OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 17, Iss. 12 — Jun. 8, 2009
  • pp: 10098–10104

A 0.4-mm-diameter probe for nonlinear optical imaging

Hongchun Bao and Min Gu  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 12, pp. 10098-10104 (2009)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (441 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A miniaturized probe that possesses a diameter of 0.4 mm is developed for two-photon-excited fluorescence imaging. The miniaturized probe was manufactured by the collapse of air holes and the formation of a lens on the tip of a double-clad photonic crystal fiber (DCPCF) using electric arc discharging from a conventional fusion splicer. As a result, a femtosecond pulsed laser beam delivered by the DCPCF can be directly focused on a sample for two-photon fluorescence imaging. The numerical aperture of the lensed DCPCF is 0.12. The corresponding focal spot size is 6 µm, which is close to the diffraction limit. This 0.4-mm-diamter probe can provide clear two-photon-excited fluorescence images of 10-µm-diameter fluorescent microspheres.

© 2009 OSA

OCIS Codes
(110.2350) Imaging systems : Fiber optics imaging
(110.3080) Imaging systems : Infrared imaging
(110.6880) Imaging systems : Three-dimensional image acquisition
(170.2150) Medical optics and biotechnology : Endoscopic imaging
(180.4315) Microscopy : Nonlinear microscopy

ToC Category:
Imaging Systems

Original Manuscript: March 20, 2009
Revised Manuscript: May 27, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: May 27, 2009
Published: June 1, 2009

Virtual Issues
Vol. 4, Iss. 8 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Hongchun Bao and Min Gu, "A 0.4-mm-diameter probe for nonlinear optical imaging," Opt. Express 17, 10098-10104 (2009)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. Bao, J. Allen, R. Pattie, R. Vance, and M. Gu, “Fast handheld two-photon fluorescence microendoscope with a 475 microm x 475 microm field of view for in vivo imaging,” Opt. Lett. 33(12), 1333–1335 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. B. A. Flusberg, J. C. Jung, E. D. Cocker, E. P. Anderson, and M. J. Schnitzer, “In vivo brain imaging using a portable 3.9 gram two-photon fluorescence microendoscope,” Opt. Lett. 30(17), 2272–2274 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. König, A. Ehlers, I. Riemann, S. Schenkl, R. Bückle, and M. Kaatz, “Clinical two-photon microendoscopy,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 70(5), 398–402 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. P. Thomas, J. Y. Ye, Y. C. Chang, A. Kotlyar, Z. Cao, I. J. Majoros, T. B. Norris, and J. R. Baker., “Investigation of tumor cell targeting of a dendrimer nanoparticle using a double-clad optical fiber probe,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 014024 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. Bird and M. Gu, “Compact two-photon fluorescence microscope based on a single-mode fiber coupler,” Opt. Lett. 27(12), 1031–1033 (2002). [CrossRef]
  7. D. Bird and M. Gu, “Two-photon fluorescence endoscopy with a micro-optic scanning head,” Opt. Lett. 28(17), 1552–1554 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. Bird and M. Gu, “Fibre-optic two-photon scanning fluorescence microscopy,” J. Microsc. 208(1), 35–48 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. L. Fu, X. Gan, and M. Gu, “Use of a single-mode fiber coupler for second-harmonic-generation microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 30(4), 385–387 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. F. Helmchen, M. S. Fee, D. W. Tank, and W. Denk, “A miniature head-mounted two-photon microscope. high-resolution brain imaging in freely moving animals,” Neuron 31(6), 903–912 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. T. Myaing, D. J. MacDonald, and X. Li, “Fiber-optic scanning two-photon fluorescence endoscope,” Opt. Lett. 31(8), 1076–1078 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. L. Fu, X. Gan, and M. Gu, “Nonlinear optical microscopy based on double-clad photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5528 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. L. Fu, A. Jain, H. Xie, C. Cranfield, and M. Gu, “Nonlinear optical endoscopy based on a double-clad photonic crystal fiber and a MEMS mirror,” Opt. Express 14(3), 1027–1032 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. L. Fu and M. Gu, “Double-clad photonic crystal fiber coupler for compact nonlinear optical microscopy imaging,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1471–1473 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. L. Fu, A. Jain, C. Cranfield, H. Xie, and M. Gu, “Three-dimensional nonlinear optical endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 040501 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. T. Myaing, J. Y. Ye, T. B. Norris, T. Thomas, J. R. Baker, W. J. Wadsworth, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, and P. S. Russell, “Enhanced two-photon biosensing with double-clad photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 28(14), 1224–1226 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. L. Fu and M. Gu, “Fibre-optic nonlinear optical microscopy and endoscopy,” J. Microsc. 226(3), 195–206 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. C. L. Hoy, N. J. Durr, P. Chen, W. Piyawattanametha, H. Ra, O. Solgaard, and A. Ben-Yakar, “Miniaturized probe for femtosecond laser microsurgery and two-photon imaging,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9996–10005 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy,” Nature 443(7113), 765 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. T. P. Thomas, J. Y. Ye, C. Yang, M. Myaing, I. J. Majoros, A. Kotlyar, Z. Cao, T. B. Norris, and R. James, “Baker Jr, “Tissue distribution and real-time fluorescence measurement of a tumor-targeted nanodevice by a two photon optical fiber fluorescence probe,” Proc. SPIE 6095, 60950Q (2006). [CrossRef]
  21. C. J. Engelbrecht, R. S. Johnston, E. J. Seibel, and F. Helmchen, “Ultra-compact fiber-optic two-photon microscope for functional fluorescence imaging in vivo,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5556–5564 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. G. J. Kong, J. Kim, H. Y. Choi, J. E. Im, B. H. Park, U. C. Paek, and B. H. Lee, “Lensed photonic crystal fiber obtained by use of an arc discharge,” Opt. Lett. 31(7), 894–896 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. H. Bao and M. Gu, “Reduction of self-phase modulation in double-clad photonic crystal fiber for nonlinear optical endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(2), 148–150 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. N. Mihajlovic, G.W. ‘t Hooft, B.H.W. Hendriks, W.C.J. Bierhoff, C.A. Hezemans, R. Harbers, A.L. Braun, J.J.L. Horikx, and A.E. Desjardins, “Electromagnetically-Controlled Fiber-Scanning Confocal Microscope,” OSA Optics & Photonics Congress, NWC5, (2009).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited