OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 17, Iss. 15 — Jul. 20, 2009
  • pp: 12987–12999

Conversion of 10 Gb/s NRZ-OOK to RZ-OOK utilizing XPM in a Si nanowire

W. Astar, Jeffrey B. Driscoll, Xiaoping Liu, Jerry I. Dadap, William M. J. Green, Yurii A. Vlasov, Gary M. Carter, and Richard M. Osgood, Jr.  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 15, pp. 12987-12999 (2009)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (397 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We have demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge, the conversion of 10 Gb/s non-return-to-zero (NRZ) on-off keying (NRZ-OOK) to RZ-OOK using cross-phase modulation (XPM) in a compact, Silicon (Si) nanowire and a detuned filter. The pulse format conversion resulted in a polarity-preserved, correctly-coded RZ-OOK signal, with no evidence of an error-floor for BER < 10−11. The advantages of a passive Si nanowire can lead to a compact, power-efficient, highly simplified configuration, amenable to chip-level integration.

© 2009 OSA

OCIS Codes
(060.5060) Fiber optics and optical communications : Phase modulation
(070.4340) Fourier optics and signal processing : Nonlinear optical signal processing
(190.4390) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, integrated optics
(320.7110) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast nonlinear optics

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

Original Manuscript: May 1, 2009
Revised Manuscript: June 5, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: June 30, 2009
Published: July 20, 2009

W. Astar, Jeffrey B. Driscoll, Xiaoping Liu, Jerry I. Dadap, William M. J. Green, Yurii A. Vlasov, Gary M. Carter, and Richard M. Osgood, "Conversion of 10 Gb/s NRZ-OOK to RZ-OOK utilizing XPM in a Si nanowire," Opt. Express 17, 12987-12999 (2009)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. C. Caspar, H.-M. Foisel, A. Gladisch, N. Hanik, F. Kuppers, R. Ludwig, A. Mattheus, W. Pieper, B. Strebel, and H. G. Weber, “RZ versus NRZ modulation format for dispersion compensated SMF-based 10-Gb/s transmission with more than 100-km amplifier spacing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(4), 481–483 (1999). [CrossRef]
  2. L. M. Lunardi, D. J. Moss, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, M. Lamont, S. McLaughlin, G. Randall, P. Colbourne, S. Kiran, and C. A. Hulse, “Tunable dispersion compensation at 40-Gb/s using a multicavity etalon all-pass filter with NRZ, RZ, and CS-RZ modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(12), 2136–2144 (2002). [CrossRef]
  3. R. Ludwig, U. Feiste, E. Dietrich, H. G. Weber, D. Breuer, M. Martin, and F. Kuppers, “Experimental comparison of 40 Gbit/s RZ and NRZ transmission over standard singlemode fibre,” Electron. Lett. 35(25), 2216–2218 (1999). [CrossRef]
  4. S. Tanikoshi, K. Ide, T. Onodera, Y. Arimoto, and K. Araki, “High sensitivity 10 Gb/s optical receiver for space communications,” in Proc. of 17th AIAA Int. Commun. Satellite Conf., pp. 178–183 (1998).
  5. P. J. Winzer, M. Pfennigbauer, M. M. Strasser, and W. R. Leeb, “Optimum filter bandwidths for optically preamplified NRZ receivers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19(9), 1263–1273 (2001). [CrossRef]
  6. Inphi Corporation white paper, “Modulation formats for high-speed, long-haul fiber optic communication systems” (Inphi Corporation, 2008). http://www.inphi-corp.com/products/whitepapers/RZNRZ_final.pdf
  7. P. J. Winzer and A. Kalmar, “Sensitivity enhancement of optical receivers by impulsive coding,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(2), 171–177 (1999). [CrossRef]
  8. A. H. Gnauck and P. J. Winzer, “Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(1), 115–130 (2005). [CrossRef]
  9. C. Furst, G. Mohs, H. Geiger, and G. Fischer, “Performance limits of nonlinear RZ and NRZ coded transmission at 10 and 40 Gb/s on different fibers,” in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communicatiton Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, 2000), pp. 302–304.
  10. A. Buxens, D. Olesen, L. Ellegaard, M. Birk, M. Brodsky, N. Frigo, and P. Jeppesen, “Detailed modeling and experimental investigation of 40 Gb/s multi-span transmission systems in standard SMF for NRZ and RZ modulation,” in 28th European Conference on Optical Communication (Institute of Electrical Engineers, 2002), paper P3.25.
  11. J.-X. Cai, C. R. Davidson, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, Y. Cai, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, W. W. Patterson, P. C. Corbett, A. J. Lucero, W. Anderson, H. Li, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “Experimental comparison of the RZ-DPSK and NRZ-DPSK modulation formats,” in Technical Digest of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, 2005), paper OThO1.
  12. C. D. Poole, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, and D. A. Fishman, “Fading in lightwave systems due to polarization-mode dispersion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3(1), 68–70 (1991). [CrossRef]
  13. H. Taga, M. Suzuki, and Y. Namihira, “Polarization mode dispersion tolerance of 10 Gbit/s NRZ and RZ optical signals,” Electron. Lett. 34(22), 2098–2100 (1998). [CrossRef]
  14. D. Marcuse and C. R. Menyuk, “Simulation of single-channel optical systems at 100 Gb/s,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(4), 564–569 (1998). [CrossRef]
  15. R. M. Jopson, L. E. Nelson, G. J. Pendock, and A. H. Gnauck, “Polarization-mode dispersion impairment in return-to-zero and non-return-to-zero systems,” in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communicatiton Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, 1999), paper WE3.
  16. H. Bulow, “PMD mitigation techniques and their effectiveness in installed fiber,” in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communicatiton Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, 2000), paper ThH1.
  17. H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “A comparison between NRZ and RZ data formats with respect to PMD-induced system degradation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(5), 448–450 (2001). [CrossRef]
  18. P. J. Winzer, H. Kogelnik, C. H. Kim, H. Kim, R. M. Jopson, and L. E. Nelson, “Effect of receiver design on PMD outage for RZ and NRZ,” in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communicatiton Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, 2002), paper TuI.
  19. R. A. Griffin, R. G. Walker, R. I. Johnstone, R. Harris, N. M. B. Perney, N. D. Whitbread, T. Widdowson, and P. Harper, “Integrated 10 Gb/s chirped return-to-zero transmitter using GaAs/AlGaAs modulators,” in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communicatiton Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, 2001), paper PD15.
  20. D. LeGuen, A. Ohare, S. Del Burgo, D. Grot, F. Favre, and T. Georges, “Narrow band 640 Gb/s soliton WDM transmission over 1200 km of standard fibre with 100 km −21 dB amplifier spans,” in 24th European Conference on Optical Communication (Institute of Electrical Engineers, 1998), pp. 61–62.
  21. F. Favre, D. LeGuen, M. L. Moulinard, M. Henry, G. Michaud, F. Devaux, E. Legros, B. Charbonnier, and T. Georges, “Demonstration of soliton transmission at 20 Gbit/s over 2200 km of standard fibre with dispersion compensation and pre-chirping,” Electron. Lett. 33(6), 511–512 (1997). [CrossRef]
  22. B. Mason, A. Ougazzaden, C. W. Lentz, K. G. Glogovsky, C. L. Reynolds, G. J. Przybylek, R. E. Leibenguth, T. L. Kercher, J. W. Boardman, M. T. Rader, J. M. Geary, F. S. Walters, L. J. Peticolas, J. M. Freund, S. N. G. Chu, A. Sirenko, R. J. Jurchenko, M. S. Hybertsen, L. J. P. Ketelsen, and G. Raybon, “40-Gb/s tandem electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(1), 27–29 (2002). [CrossRef]
  23. P. J. Winzer and J. Leuthold, “Return-to-zero modulator using a single NRZ drive signal and an optical delay interferometer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(12), 1298–1300 (2001). [CrossRef]
  24. N. M. Froberg, G. Raybon, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, M. Chien, G. T. Harvey, A. Gnauck, and A. M. Johnson, “Generation of 12.5 Gbit/s soliton data stream with an integrated laser-modulator transmitter,” Electron. Lett. 30(22), 1880–1882 (1994). [CrossRef]
  25. F. Liu, X. Zheng, C. Peucheret, S. N. Knudsen, R. J. S. Pedersen, and P. Jeppesen, “Chirped return-to-zero source used in 8 × 10 Gbit/s transmission over 2000 km of standard singlemode fibre,” Electron. Lett. 36(16), 1399–1341 (2000). [CrossRef]
  26. D.-S. Lee, M. S. Lee, Y. J. Wen, and A. Nimalathas, “Electrically band-limited CSRZ signal with simple generation and large dispersion tolerance for 40-Gb/s WDM transmission systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(7), 987–989 (2003). [CrossRef]
  27. X. Yang, A. K. Mishra, R. J. Manning, R. P. Webb, and A. D. Ellis, “All-optical 42.6 Gbit/s NRZ to RZ format conversion by cross-phase modulation in single SOA,” Electron. Lett. 43(16), 890–892 (2007). [CrossRef]
  28. C. G. Lee, Y. J. Kim, C. S. Park, H. J. Lee, and C.-S. Park, “Experimental demonstration of 10-Gb/s data format conversions between NRZ and RZ using SOA-loop mirror,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(2), 834–841 (2005). [CrossRef]
  29. X. Yang, A. K. Mishra, R. J. Manning, and R. Giller, “All-optical 40 Gbit/s NRZ to RZ format conversion by nonlinear polarization rotation in SOAs,” Electron. Lett. 43(8), 469–471 (2007). [CrossRef]
  30. H. K. Lee, K. H. Kim, J. T. Ahn, M.-Y. Jeon, and E.-H. Lee, “All-optical format conversion from NRZ to RZ signals using a walk-off balanced nonlinear fibre loop mirror,” Electron. Lett. 32(25), 2335–2337 (1996). [CrossRef]
  31. C. H. Kwok and C. Lin, “Polarization-insensitive all-optical NRZ-to-RZ format conversion by spectral filtering of a cross phase modulation broadened signal spectrum,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(3), 451–458 (2006). [CrossRef]
  32. G.-W. Lu, L.-K. Chen, and C.-K. Chan, “Novel NRZ-to-RZ format conversion with tunable pulsewidth using phase modulator and interleaver,” in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communicatiton Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, 2006), paper JThB32.
  33. Y. Yu, X. Zhang, J. B. Rosas-Fernández, D. Huang, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Simultaneous multiple DWDM channel NRZ-to-RZ regenerative format conversion at 10 and 20 Gb/s,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3964–3969 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-5-3964 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. J. Yu, G. K. Chang, J. Barry, and Y. Su, “40 Gbit/s signal format conversion from NRZ to RZ using a Mach-Zehnder delay interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 248(4–6), 419–422 (2005). [CrossRef]
  35. E. Dulkeith, Y. A. Vlasov, X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood., “Self-phase-modulation in submicron silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5524–5534 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-12-5524 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. I.-W. Hsieh, X. Chen, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultrafast-pulse self-phase modulation and third-order dispersion in Si photonic wire-waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(25), 12380–12387 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-25-12380 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. I.-W. Hsieh, X. Chen, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Cross-phase modulation-induced spectral and temporal effects on co-propagating femtosecond pulses in silicon photonic wires,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1135–1146 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-3-1135 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, X. Chen, I.-W. Hsieh, X. Liu, C.-Y. Chou, E. Dulkeith, S. J. McNab, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, and R. M. Osgood., “Nonlinear-optical phase modification in dispersion-engineered Si photonic wires,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1280–1299 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-2-1280 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. T. Ye, C. Yan, Y. Lu, F. Liu, and Y. Su, “All-optical regenerative NRZ-to-RZ format conversion using coupled ring-resonator optical waveguide,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15325–15331 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-20-15325 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. L. Zhou, H. Chen, and A. Poon, “On-chip NRZ-to-PRZ format conversion using narrow-band silicon microring resonator-based notch filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(13), 1950–1955 (2008). [CrossRef]
  41. H. Kim and P. J. Winzer, “Robustness to laser frequency offset in direct-detection DPSK and DQPSK systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(9), 1887–1891 (2003). [CrossRef]
  42. H. Kim, “Cross-phase modulation-induced nonlinear phase noise in WDM direct-detection DPSK systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(8), 1770–1774 (2003). [CrossRef]
  43. A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, and L. Stulz, “Demonstration of 42.7-Gb/s DPSK receiver with 45 photons/bit sensitivity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(1), 99–101 (2003). [CrossRef]
  44. J. H. Sinsky, A. Adamiecki, A. Gnauck, C. A. Burrus, J. Leuthold, O. Wohlgemuth, S. Chandrasekhar, and A. Umbach, “RZ-DPSK transmission using a 42.7-Gb/s integrated balanced optical front end with record sensitivity,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(1), 180–185 (2004). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Supplementary Material

» Media 1: AVI (1151 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (1320 KB)     

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited