OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 17, Iss. 15 — Jul. 20, 2009
  • pp: 12546–12554

Laser written waveguide photonic quantum circuits

Graham D. Marshall, Alberto Politi, Jonathan C. F. Matthews, Peter Dekker, Martin Ams, Michael J. Withford, and Jeremy L. O’Brien  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 15, pp. 12546-12554 (2009)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (2073 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We report photonic quantum circuits created using an ultrafast laser processing technique that is rapid, requires no lithographic mask and can be used to create three-dimensional networks of waveguide devices. We have characterized directional couplers—the key functional elements of photonic quantum circuits—and found that they perform as well as lithographically produced waveguide devices. We further demonstrate high-performance interferometers and an important multi-photon quantum interference phenomenon for the first time in integrated optics. This direct-write approach will enable the rapid development of sophisticated quantum optical circuits and their scaling into three-dimensions.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(140.3390) Lasers and laser optics : Laser materials processing
(230.7370) Optical devices : Waveguides
(250.5300) Optoelectronics : Photonic integrated circuits
(130.2755) Integrated optics : Glass waveguides
(270.5585) Quantum optics : Quantum information and processing

ToC Category:
Quantum Optics

Original Manuscript: April 6, 2009
Revised Manuscript: June 28, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: June 30, 2009
Published: July 9, 2009

Graham D. Marshall, Alberto Politi, Jonathan C. F. Matthews, Peter Dekker, Martin Ams, Michael J. Withford, and Jeremy L. O'Brien, "Laser written waveguide photonic quantum circuits," Opt. Express 17, 12546-12554 (2009)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. M. A. Nielsen and I. L. Chuang, Quantum Computation and Quantum Information (Cambridge University Press, 2000).
  2. V. Giovannetti, S. Lloyd, and L. Maccone, "Quantum-Enhanced Measurements: Beating the Standard Quantum Limit," Science 306, 1330-1336 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. N. Boto, P. Kok, D. S. Abrams, S. L. Braunstein, C. P. Williams, and J. P. Dowling, "Quantum Interferometric Optical Lithography: Exploiting Entanglement to Beat the Diffraction Limit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(13), 2733-2736 (2000). [CrossRef]
  4. N. Gisin, G. Ribordy,W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum Cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002). [CrossRef]
  5. N. Gisin and R. Thew, "Quantum communication," Nat. Photonics 1(3), 165-171 (2007). [CrossRef]
  6. J. L. O’Brien, "Optical Quantum Computing," Science 318(5856), 1567-1570 (2007). [CrossRef]
  7. A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, "Silica-on-Silicon Waveguide Quantum Circuits," Science 320(5876), 646-649 (2008). [CrossRef]
  8. K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, "Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 21(21), 1729-1731 (1996). [CrossRef]
  9. S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to threedimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77(1), 109-111 (2003). [CrossRef]
  10. E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, "A Scheme for Efficient Quantum Computation with Linear Optics," Nature 409(6816), 46-52 (2001). [CrossRef]
  11. A. J. Shields, "Semiconductor quantum light sources," Nat. Photonics 1(4), 215-223 (2007). [CrossRef]
  12. H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, "Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors," Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343-348 (2007). [CrossRef]
  13. E. J. Gansen, M. A. Rowe, M. B. Greene, D. Rosenberg, T. E. Harvey, M. Y. Su, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and R. P. Mirin, "Photon-number-discriminating detection using a quantum-dot, optically gated, field-effect transistor," Nat. Photonics 1(10), 585-588 (2007). [CrossRef]
  14. G. J. Pryde, J. L. O’Brien, A. G. White, and S. D. Bartlett, "Demonstrating superior discrimination of locally prepared states using nonlocal Measurements," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(22), 220406 (2005). [CrossRef]
  15. T. Yamamoto, K. Hayashi, S. K. Ozdemir, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, "Robust photonic entanglement distribution by state-independent encoding onto decoherence-free subspace," Nat. Photonics 2(8), 488-491 (2008). [CrossRef]
  16. M. W. Mitchell, J. S. Lundeen, and A. M. Steinberg, "Super-resolving phase measurements with a multiphoton entangled state," Nature 429(6988), 161-164 (2004). [CrossRef]
  17. T. Nagata, R. Okamoto, J. L. O’Brien, K. Sasaki, and S. Takeuchi, "Beating the Standard Quantum Limit with Four-Entangled Photons," Science 316(5825), 726-729 (2007). [CrossRef]
  18. K. J. Resch, K. L. Pregnell, R. Prevedel, A. Gilchrist, G. J. Pryde, J. L. O’Brien, and A. G. White, "Time-Reversal and Super-Resolving Phase Measurements," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(22), 223601 (2007). [CrossRef]
  19. M. D’Angelo, M. V. Chekhova, and Y. Shih, "Two-Photon Diffraction and Quantum Lithography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(1), 013602 (2001). [CrossRef]
  20. A. S. Clark, J. Fulconis, J. G. Rarity, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. L. O’Brien, "All-optical-fiber polarization-based quantum logic gate," Phys. Rev. A 79(3), 030303 (2009). [CrossRef]
  21. R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, "Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials," Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219-225 (2008). [CrossRef]
  22. R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. M. Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, "Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231118 (2007). [CrossRef]
  23. G. D. Marshall, M. Ams, and M. J. Withford, "Direct laser written waveguide-Bragg gratings in bulk fused silica," Opt. Lett. 31(18), 2690-2691 (2006). [CrossRef]
  24. G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker,M. Ams, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, "Directly written monolithic waveguide laser incorporating a distributed feedback waveguide-Bragg grating," Opt. Lett. 33(9), 956-958 (2008). [CrossRef]
  25. J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, "Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 76(3), 367-372 (2003). [CrossRef]
  26. D. Little, M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. Marshall, J. Dawes, and M. Withford, "Femtosecond laser modification of fused silica: the effect of writing polarization on Si-O ring structure," Opt. Express 16(24), 20029-20037 (2008). [CrossRef]
  27. M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, D. J. Spence, and M. J. Withford, "Slit beam shaping method for femtosecond laser direct-write fabrication of symmetric waveguides in bulk glasses," Opt. Express 13(15), 5676-5681 (2005). [CrossRef]
  28. M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, "Study of the influence of femtosecond laser polarisation on direct writing of waveguides," Opt. Express 14(26), 13158-13163 (2006). [CrossRef]
  29. C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, "Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044-2046 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. K. Sanaka, T. Jennewein, J. Pan, K. Resch, and A. Zeilinger, "Experimental nonlinear sign shift for linear optics quantum computation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(1), 017902 (2004). [CrossRef]
  31. B. H. Liu, F. W. Sun, Y. X. Gong, Y. F. Huang, Z. Y. Ou, and G. C. Guo, "Demonstration of the three-photon de Broglie wavelength by projection measurement," Phys. Rev. A 77(2), 023815 (2008). [CrossRef]
  32. K. Sanaka, K. J. Resch, and A. Zeilinger, "Filtering Out Photonic Fock States," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(8), 083601 (2006). [CrossRef]
  33. K. J. Resch, J. L. O’Brien, T. J. Weinhold, K. Sanaka, B. P. Lanyon, N. K. Langford, and A. G. White, "Entanglement Generation by Fock-State Filtration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(20), 203602 (2007). [CrossRef]
  34. H. F. Hofmann and S. Takeuchi, "Quantum Filter for Nonlocal Polarization Properties of Photonic Qubits," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(14), 147901 (2002). [CrossRef]
  35. R. Okamoto, J. L. O’Brien, H. F. Hofmann, T. Nagata, K. Sasaki, and S. Takeuchi, "An Entanglement Filter," Science 323(5913), 483-485 (2009). [CrossRef]
  36. B. P. Lanyon, T. J. Weinhold, N. K. Langford, J. L. O’Brien, K. J. Resch, A. Gilchrist, and A. G. White, "Manipulating Biphotonic Qutrits," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(6), 060504 (2008). [CrossRef]
  37. P. P. Rohde, G. J. Pryde, J. L. O’Brien, and T. C. Ralph, "Quantum-gate characterization in an extended Hilbert space," Phys. Rev. A 72(3), 032306 (2005). [CrossRef]
  38. G. Fujii, N. Namekata, M. Motoya, S. Kurimura, and S. Inoue, "Bright narrowband source of photon pairs at optical telecommunication wavelengths using a type-II periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide," Opt. Express 15(20), 12769-12776 (2007). [CrossRef]
  39. Q. Zhang, X. P. Xie, H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, "Correlated photonpair generation in reverse-proton-exchange PPLN waveguides with integrated mode demultiplexer at 10 GHz clock," Opt. Express 15(16), 10288-10293 (2007). [CrossRef]
  40. J. Fulconis, O. Alibart, J. L. O’Brien, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. G. Rarity, "Nonclassical Interference and Entanglement Generation Using a Photonic Crystal Fiber Pair Photon Source," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(12), 120501 (2007). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3.
Fig. 4.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited