2006). [CrossRef]
  15. H. Nakayama, H. Fujimura, C. Egami, O. Sugihara, R. Matsushima, and N. Okamoto, "Fabrication Technique of a Nonlinear Optical Structure using Optical Polymeric Films by Direct Electron-beam Irradiation," Appl. Opt. 37, 1213-1219 (1998). [CrossRef]
  16. L. R. Dalton, P. A. Sullivan, D. H. Bale, and B. C , Olbricht, "Theory-Inspired Nano-Engineering of Photonic and Electronic Materials: Noncentrosymmetric Charge-Transfer Electro-Optic Materials," Solid-State Electron. 51, 1263-1277 (2007). [CrossRef]
  17. A. Yariv, "Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides," Electron. Lett. 36, 321-322 (2000). [CrossRef]
  18. J. K. S. Poon, Y. Huang, G. T. Paloczi, A. Yariv, C. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, "Wide-range tuning of polymer microring resonators by the photobleaching of CLD-1 chromophores," Opt. Lett. 29, 2584-2586 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. S. T. Chu, W. Pan, S. Sato, T. Kaneko, B. E. Little, and Y. Kokubun, "Wavelength trimming of a microring resonator filter by means of a UV sensitive polymer overlay," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 688-690 (1999). [CrossRef]
  20. C. K. Harnett, G. W. Coates, and H. G. Craighead, "Heat-depolymerizable polycarbonates as electron beam patternable sacrificial layers for nanofluidics," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 2842-2845 (2001). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited