OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 13 — Jun. 21, 2010
  • pp: 13444–13450

Polarization insensitive resonance-domain blazed binary gratings

Heikki J. Hyvärinen, Petri Karvinen, and Jari Turunen  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 13, pp. 13444-13450 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.013444


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (716 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Three variants of binary blazed gratings with subwavelength features are considered, which have high first-order efficiencies in the non-paraxial domain for arbitrarily polarized light. A combination of effective medium theory and further parametric optimization with the Fourier modal method are used in design. Experimental demonstration is provided by electron beam lithography on a structure etched in a Si3N4 layer on top of a SiO2 substrate, with period ~ 3.5λ at λ = 633 nm. The measured efficiency (81% for TE and 85% for TM polarization) agrees well with the calculated value, 84%.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.1950) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction gratings
(050.5745) Diffraction and gratings : Resonance domain
(050.6624) Diffraction and gratings : Subwavelength structures

ToC Category:
Diffraction and Gratings

History
Original Manuscript: March 18, 2010
Revised Manuscript: May 10, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: May 10, 2010
Published: June 8, 2010

Citation
Heikki J. Hyvärinen, Petri Karvinen, and Jari Turunen, "Polarization insensitive resonance-domain blazed binary gratings," Opt. Express 18, 13444-13450 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-13-13444


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. W. Stork, N. Streibl, H. Haidner, and P. Kipfer, "Artificial distributed-index media fabricated by zero-order gratings," Opt. Lett. 16, 1921-1923 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. W. Farn, "Binary gratings with increased efficiency," Appl. Opt. 31, 4453-4458 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. Haidner, J. T. Sheridan, and N. Streibl, "Dielectric binary blazed gratings," Appl. Opt. 32, 4276-4278 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. E. Warren, R. E. Smith, G. A. Vawter, and J. R. Wendt, "High-efficiency subwavelength diffractive optical element in GaAs for 975 nm," Opt. Lett. 20, 1441-1443 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Astilean, P. Lalanne, P. Chavel, E. Cambril, and H. Launois, "High-efficiency subwavelength diffractive element patterned in a high-refractive-index material for 633 nm," Opt. Lett. 23, 552-554 (1998). [CrossRef]
  6. F. T. Chen and H. G. Graighead, "Diffractive phase elements based on two-dimensional artificial dielectrics," Opt. Lett. 20, 121-123 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Kuittinen, J. Turunen, and P. Vahimaa, "Rigorous analysis and optimization of subwavelength-structured binary dielectric beam deflector gratings," J. Mod. Opt. 45, 133-142 (1998). [CrossRef]
  8. P. Lalanne, S. Astilean, P. Chavel, E. Cambril, and H. Launois, "Blazed binary subwavelength gratings with efficiencies larger than those of conventional ´echelette gratings," Opt. Lett. 23, 1081-1083 (1998). [CrossRef]
  9. Q1. P. Lalanne, S. Astilean, P. Chavel, E. Cambril, and H. Launois, "Design and fabrication of the blazed binary diffractive elements with sampling periods smaller than the structural cutoff," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1143-1156 (1999). [CrossRef]
  10. C. Sauvan, P. Lalanne, and M.-S. L. Lee, "Broadband blazing with artificial dielectrics," Opt. Lett. 29, 1593-1595 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M.-S. L. Lee, P. Lalanne, J.-C. Rodier, and E. Cambril, "Wide-field-angle behavior of blazed-binary gratings in the resonance domain," Opt. Lett. 25, 1690-1692 (2000). [CrossRef]
  12. Q2. M.-S. L. Lee, P. Lalanne, J.-C. Rodier, E. Cambril, and Y. Chen, "Imaging with blazed-binary diffractive elements," J. Opt. A 4, S119-S124 (2002).
  13. Q3. H. J. Hyv¨arinen, J. Turunen, and P. Saarikko, "Efficiency optimization of blazed effective-medium gratings in the resonance domain," J. Opt. A 10, 055005 (2008).
  14. E. Noponen, J. Turunen, and A. Vasara, "Parametric optimization of the multilevel diffractive optical elements by electromagnetic theory," Appl. Opt. 31, 5910-5912 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. E. Popov, J. Hoose, B. Frankel, C. Keast, M. Fritze, T. y. Fan, D. Yost, and S. Rabe, "Low polarization dependent diffraction grating for wavelength demultiplexing," Opt. Express 12, 269-275 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. N. Destouches, A. V. Tishchenko, J. C. Pommier, S. Reynard, O. Parriaux, S. Tochev, and M. Abdou Ahmed, "99% efficiency measured in the −1st order of a resonant grating," Opt. Express 13, 3230-3235 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. Pietarinen, T. Vallius, and J. Turunen, "Wideband four-level transmission gratings with flattened spectral efficiency," Opt. Express 14, 2583-2588 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. Pietarinen and T. Vallius, "Double groove broadband gratings," Opt. Express 16, 13824-13830 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Q4. L. Li, "Formulation and comparison of two recursive matrix algorithm for modeling layered diffraction gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1024-1035 (1996). [CrossRef]
  20. Q5. P. Lalanne and G. M. Morris, "Highly improved convergence of the coupled-wave method for TM polarization," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 779-784 (1996). [CrossRef]
  21. Q6. L. Li, "New formulation of the Fourier modal method for crossed surface-relief gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2758-2767 (1997). [CrossRef]
  22. P. Rai-Choudhury, Handbook of Microlithography, Micromachining, and Microfabrication: Volume 1: Microlithography, (SPIE-The International Society for Optical Engineering, 1997)

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited