OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 11 — May. 24, 2010
  • pp: 11347–11359

Automated volumetric evaluation of stereoscopic disc photography

Juan Xu, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Gadi Wollstein, Richard A Bilonick, Larry Kagemann, Jamie E Craig, David A Mackey, Alex W Hewitt, and Joel S Schuman  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 11, pp. 11347-11359 (2010)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1520 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



PURPOSE: To develop a fully automated algorithm (AP) to perform a volumetric measure of the optic disc using conventional stereoscopic optic nerve head (ONH) photographs, and to compare algorithm-produced parameters with manual photogrammetry (MP), scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurements. METHODS: One hundred twenty-two stereoscopic optic disc photographs (61 subjects) were analyzed. Disc area, rim area, cup area, cup/disc area ratio, vertical cup/disc ratio, rim volume and cup volume were automatically computed by the algorithm. Latent variable measurement error models were used to assess measurement reproducibility for the four techniques. RESULTS: AP had better reproducibility for disc area and cup volume and worse reproducibility for cup/disc area ratio and vertical cup/disc ratio, when the measurements were compared to the MP, SLO and OCT methods. CONCLUSION: AP provides a useful technique for an objective quantitative assessment of 3D ONH structures.

© 2010 OSA

OCIS Codes
(100.0100) Image processing : Image processing
(100.2960) Image processing : Image analysis
(100.6890) Image processing : Three-dimensional image processing

ToC Category:
Image Processing

Original Manuscript: July 7, 2009
Revised Manuscript: October 1, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: October 11, 2009
Published: May 14, 2010

Virtual Issues
Vol. 5, Iss. 10 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Juan Xu, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Gadi Wollstein, Richard A Bilonick, Larry Kagemann, Jamie E Craig, David A Mackey, Alex W Hewitt, and Joel S Schuman, "Automated volumetric evaluation of stereoscopic disc photography," Opt. Express 18, 11347-11359 (2010)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. A. J. Bellezza, C. J. Rintalan, H. W. Thompson, J. C. Downs, R. T. Hart, and C. F. Burgoyne, “Deformation of the lamina cribrosa and anterior scleral canal wall in early experimental glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(2), 623–637 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. O. C. Holm, B. Becker, C. F. Asseff, and S. M. Podos, “Volume of the optic disk cup,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 73(6), 876–881 (1972). [PubMed]
  3. J. Xu, O. Chutatape, C. Zheng, and P. C. Kuan, “Three dimensional optic disc visualisation from stereo images via dual registration and ocular media optical correction,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 90(2), 181–185 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Xu, H. Ishikawa, G. Wollstein, R. A. Bilonick, K. R. Sung, L. Kagemann, K. A. Townsend, and J. S. Schuman, “Automated assessment of the optic nerve head on stereo disc photographs,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(6), 2512–2517 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. F. Garway-Heath, A. R. Rudnicka, T. Lowe, P. J. Foster, F. W. Fitzke, and R. A. Hitchings, “Measurement of optic disc size: equivalence of methods to correct for ocular magnification,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 82(6), 643–649 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Xu, O. Chutatape, and P. Chew, “Automated optic disk boundary detection by modified active contour model,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 54(33 issue. 3), 473–482 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. D. Abràmoff, W. L. M. Alward, E. C. Greenlee, L. Shuba, C. Y. Kim, J. H. Fingert, and Y. H. Kwon, “Automated segmentation of the optic disc from stereo color photographs using physiologically plausible features,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(4), 1665–1673 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M.C. Neale, S.M. Boker, G. Xie, H.H. Maes, Mx: Statistical Modeling 6th Ed.(VCU Box 900126, Richmond, VA 23298: Department of Psychiatry.)
  9. HRT tutorial. Quantitative three-dimensional imaging of the posterior segment with the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph. http://www.heidelbergengineering.com/hrtf/hrt.html
  10. G. J. Jaffe and J. Caprioli, “Optical coherence tomography to detect and manage retinal disease and glaucoma,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 137(1), 156–169 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Caprioli, U. Klingbeil, M. Sears, and B. Pope, “Reproducibility of optic disc measurements with computerized analysis of stereoscopic video images,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 104(7), 1035–1039 (1986). [PubMed]
  12. R. Varma and G. L. Spaeth, “The PAR IS 2000: a new system for retinal digital image analysis,” Ophthalmic Surg. 19(3), 183–192 (1988). [PubMed]
  13. P. Hrynchak, N. Hutchings, D. Jones, and T. Simpson, “A comparison of cup-to-disc ratio measurement in normal subjects using optical coherence tomography image analysis of the optic nerve head and stereo fundus biomicroscopy,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 24(6), 543–550 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. Manassakorn, H. Ishikawa, J. S. Kim, G. Wollstein, R. A. Bilonick, L. Kagemann, M. L. Gabriele, K. R. Sung, T. Mumcuoglu, J. S. Duker, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, “Comparison of optic disc margin identified by color disc photography and high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 126(1), 58–64 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. K. Deguchi, D. Kawamata, K. Mizutani, H. Hontani, and K. Wakabayashi, ““3D fundus shape reconstruction and display from stereo fundus images,” IEICE Trans. INF. & SYST,” E 83-D(7), (2000).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited