Optics InfoBase > Optics Express > Volume 17 > Issue 18 > Page 15821

## High sensitivity spectroscopy of cesium Rydberg atoms using electromagnetically induced transparency

Jianming Zhao, Xingbo Zhu, Linjie Zhang, Zhigang Feng, Changyong Li, and Suotang Jia »View Author Affiliations

^{1,}

^{*}Xingbo Zhu,

^{1}Linjie Zhang,

^{1}Zhigang Feng,

^{1}Changyong Li,

^{1}and Suotang Jia

^{1}

^{1}State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, and College of Physics and Electronics Engineering, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006, P. R. China

^{*}Corresponding author: zhaojm@sxu.edu.cn

Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 18, pp. 15821-15826 (2009)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.17.015821

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML Acrobat PDF (231 KB)

### Abstract

A high sensitivity spectroscopy of Rydberg atoms is presented by using electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in the 6S_{1/2}-6P_{3/2}-*n*D ladder-type system of cesium vapor cell at room temperature. The EIT spectra of 40D Rydberg state are measured and the dependences of the EIT magnitude and linewidth on the coupling laser power are investigated in detail. The Rydberg EIT linewidth is measured to be about 5.6MHz when the powers of probe and coupling lasers are 50μW and 5.2mW, respectively, and which is close to the natural linewidth of cesium atoms. The effect of double resonance optical pumping on EIT is also investigated. The fine structures of *n*D (*n* = 39-55) are measured and the experimental result is in agreement with quantum defect theory.

© 2009 OSA

**OCIS Codes**

(020.5780) Atomic and molecular physics : Rydberg states

(190.4180) Nonlinear optics : Multiphoton processes

(270.1670) Quantum optics : Coherent optical effects

(300.6210) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, atomic

**ToC Category:**

Atomic and Molecular Physics

**History**

Original Manuscript: July 1, 2009

Revised Manuscript: August 12, 2009

Manuscript Accepted: August 13, 2009

Published: August 21, 2009

**Citation**

Jianming Zhao, Xingbo Zhu, Linjie Zhang, Zhigang Feng, Changyong Li, and Suotang Jia, "High sensitivity spectroscopy of cesium Rydberg atoms using electromagnetically induced transparency," Opt. Express **17**, 15821-15826 (2009)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-18-15821

Sort: Author | Year | Journal | Reset

### References

- T. F. Gallagher, Rydberg Atoms (Cambridge 1994)
- D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, S. L. Rolston, R. Cote, and M. D. Lukin, “Fast quantum gates for neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(10), 2208–2211 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- M. D. Lukin, M. Fleischhauer, R. Cote, L. M. Duan, D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Dipole blockade and quantum information processing in mesoscopic atomic ensembles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(3), 037901 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- P. Pillet, R. Kachru, N. H. Tran, W. W. Smith, T. F. Gallagher, R Kachru, N. H Tran, W. W Smith, and T. F. Gallagher, “Radiative Collisions in a Strong-Field Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50(22), 1763–1766 (1983). [CrossRef]
- T. Amthor, M. Reetz-Lamour, S. Westermann, J. Denskat, and M. Weidemüller, “Mechanical effect of van der waals interactions observed in real time in an ultracold Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(2), 023004 (2007).T. Vogt, M. Viteau, A. Chotia, J. Zhao, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, “Electric-field induced dipole blockade with Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(7), 073002 (2007).T. A. Johnson, E. Urban, T. Henage, L. Isenhower, D. D. Yavuz, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, “Rabi oscillations between ground and Rydberg states with dipole-dipole atomic interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(11), 113003 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- A. K. Mohapatra, T. R. Jackson, and C. S. Adams, “Coherent optical detection of highly excited Rydberg states using electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(11), 113003 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- M. Xiao, Y. Li, S. Jin, and J. Gea-Banacloche, “Measurement of Dispersive Properties of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in Rubidium Atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(5), 666–669 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- J. Wang, L. B. Kong, X. H. Tu, K. J. Jiang, K. Li, H. W. Xiong, and M. S. Yifu Zhu, “Zhan, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in multi-level cascade scheme of cold rubidium atoms,” Phys. Lett. A 328(6), 437–443 (2004). [CrossRef]
- J. Clarke, H. Chen, and W. A. van Wijngaarden, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and optical switching in a rubidium cascade system,” Appl. Opt. 40(12), 2047–2051 (2001). [CrossRef]
- B. K. Teo, D. Feldbaum, T. Cubel, J. R. Guest, P. R. Berman, and G. Raithel, “Autler-Townes spectroscopy of the 5S1/2-5P3/2-44D cascade of cold 85Rb atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 68(5), 053407 (2003). [CrossRef]
- S. Mauger, J. Millen, and M. P. A. Jones, “Spectroscopy of strontium Rydberg states using electromagnetically induced transparency,” J. Phys. B 40(22), F319–F325 (2007). [CrossRef]
- A. K. Mohapatra, M. G. Bason, B. Butscher, K. J. Weatherill, and C. S. Adams, “Giant electro-optic effect using polarizable dark states,” Nat. Phys. 4(11), 890–894 (2008). [CrossRef]
- K. H. Weber and C. J. Sansonetti, “Accurate energies of nS, nP, nD, nF, and nG levels of neutral cesium,” Phys. Rev. A 35(11), 4650–4660 (1987).L. Zhang, Z. Gang, A. Li, J. Zhao, C. Li, and S. Jia, “Measurement of quantum defects of nS and nD states using field ionization spectroscopy in ultracold cesium,” Chinese Phys. B 18(5), 1838–1842 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- J. Gea-Banacloche, Y. Li, S. Jin, and M. Xiao, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in ladder-type inhomogeneously broadened media: Theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. A 51(1), 576–584 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- H. S. Moon, L. Lee, and J. B. Kim, “Double resonance optical pumping effects in electromagnetically induced transparency,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12163–12170 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Z. Feng, L. Zhang, J. Zhao, C. Li, and S. Jia, “Lifetime measurement of ultracoldcesium Rydberg states,” J. Phys. B 42(14), 145303 (2009). [CrossRef]
- K. C. Harvey and B. P. Stoicheff, “Fine Structure of the n2D Series in Rubidium near the Ionization Limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38(10), 537–540 (1977). [CrossRef]
- K. Singer, M. Reetz-Lamour, T. Amthor, L. G. Marcassa, and M. Weidemüller, “Suppression of excitation and spectral broadening induced by interactions in a cold gas of Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(16), 163001 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

**Adams, C. S.**

- A. K. Mohapatra, M. G. Bason, B. Butscher, K. J. Weatherill, and C. S. Adams, “Giant electro-optic effect using polarizable dark states,” Nat. Phys. 4(11), 890–894 (2008). [CrossRef]
- A. K. Mohapatra, T. R. Jackson, and C. S. Adams, “Coherent optical detection of highly excited Rydberg states using electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(11), 113003 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

**Amthor, T.**

- T. Amthor, M. Reetz-Lamour, S. Westermann, J. Denskat, and M. Weidemüller, “Mechanical effect of van der waals interactions observed in real time in an ultracold Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(2), 023004 (2007).T. Vogt, M. Viteau, A. Chotia, J. Zhao, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, “Electric-field induced dipole blockade with Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(7), 073002 (2007).T. A. Johnson, E. Urban, T. Henage, L. Isenhower, D. D. Yavuz, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, “Rabi oscillations between ground and Rydberg states with dipole-dipole atomic interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(11), 113003 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- K. Singer, M. Reetz-Lamour, T. Amthor, L. G. Marcassa, and M. Weidemüller, “Suppression of excitation and spectral broadening induced by interactions in a cold gas of Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(16), 163001 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

**Bason, M. G.**

- A. K. Mohapatra, M. G. Bason, B. Butscher, K. J. Weatherill, and C. S. Adams, “Giant electro-optic effect using polarizable dark states,” Nat. Phys. 4(11), 890–894 (2008). [CrossRef]

**Berman, P. R.**

- B. K. Teo, D. Feldbaum, T. Cubel, J. R. Guest, P. R. Berman, and G. Raithel, “Autler-Townes spectroscopy of the 5S1/2-5P3/2-44D cascade of cold 85Rb atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 68(5), 053407 (2003). [CrossRef]

**Butscher, B.**

**Chen, H.**

**Chotia, A.**

- T. Amthor, M. Reetz-Lamour, S. Westermann, J. Denskat, and M. Weidemüller, “Mechanical effect of van der waals interactions observed in real time in an ultracold Rydberg gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(2), 023004 (2007).T. Vogt, M. Viteau, A. Chotia, J. Zhao, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, “Electric-field induced dipole blockade with Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(7), 073002 (2007).T. A. Johnson, E. Urban, T. Henage, L. Isenhower, D. D. Yavuz, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, “Rabi oscillations between ground and Rydberg states with dipole-dipole atomic interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(11), 113003 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

**Cirac, J. I.**

- M. D. Lukin, M. Fleischhauer, R. Cote, L. M. Duan, D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Dipole blockade and quantum information processing in mesoscopic atomic ensembles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(3), 037901 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, S. L. Rolston, R. Cote, and M. D. Lukin, “Fast quantum gates for neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(10), 2208–2211 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

**Clarke, J.**

**Comparat, D.**

**Cote, R.**

- M. D. Lukin, M. Fleischhauer, R. Cote, L. M. Duan, D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, “Dipole blockade and quantum information processing in mesoscopic atomic ensembles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(3), 037901 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, S. L. Rolston, R. Cote, and M. D. Lukin, “Fast quantum gates for neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(10), 2208–2211 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

**Cubel, T.**

- B. K. Teo, D. Feldbaum, T. Cubel, J. R. Guest, P. R. Berman, and G. Raithel, “Autler-Townes spectroscopy of the 5S1/2-5P3/2-44D cascade of cold 85Rb atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 68(5), 053407 (2003). [CrossRef]

**Denskat, J.**

**Duan, L. M.**

**Feldbaum, D.**

**Feng, Z.**

- Z. Feng, L. Zhang, J. Zhao, C. Li, and S. Jia, “Lifetime measurement of ultracoldcesium Rydberg states,” J. Phys. B 42(14), 145303 (2009). [CrossRef]

**Fleischhauer, M.**

**Gallagher, T. F.**

- P. Pillet, R. Kachru, N. H. Tran, W. W. Smith, T. F. Gallagher, R Kachru, N. H Tran, W. W Smith, and T. F. Gallagher, “Radiative Collisions in a Strong-Field Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50(22), 1763–1766 (1983). [CrossRef]

**Gallagher,, T. F.**

- P. Pillet, R. Kachru, N. H. Tran, W. W. Smith, T. F. Gallagher, R Kachru, N. H Tran, W. W Smith, and T. F. Gallagher, “Radiative Collisions in a Strong-Field Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50(22), 1763–1766 (1983). [CrossRef]

**Gang, Z.**

- K. H. Weber and C. J. Sansonetti, “Accurate energies of nS, nP, nD, nF, and nG levels of neutral cesium,” Phys. Rev. A 35(11), 4650–4660 (1987).L. Zhang, Z. Gang, A. Li, J. Zhao, C. Li, and S. Jia, “Measurement of quantum defects of nS and nD states using field ionization spectroscopy in ultracold cesium,” Chinese Phys. B 18(5), 1838–1842 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

**Gea-Banacloche, J.**

- J. Gea-Banacloche, Y. Li, S. Jin, and M. Xiao, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in ladder-type inhomogeneously broadened media: Theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. A 51(1), 576–584 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- M. Xiao, Y. Li, S. Jin, and J. Gea-Banacloche, “Measurement of Dispersive Properties of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in Rubidium Atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(5), 666–669 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

**Guest, J. R.**

**Harvey, K. C.**

- K. C. Harvey and B. P. Stoicheff, “Fine Structure of the n2D Series in Rubidium near the Ionization Limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38(10), 537–540 (1977). [CrossRef]

**Henage, T.**

**Isenhower, L.**

**Jackson, T. R.**

- A. K. Mohapatra, T. R. Jackson, and C. S. Adams, “Coherent optical detection of highly excited Rydberg states using electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(11), 113003 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

**Jaksch, D.**

**Jia, S.**

- Z. Feng, L. Zhang, J. Zhao, C. Li, and S. Jia, “Lifetime measurement of ultracoldcesium Rydberg states,” J. Phys. B 42(14), 145303 (2009). [CrossRef]
- K. H. Weber and C. J. Sansonetti, “Accurate energies of nS, nP, nD, nF, and nG levels of neutral cesium,” Phys. Rev. A 35(11), 4650–4660 (1987).L. Zhang, Z. Gang, A. Li, J. Zhao, C. Li, and S. Jia, “Measurement of quantum defects of nS and nD states using field ionization spectroscopy in ultracold cesium,” Chinese Phys. B 18(5), 1838–1842 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

**Jiang, K. J.**

- J. Wang, L. B. Kong, X. H. Tu, K. J. Jiang, K. Li, H. W. Xiong, and M. S. Yifu Zhu, “Zhan, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in multi-level cascade scheme of cold rubidium atoms,” Phys. Lett. A 328(6), 437–443 (2004). [CrossRef]

**Jin, S.**

- M. Xiao, Y. Li, S. Jin, and J. Gea-Banacloche, “Measurement of Dispersive Properties of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in Rubidium Atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(5), 666–669 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- J. Gea-Banacloche, Y. Li, S. Jin, and M. Xiao, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in ladder-type inhomogeneously broadened media: Theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. A 51(1), 576–584 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

**Johnson, T. A.**

**Jones, M. P. A.**

- S. Mauger, J. Millen, and M. P. A. Jones, “Spectroscopy of strontium Rydberg states using electromagnetically induced transparency,” J. Phys. B 40(22), F319–F325 (2007). [CrossRef]

**Kachru, R**

**Kachru, R.**

**Kim, J. B.**

**Kong, L. B.**

- J. Wang, L. B. Kong, X. H. Tu, K. J. Jiang, K. Li, H. W. Xiong, and M. S. Yifu Zhu, “Zhan, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in multi-level cascade scheme of cold rubidium atoms,” Phys. Lett. A 328(6), 437–443 (2004). [CrossRef]

**Lee, L.**

**Li, A.**

**Li, C.**

**Li, K.**

**Li, Y.**

**Lukin, M. D.**

**Marcassa, L. G.**

- K. Singer, M. Reetz-Lamour, T. Amthor, L. G. Marcassa, and M. Weidemüller, “Suppression of excitation and spectral broadening induced by interactions in a cold gas of Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(16), 163001 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

**Mauger, S.**

- S. Mauger, J. Millen, and M. P. A. Jones, “Spectroscopy of strontium Rydberg states using electromagnetically induced transparency,” J. Phys. B 40(22), F319–F325 (2007). [CrossRef]

**Millen, J.**

**Mohapatra, A. K.**

**Moon, H. S.**

**Pillet, P.**

**Raithel, G.**

**Reetz-Lamour, M.**

**Rolston, S. L.**

**Saffman, M.**

**Sansonetti, C. J.**

**Singer, K.**

**Smith, W. W**

**Smith, W. W.**

**Stoicheff, B. P.**

- K. C. Harvey and B. P. Stoicheff, “Fine Structure of the n2D Series in Rubidium near the Ionization Limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38(10), 537–540 (1977). [CrossRef]

**Teo, B. K.**

**Tran, N. H**

**Tran, N. H.**

**Tu, X. H.**

**Urban, E.**

**van Wijngaarden, W. A.**

**Viteau, M.**

**Vogt, T.**

**Walker, T. G.**

**Wang, J.**

**Weatherill, K. J.**

**Weber, K. H.**

**Weidemüller, M.**

**Westermann, S.**

**Xiao, M.**

**Xiong, H. W.**

**Yavuz, D. D.**

**Yifu Zhu, M. S.**

**Zhang, L.**

**Zhao, J.**

**Zoller, P.**

### Appl. Opt.

- J. Clarke, H. Chen, and W. A. van Wijngaarden, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and optical switching in a rubidium cascade system,” Appl. Opt. 40(12), 2047–2051 (2001). [CrossRef]

### J. Phys. B

### Nat. Phys.

### Opt. Express

- H. S. Moon, L. Lee, and J. B. Kim, “Double resonance optical pumping effects in electromagnetically induced transparency,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12163–12170 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

### Phys. Lett. A

### Phys. Rev. A

### Phys. Rev. Lett.

### Other

- T. F. Gallagher, Rydberg Atoms (Cambridge 1994)

**2009, Feng, J. Phys. B**

**2008, Moon, Opt. Express**

**2008, Mohapatra, Nat. Phys.**

**2007, Mauger, J. Phys. B**

**2007, Amthor, Phys. Rev. Lett.**

**2007, Vogt, Phys. Rev. Lett.**

**2007, Johnson, Phys. Rev. Lett.**

**2007, Mohapatra, Phys. Rev. Lett.**

**2004, Wang, Phys. Lett. A**

**2004, Singer, Phys. Rev. Lett.**

**2003, Teo, Phys. Rev. A**

**2001, Clarke, Appl. Opt.**

**2001, Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett.**

**2000, Jaksch, Phys. Rev. Lett.**

**1995, Xiao, Phys. Rev. Lett.**

**1995, Gea-Banacloche, Phys. Rev. A**

**1987, Weber, Phys. Rev. A**

**1987, Zhang, Phys. Rev. A**

**1983, Pillet, Phys. Rev. Lett.**

**1977, Harvey, Phys. Rev. Lett.**

## Cited By |
Alert me when this paper is cited |

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

### Related Journal Articles

- Inhomogeneous broadening-dependent spectral features in a four-level atomic system (JOSAB)
- Nonlinear excitation by quantum interference in a Doppler-broadened rubidium atomic system (JOSAB)
- Study of La
^{+}Rydberg and autoionization states: ionization potential of La_{II}(JOSAB) - High-resolution study of xenon autoionization using direct vacuum-ultraviolet laser excitation (JOSAB)
- Stabilization and Structure of wave packets in Rydberg atoms ionized by a strong light field (OE)

### Related Conference Papers

- Robust control of realistic quantum gates
- Robust control of realistic quantum gates
- Multilevel quantum logic in Fourier conjugate bases
- Multilevel quantum logic in Fourier conjugate bases
- Electromagnetically Induced Transparency Observed in Two-Photon Transitions of K2
- Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in Rubidium Vapor Prepared by Comb of Short Optical Pulses
- Electromagnetically Induced Transparency Observed in Two-Photon Transitions of K2

« Previous Article | Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

- Firefox 11+
- Google Chrome 17+
- Internet Explorer 9+
- Safari 5+