OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Vol. 17, Iss. 7 — Mar. 30, 2009
  • pp: 5069–5074

Annealing effect on mono-mode refractive index enhanced RbTiOPO4 waveguides formed by ion implantation

Liang-Ling Wang, Lei Wang, Ke-Ming Wang, Qing-Ming Lu, and Hong-Ji Ma  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 17, Issue 7, pp. 5069-5074 (2009)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (312 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We reported on the annealing features of the RbTiOPO4 planar waveguides fabricated by 6.0 MeV C3+ ion implantation. The thermal stability of the ion-implanted RbTiOPO4 waveguide was investigated by annealing at different temperatures ranging from 260°C to 650°C. Results revealed that when temperatures are higher than 550°C, annealing caused the refractive indices of both ny and nz a saturation behavior. An increase of the ny refractive index in waveguide region was observed after proper annealing. The low loss planar mono-mode waveguides have been achieved in RbTiOPO4 crystals by applying appropriate ion implantation and annealing conditions.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(220.0220) Optical design and fabrication : Optical design and fabrication
(230.7370) Optical devices : Waveguides

ToC Category:
Optical Devices

Original Manuscript: January 28, 2009
Revised Manuscript: February 22, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: February 24, 2009
Published: March 16, 2009

Liang-Ling Wang, Lei Wang, Ke-Ming Wang, Qing-Ming Lu, and Hong-Ji Ma, "Annealing effect on mono-mode refractive index enhanced RbTiOPO4 waveguides formed by ion implantation," Opt. Express 17, 5069-5074 (2009)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. G. I. Stegeman and C. T. Seaton, "Nonlinear integrated optics," J. Appl. Phys. 58, R57-R77 (1985). [CrossRef]
  2. M. Roth, N. Angert, M. Tseitlin, G. Schwarzman, and A. Zharov, "Ferroelectric phase transition temperatures of self-flux-grown RbTiOPO4 crystals," Opt. Mater. 26, 465-470 (2004). [CrossRef]
  3. F. R. Wagner, A. Hildenbrand, J. Y. Natoli, M. Commandré, F. Théodore, and H. Albrecht, "Laser damage resistance of RbTiOPO4: evidence of polarization dependent anisotropy," Opt. Express 15, 13849-13857 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. L. Destefanis, P. D. Townsend, and J. P. Gailliard, "Optical waveguide in LiNbO3 formed by ion implantation of helium," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32,293-294 (1978). [CrossRef]
  5. P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, "Optical Effects of Ion Implantation," (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1994).
  6. H. Hu, F. Lu, F. Chen, B. R. Shi, K. M. Wang, and D. Y. Shen, "Monomode optical waveguide in lithium niobate formed by MeV Si+ ion implantation," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5224-5226 (2001). [CrossRef]
  7. J. Olivares, G. García, A. García-Navarro, F. Agulló-López, O. Caballero, and A. García-Cabañes, "Generation of high-confinement step-like optical waveguides in LiNbO3 by swift heavy ion-beam irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 183501 (2005). [CrossRef]
  8. H. Ilan, A. Gumennik, R. Fathei, A. J. Agranat, I. Shachar, and M. Hass, "Submerged waveguide constructed by the implantation of 12C ions in electro-optic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241130 (2006). [CrossRef]
  9. D. Jaque, F. Chen, and Y. Tan, "Scanning confocal fluorescence imaging and micro-Raman investigations of oxygen implanted channel waveguides in Nd:MgO:LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 161908 (2008). [CrossRef]
  10. G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, "Effect of low dose high energy O3+ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6477-6483 (2002). [CrossRef]
  11. G. V. Vázquez, J. Rickards, G. Lifante, M. Domenech, and E. Cantelar, "Low dose carbon implanted waveguides in Nd:YAG," Opt. Express 11, 1291-1296 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Y. Jiao, K. M. Wang, X. L. Wang, F. Chen, L. Wang, L. L. Wang, Q. M. Lu, H. J. Ma, and R. Nie, "Optical waveguide formed in RbTiOPO4 crystal by 6.0 MeV O3+ implantation," Chin. Phys. Lett. 23, 3327-3330 (2006). [CrossRef]
  13. A. Boudrioua, Ch. Bakhouya, J. C. Loulergue, P. Moretti, and K. Polgár, "Low-loss optical waveguides in Li2B4O7 crystal formed by He+ implantation," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 7716-7721 (2001). [CrossRef]
  14. J. F. Ziegler, J. P. Biesack, and U. Littmark, "Stopping and Ranges of Ions in Matter," (Pergamon, New York, 1985).
  15. R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, and M. Marangoni, "Two straightforward methods for the measurement of optical losses in planar waveguides," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1117-1120 (2002). [CrossRef]
  16. H. Hartung, E. B. Kley, A. Tünnermann, T. Gischkat, F. Schrempel, and W. Wesch, "Fabrication of ridge waveguides in zinc-substituted lithium niobate by means of ion-beam enhanced etching," Opt. Lett. 33, 2320-2322 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. Y. Jiang, K. M. Wang, X. L. Wang, F. Chen, C. L. Jia, L. Wang, Y. Jiao, and F. Lu, "Model of refractive-index changes in lithium niobate waveguides fabricated by ion implantation," Phys. Rev. B 75, 195101 (2007). [CrossRef]
  18. V. V. Atuchin, N. Yu. Maklakova, L. D. Pokrovsky, and V. N. Semenenko, "Restoration of KTiOPO4 surface by annealing," Opt. Mater. 23, 363-367 (2003). [CrossRef]
  19. G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, L. Correra, M. Chiarini, P. Mazzoldi, C. Sada, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, "Damage effects produced in the near-surface region of x-cut LiNbO3 by low dose, high energy implantation of nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine ions," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 242-247 (2004). [CrossRef]
  20. J. Rams, J. Olivares, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, "Mode gaps in the refractive index properties of low-dose ion-implanted LiNbO3 waveguide," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 3199-3202 (2000). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3.
Fig. 4.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited