OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 17, Iss. 23 — Nov. 9, 2009
  • pp: 21205–21215

White-emissive tandem-type hybrid organic/polymer diodes with (0.33, 0.33) chromaticity coordinates

Tzung-Fang Guo, Ten-Chin Wen, Yi-Shun Huang, Ming-Wei Lin, Chuan-Cheng Tsou, and Chia-Tin Chung  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 23, pp. 21205-21215 (2009)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (276 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



This study reports fabrication of white-emissive, tandem-type, hybrid organic/polymer light-emitting diodes (O/PLED). The tandem devices are made by stacking a blue-emissive OLED on a yellow-emissive phenyl-substituted poly(para-phenylene vinylene) copolymer-based PLED and applying an organic oxide/Al/molybdenum oxide (MoO3) complex structure as a connecting structure or charge-generation layer (CGL). The organic oxide/Al/MoO3 CGL functions as an effective junction interface for the transport and injection of opposite charge carriers through the stacked configuration. The electroluminescence (EL) spectra of the tandem-type devices can be tuned by varying the intensity of the emission in each emissive component to yield the visible-range spectra from 400 to 750 nm, with Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage chromaticity coordinates of (0.33, 0.33) and a high color rendering capacity as used for illumination. The EL spectra also exhibit good color stability under various bias conditions. The tandem-type device of emission with chromaticity coordinates, (0.30, 0.31), has maximum brightness and luminous efficiency over 25,000 cd/m2 and ~4.2 cd/A, respectively.

© 2009 OSA

OCIS Codes
(230.3670) Optical devices : Light-emitting diodes
(250.3680) Optoelectronics : Light-emitting polymers

ToC Category:
Optical Devices

Original Manuscript: September 21, 2009
Revised Manuscript: October 29, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: October 30, 2009
Published: November 6, 2009

Tzung-Fang Guo, Ten-Chin Wen, Yi-Shun Huang, Ming-Wei Lin, Chuan-Cheng Tsou, and Chia-Tin Chung, "White-emissive tandem-type hybrid organic/polymer diodes with (0.33, 0.33) chromaticity coordinates," Opt. Express 17, 21205-21215 (2009)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. Kido, M. Kimura, and K. Nagai, “Multilayer white light-emitting organic electroluminescent device,” Science 267(5202), 1332–1334 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. B. W. D’Andrade and S. R. Forrest, “White organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” Adv. Mater. 16(18), 1585–1595 (2004). [CrossRef]
  3. C. W. Ko and Y. T. Tao, “Bright white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(25), 4234–4236 (2001). [CrossRef]
  4. Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE), Colorimetry, Publication Report No.15.2 (1986).
  5. J. Kido, K. Hongawa, K. Okuyama, and K. Nagai, “White light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices using the poly(N-vinylcarbazole) emitter layer doped with three fluorescent dyes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(7), 815–817 (1994). [CrossRef]
  6. J. Kido, H. Shionoya, and K. Nagai, “Single-layer white light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices based on dye-dispersed poly(N-vinylcarbazole),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(16), 2281–2283 (1995). [CrossRef]
  7. S. Tokito, T. Iijima, T. Tsuzuki, and F. Sato, “High-efficiency white phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices with greenish-blue and red-emitting layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(12), 2459–2461 (2003). [CrossRef]
  8. L. Wang, G. Lei, and Y. Qiu, “Bright white organic light-emitting diodes based on two blue emitters with similar molecular structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(11), 114503 (2005). [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Huang, W. J. Hou, J. H. Li, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Improving the power efficiency of white light-emitting diode by doping electron transport material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 133509 (2006). [CrossRef]
  11. J. H. Seo, J. H. Seo, J. H. Park, Y. K. Kim, J. H. Kim, G. W. Hyung, K. H. Lee, and S. S. Yoon, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diodes using two emitting materials for three primary colors (red, green, and blue),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(20), 203507 (2007). [CrossRef]
  12. Y. G. Lee, I. S. Kee, H. S. Shim, I. H. Ko, S. Lee, and K. H. Koh, “White organic light-emitting devices with mixed interfaces between light emitting layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243508 (2007). [CrossRef]
  13. M. Granström and O. Inganäs, “White light emission from a polymer blend light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(2), 147–149 (1996). [CrossRef]
  14. G. K. Ho, H. F. Meng, S. C. Lin, S. F. Horng, C. S. Hsu, L. C. Chen, and S. M. Chang, “Efficient white light emission in conjugated polymer homojunctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4576–4578 (2004). [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Xu, J. Peng, Y. Mo, Q. Hou, and Y. Cao, “Efficient polymer white-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 163502 (2005). [CrossRef]
  16. J. Huang, G. Li, E. Wu, Q. Xu, and Y. Yang, “Achieving high-efficiency polymer white-light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 18(1), 114–117 (2006). [CrossRef]
  17. D. D. Gebler, Y. Z. Wang, J. W. Blatchford, S. W. Jessen, D. K. Fu, T. M. Swager, A. G. MacDiarmid, and A. J. Epstein, “Exciplex emission in bilayer polymer light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(13), 1644–1646 (1997). [CrossRef]
  18. C. I. Chao and S. A. Chen, “White light emission from exciplex in a bilayer device with two blue light- emitting polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(4), 426–428 (1998). [CrossRef]
  19. B. W. D’Andrade, J. Brooks, V. Adamovich, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “White light emission sensing triplet excimers in electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 14(15), 1032–1036 (2002). [CrossRef]
  20. Q. J. Sun, B. H. Fan, Z. A. Tan, C. H. Yang, Y. F. Li, and Y. Yang, “White light from polymer light-emitting diodes: Utilization of fluorenone defects and exciplex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(16), 163510 (2006). [CrossRef]
  21. E. L. Williams, K. Haavisto, J. Li, and G. E. Jabbour, “Excimer-based white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with nearly 100% internal quantum efficiency,” Adv. Mater. 19(2), 197–202 (2007). [CrossRef]
  22. J. Kalinowski, M. Cocchi, D. Virgili, V. Fattori, and J. A. G. Williams, “Mixing of excimer and exciplex emission: A new way to improve white light emitting organic electrophosphorescent diodes,” Adv. Mater. 19(22), 4000–4005 (2007). [CrossRef]
  23. G. Tu, Q. Zhou, Y. Cheng, L. Wang, D. Ma, X. Jing, and F. Wang, “White electroluminescence from polyfluorene chemically doped with 1,8-napthalimide moieties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(12), 2172–2174 (2004). [CrossRef]
  24. J. Jiang, Y. Xu, W. Yang, R. Guan, Z. Liu, H. Zhen, and Y. Cao, “High-Efficiency White-Light-Emitting Devices from a Single Polymer by Mixing Singlet and Triplet Emission,” Adv. Mater. 18(13), 1769–1773 (2006). [CrossRef]
  25. J. Liu, S. Shao, L. Chen, Z. Xie, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, “White electroluminescence from a single polymer system: Improved performance by means of enhanced efficiency and red-shifted luminescence of the blue-light-emitting species,” Adv. Mater. 19(14), 1859–1863 (2007). [CrossRef]
  26. Z. Shen, P. E. Burrows, V. Bulović, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Three-color, tunable, organic light-emitting devices,” Science 276(5321), 2009–2011 (1997). [CrossRef]
  27. L. S. Liao, K. P. Klubek, and C. W. Tang, “High-efficiency tandem organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(2), 167–169 (2004). [CrossRef]
  28. H. Kanno, R. J. Holmes, Y. Sun, S. Kena-Cohen, and S. R. Forrest, “White stacked electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices employing MoO3 as a charge-generation layer,” Adv. Mater. 18(3), 339–342 (2006). [CrossRef]
  29. M. H. Ho, T. M. Chen, P. C. Yeh, S. W. Hwang, and C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient p-i-n white organic light emitting devices with tandem structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 233507 (2007). [CrossRef]
  30. T. W. Lee, T. Hoh, B. K. Choi, M. S. Kim, D. W. Shin, and J. Kido, “High-efficiency stacked white organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043301 (2008). [CrossRef]
  31. L. S. Liao, W. K. Slusarek, T. K. Hatwar, M. L. Ricks, and D. L. Comfort, “Tandem organic light-emitting diode using hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile in the intermediate connector,” Adv. Mater. 20(2), 324–329 (2008). [CrossRef]
  32. S. Tokito, K. Noda, and Y. Taga, “Metal oxides as a hole-injecting layer for an organic electroluminescent device,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 29(11), 2750–2753 (1996). [CrossRef]
  33. Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE), Method of measuring and specifying colour rendering properties of light sources, Publication Report No.13.2 (1974).
  34. H. Becker, H. Spreitzer, W. Kreuder, E. Kluge, H. Schenk, I. Parker, and Y. Cao, “Soluble PPVs with enhanced performance - A mechanistic approach,” Adv. Mater. 12(1), 42–48 (2000). [CrossRef]
  35. T. F. Guo, F. S. Yang, Z. J. Tsai, T. C. Wen, S. N. Hsieh, and Y. S. Fu, “High-performance polymer light-emitting diodes utilizing modified Al cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 013504 (2005). [CrossRef]
  36. T. F. Guo, F. S. Yang, Z. J. Tsai, T. C. Wen, S. N. Hsieh, Y. S. Fu, and C. T. Chung, “Organic oxide/Al composite cathode in efficient polymer light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113501 (2006). [CrossRef]
  37. T. H. Lee, J. C. A. Huang, G. L. Pakhomov, T. F. Guo, T. C. Wen, Y. S. Huang, C. C. Tsou, C. T. Chung, Y. C. Lin, and Y.-J. Hsu, “Y. J. Hsu ˝Organic-oxide cathode buffer layer in fabricating high-performance polymer light-emitting diodes˝,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(19), 3036–3042 (2008). [CrossRef]
  38. T. F. Guo, F. S. Yang, Z. J. Tsai, T. C. Wen, C. I. Wu, and C. T. Chung, “Organic oxide/Al composite cathode in small molecular organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 053507 (2006). [CrossRef]
  39. S. N. Hsieh, T. Y. Kuo, T. C. Wen, T. F. Guo, and Y. L. Lee, “High-efficiency polymer light-emitting diode via Al interfacial modification using polyurethane,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(29), L773–L776 (2006). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited